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P. Maim

a

, P.P. Camanho

b,

*

, J.A. Mayugo

a

, C.G. Davila

c

a

AMADE, Escola Polite` cnica Superior, Universitat de Girona, Girona, Spain

b

DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal

c

NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA 23681, USA

Received 21 March 2006; received in revised form 9 December 2006

Abstract

A continuum damage model for the prediction of the onset and evolution of intralaminar failure mechanisms and the

collapse of structures manufactured in ber-reinforced plastic laminates is proposed. The failure mechanisms occurring in

the longitudinal and transverse directions of a ply are represented by a set of scalar damage variables. Crack closure eects

under load reversal are taken into account by using damage variables that are established as a function of the sign of the

components of the stress tensor. Damage activation functions based on the LaRC04 failure criteria are used to predict the

dierent failure mechanisms occurring at the ply level.

2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Fracture mechanics; Continuum damage mechanics; Composite materials

1. Introduction

The methodology for designing high-perfor-

mance structures of composite materials is still

evolving. The complexity of the response of com-

posite materials and the diculty in predicting

structural modes of failure result in the need for a

well-planned test program. The recommended prac-

tice to mitigate the technological risks associated

with such materials is to substantiate the perfor-

mance and durability of the design in a sequence

of steps known as the building block approach

(BBA) (MIL-HDBK-17-3F, 2002). The BBA

ensures that cost and performance objectives are

met by testing greater numbers of smaller less

expensive specimens, assessing technology risks

early in the program, and building on the knowl-

edge acquired at a given level of structural complex-

ity before progressing to a level of more complexity.

Achieving substantiation of structural perfor-

mance by testing alone can be prohibitively expen-

sive because of the number of specimens and

components required to characterize all loading

conditions. BBA programs can achieve signicant

cost reductions by seeking a synergy between testing

and analysis. The more the development relies on

analysis, the less expensive it becomes.

0167-6636/$ - see front matter 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.mechmat.2007.03.005

*

Corresponding author. Tel.: +351 225081753; fax: +351

225081315.

E-mail address: pcamanho@fe.up.pt (P.P. Camanho).

Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908

www.elsevier.com/locate/mechmat

The use of advanced analytical or numerical

models for the prediction of the mechanical behav-

ior of composite structures can replace some of

the mechanical tests and can signicantly reduce

the cost of designing with composites while provid-

ing to the engineers the information necessary to

achieve an optimized design.

Strength-based failure criteria are commonly

used to predict failure in composite materials. A

large number of continuum-based criteria have been

derived to relate stresses and experimental measures

of material strength to the onset of failure (Soden

et al., 1998; Davila et al., 2005; Pinho et al., 2004).

Failure criteria predict the onset of the dierent

damage mechanisms occurring in composites and,

depending on the material, the geometry and the

loading conditions, may also predict nal structural

collapse.

For composite structures that can accumulate

damage before structural collapse, the use of failure

criteria is not sucient to predict ultimate failure.

Simplied models, such as the ply discount method,

can be used to predict ultimate failure, but they can-

not represent with satisfactory accuracy the quasi-

brittle failure of laminates that results from the

accumulation of several failure mechanisms.

The study of the non-linear response of quasi-

brittle materials due to the accumulation of damage

is important because the rate and direction of dam-

age propagation denes the damage tolerance of a

structure and its eventual collapse. To model the

phenomena of damage propagation, non-linear con-

stitutive models dened in the context of the

mechanics of continuum mediums have been devel-

oped and implemented in nite elements codes in

recent years. The formalism of the thermodynamics

of irreversible processes is a rigorous framework

from which the constitutive models can be

developed.

The simplest way to describe damage is using a

single scalar damage variable, as proposed by

Kachanov (1958). Damage can be interpreted as

the creation of microcavities, and the damage vari-

ables as a measure of the eective surface density

of the microdefects. Such a mechanical interpreta-

tion of damage assumes that the loads are resisted

only by the undamaged ligaments in the material.

The stresses ~ r in the ligaments, referred to as eec-

tive stresses, continue to increase until all ligaments

are severed and the material has failed.

The tensorial representation of damage is a for-

mal and general procedure to represent the direc-

tionality of microcracks, which can take any

direction in a medium depending on the load his-

tory, geometry, boundary conditions, and material

properties. After Kachanovs pioneering work, sev-

eral damage models have been developed that

describe damage as a second order tensor (Chab-

oche, 1995; Carol et al., 2001a,b; Luccioni and

Oller, 2003) or as a fourth order tensor (Ortiz,

1985; Simo and Ju, 1987a,b). Second order tensors

describe an initially isotropic material as an ortho-

tropic one when damage evolves, whereas fourth

order tensor models can remove all material symme-

tries and provide a more general procedure to simu-

late damage (Cauvin and Testa, 1999).

The application of continuum damage models in

orthotropic or transversely isotropic materials, such

as ber-reinforced plastics (FRP), results in addi-

tional diculties. The nature and morphology of

the material induces some preferred directions for

crack growth, i.e., crack orientations are not only

induced by the loads, geometry and boundary con-

ditions, but also by the morphology of the material.

The interface between ber and matrix is weaker

than the surrounding material and interfacial deb-

onding is normally the rst damage mechanism to

occur. Furthermore, residual thermal stresses occur

in the composite plies due to dierent coecients of

thermal expansion of the ber and matrix (micro-

mechanical residual thermal stresses) and due to

the dierent coecients of thermal expansion in

the longitudinal (ber) and transverse (matrix)

directions (macromechanical residual thermal

stresses).

Multiscale models and mesomodeling are two

approaches used to evaluate the elastic and inelastic

response of a material. Using homogenization laws,

multiscale models dene relations between a meso-

scale, normally the scale of the nite elements,

where material is considered homogeneous, and

the microscale, which is the scale of the ber and

matrix constituents. The constitutive models are

dened at the microscale, and the strain and stress

elds at the microscale and the mesoscale are related

via transformation eld tensors (Chaboche et al.,

2001; Fish and Yu, 2001; Fish et al., 1999; Voyiadjis

and Deliktas, 2000; Car et al., 2002), or solved using

nite elements (Car et al., 2002; Oller et al., 2005).

To reduce the amount of computations that need

to be performed, periodicity of the material is

invoked.

Mesomodeling is an alternative way to dene

damage models for composite materials that is more

898 P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908

appropriate for large scale computations. Meso-

models treat the composite lamina (Ladeve`ze

et al., 2000; Barbero and Lonetti, 2001; Barbero

and Devivo, 2001; Matzenmiller et al., 1995; Oller

et al., 1995) or sub-laminate (Williams et al., 2003)

as a homogeneous material. When diuse damage

localizes in a narrow band and becomes a macro-

crack, the response is dominated by the crack tip

and its ability to dissipate energy. On the other

hand, the material morphology, which is the main

basis of homogenization techniques, loses impor-

tance due to the loss of periodicity. Therefore, in

structures exhibiting stable crack propagation, i.e.,

when the macrocrack length does not increase under

constant load, mesomodeling is more appropriate to

predict the structural collapse than multiscale

models.

The main objective of the present paper is to

develop a continuum damage model able to repre-

sent the quasi-brittle fracture of laminated compos-

ite structures, from the onset of non-critical failure

mechanisms up to nal structural collapse.

The majority of the material properties required

by the present model can be measured using stan-

dard test methods. Most of these properties can be

obtained from ply-based test methods. The use of

ply properties, rather than laminate properties, is

an advantage because it avoids the need to test lam-

inates every time the lay-up or stacking sequence is

modied.

The proposed constitutive model accounts for

crack closure eects under load reversal, an impor-

tant phenomenon in cases where a composite struc-

ture is subjected to multiaxial loading.

One important issue regarding the numerical

modeling of damage is that the convergence of the

solution through successive mesh renement must

be ensured. The objectivity of the numerical model

is ensured by adjusting the energy dissipated by each

failure mechanism using a characteristic element

length (Bazant and Oh, 1983). The constitutive

model proposed herein can be integrated explicitly,

making it computationally ecient and, therefore,

suitable to be used in large scale computations.

This paper is organized as follows: a brief

description of the failure mechanisms occurring in

laminated composites is presented. Based on the

mechanisms identied, a new constitutive model

which relates the failure mechanisms with a set of

internal variables is proposed. An accompanying

paper (Maim et al., in press) presents the details

of the computational implementation of the model

and the comparison between the model predictions

and experimental data.

2. Mechanisms of damage and fracture in laminated

composites

The model proposed in this work predicts

intralaminar failure mechanisms in laminated

composites: matrix cracking and ber fracture.

Intralaminar failure mechanisms trigger structural

collapse of unidirectional laminates almost immedi-

ately. In matrix-dominated failure modes, laminate

collapse occurs as soon as a matrix crack is created.

Failure of unidirectional laminates loaded in the

longitudinal (ber) direction results from the accu-

mulation of ber fractures (Rosen, 1964).

However, multidirectional laminates can sustain

increasing amounts of intralaminar failure mecha-

nisms before structural collapse occurs. Considering

the multidirectional laminate as a representative

volume element, the intralaminar failure mecha-

nisms can be regarded as damage mechanisms, i.e.

distributed microcracks in a laminate whose tangent

stiness tensor is positive denite. When the tangent

stiness tensor of the laminate ceases to be positive

denite, a macrocrack is formed and structural col-

lapse ensues.

The main characteristics of the intralaminar fail-

ure mechanisms occurring in laminated composites

are briey described in the following sections. These

characteristics are the basis for the denition of the

failure criteria and damage variables used in this

work.

2.1. Longitudinal failure

In ber-reinforced composites, the largest por-

tion of the loads is resisted by the bers. When these

fail under either tension or compression, the internal

loads must redistribute to other areas of the struc-

ture, and may cause a structural collapse.

In composites with high ber volume fraction

and those where the strain to failure of the resin

matrix is higher than the one of the reinforcing ber,

such as carbonepoxy composites, longitudinal fail-

ures start by isolated ber fractures in weak zones.

The localized fractures increase the normal and

interfacial shear stresses in the adjoining bers,

and the local stress concentrations promote matrix

cracking, ber matrix debonding and, for ductile

matrices, conical shear failures (Daniel and Ishai,

P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908 899

1994). When increasing the load further, additional

ber fractures occur, leading to nal collapse.

Failure under longitudinal tensile loading occurs

in both constituents, and fracture occurs along a

plane whose normal is parallel to the ber direction.

A simple non-interacting failure criterion based on

maximum stress or maximum strain along the longi-

tudinal direction can usually provide an accurate

measure of longitudinal tensile failure (Davila

et al., 2005).

Compressive failure of aligned ber composites

occurs from the collapse of the bers as a result of

shear kinking and damage of the supporting matrix

(Fleck and Liu, 2001; Schultheisz and Waas, 1996).

The analysis of the kinking phenomena is usually

based on the assumption of a local initial ber mis-

alignment. Fiber misalignment causes shear stresses

between bers that rotate the bers, which in turn

increases the shear stress and leads to instability.

2.2. Transverse failure

Failure in the transverse direction encompasses

both matrix cracking and bermatrix debonding.

Under the presence of transverse tensile stresses

and in-plane shear stresses, the combined eect of

small defects present in a ply, such as small ber

resin debonds, resin-rich regions, and resin voids,

trigger a transverse crack that extends through-

the-thickness of the ply. The transverse cracks are

formed without disturbing the bers: they occur at

the berresin interface and in the resin.

When an unidirectional laminate is loaded

in shear, a non-linear shear stress-shear strain

response is observed before the laminate fails by

through-the-thickness transverse matrix cracking.

This non-linearity results from the visco-plastic

behavior of the matrix, and from the nucleation

and growth of microcracks. The non-linear shear

response which occurs before transverse matrix

cracking is not taken into account in the model

proposed here, and will be the subject of future

research. According to Chang et al. (1984), shear

non-linear eects should be taken into account in

the strength prediction of cross-ply and angle-ply

laminates.

A fundamental issue that needs to be considered

in the analysis models is the eect of ply thickness

on the ply strength, usually called the in situ eect.

As shown in Parvizi et al. (1978) and Chang and

Chens (1987) experiments, the constraints imposed

by the neighboring plies of dierent ber orienta-

tions cause an apparent increase in the tensile and

shear strengths of a ply compared to those of an

unconstrained ply. The in situ eect is a determinis-

tic size eect that can be represented using fracture

mechanics models of plies containing defects (Dav-

ila et al., 2005; Camanho et al., 2006; Dvorak and

Laws, 1987).

Experimental results have shown that moderate

values of transverse compression have a benecial

eect on the strength of a ply (Soden et al., 1998):

when the in-plane shear stress is large compared

to the transverse compressive stress, the fracture

plane is perpendicular to the mid-plane of the ply.

However, increasing the compressive transverse

stress causes a change in the angle of the fracture

plane. Normally, for carbonepoxy and glassepoxy

composites loaded in pure transverse compression,

the fracture plane is at an angle (fracture angle,

a

0

) of 53 3 with respect to the thickness direc-

tion (Puck and Schu rmann, 1998). Therefore,

matrix cracking does not occur in the plane of the

maximum transverse shear stress (45).

1

3

1

2 2

3

3 3

a) Longitudinal tensile fracture

b) Longitudinal compressive fracture

c) Transverse fracture with =0 d) Transverse fracture with =53

Fig. 1. Ply fracture planes considered in the model.

900 P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908

Following the observations outlined above, four

possible fracture planes are considered in the model

proposed here, as schematically represented in

Fig. 1.

The purpose of present work is to propose a

model for the calculation of the initiation and prop-

agation of intralaminar failure mechanisms. Conse-

quently, delamination is not considered here.

3. Constitutive damage model

The thermodynamics of irreversible processes is a

general framework that can be used to formulate

constitutive equations. It is a logical framework

for incorporating observations and experimental

results and a set of rules for avoiding incompatibil-

ities. In this section, we present a constitutive dam-

age model for laminated composites that has its

foundation in irreversible thermodynamics, and that

uses the LaRC04 criteria as damage activation

functions.

3.1. Complementary free energy and damage

operator

To establish a constitutive law, it is possible to

dene a scalar function corresponding to the com-

plementary free energy density in the material. This

function must be positive denite, and it must be

zero at the origin with respect to the free variables

(the stresses) (Malvern, 1969). The proposed deni-

tion for the ply complementary free energy density

is

G

r

2

11

21 d

1

E

1

r

2

22

21 d

2

E

2

m

12

E

1

r

11

r

22

r

2

12

21 d

6

G

12

a

11

r

11

a

22

r

22

DT

b

11

r

11

b

22

r

22

DM 1

where E

1

, E

2

, m

12

and G

12

are the in-plane elastic

orthotropic properties of a unidirectional lamina.

The subscript 1 denotes the longitudinal (ber)

direction, and 2 denotes the transverse (matrix)

direction. a

11

and a

22

are the coecients of thermal

expansion in the longitudinal and transverse direc-

tions, respectively. b

11

and b

22

are the coecients

of hygroscopic expansion in the longitudinal and

transverse directions, respectively. DT and DM are

the dierences of temperature and moisture content

with respect to the corresponding reference values.

The stress tensor r corresponds to the average stress

tensor over a representative volume that is assumed

to be much larger than the diameter of a ber.

The set of scalar damage variables d

1

,d

2

, and d

6

ensure that the composite ply maintains the original

planes of material symmetry, regardless of the dam-

age state of the material. The damage variable d

1

is

associated with longitudinal (ber) failure, whereas

d

2

is the damage variable associated with transverse

matrix cracking and d

6

is a damage variable inu-

enced by longitudinal and transverse cracks.

To ensure the thermodynamically irreversibility

of the damage process, the rate of change of the

complementary free energy

_

G minus the externally

supplied work to the solid at constant strains,

_ r : e, must not be negative:

_

G _ r : e P0 2

This inequality corresponds to the positiveness of

the dissipated energy and has to be fullled by any

constitutive model (Malvern, 1969). Expanding the

inequality in terms of the stress tensor and damage

variables gives:

oG

or

e

_ _

: _ r

oG

od

1

_

d

1

oG

od

2

_

d

2

oG

od

6

_

d

6

P0 3

Since the stresses are variables that can vary freely,

the expression in the parenthesis must be equal to

zero to ensure positive dissipation of mechanical en-

ergy. Therefore, the strain tensor is equal to the

derivative of the complementary free energy density

with respect to the stress tensor:

e

oG

or

H : r aDT bDM 4

The lamina compliance tensor can be represented in

Voigt notation as:

H

o

2

G

or

2

1

1 d

1

E

1

m

21

E

2

0

m

12

E

1

1

1 d

2

E

2

0

0 0

1

1 d

6

G

12

_

_

_

_

5

The closure of transverse cracks under load reversal,

also known as the unilateral eect, is taken into ac-

count by dening four damage variables associated

with longitudinal and transverse damage. To deter-

mine the active damage variables, it is necessary to

dene the longitudinal and transverse damage

modes as follows:

P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908 901

d

1

d

1

hr

11

i

jr

11

j

d

1

hr

11

i

jr

11

j

d

2

d

2

hr

22

i

jr

22

j

d

2

hr

22

i

jr

22

j

6

where hxi is the McCauley operator dened as

hxi := (x + jxj)/2.

The present model tracks damage caused by ten-

sion loads (d

+

) separately from damage caused by

compression loads (d

the corresponding normal stress, a damage mode

can be either active or passive.

The model also assumes that the shear damage

variable, d

6

, is not aected by the closure eect.

Shear damage is caused mainly by transverse cracks

and these do not close under shear stresses (r

12

).

Transverse cracks are inuenced by transverse stres-

ses (r

22

) producing the closure of cracks and a fric-

tion retention whereas longitudinal cracks produce

the same eect under longitudinal stresses (r

11

)

(Chaboche and Maire, 2002). The eect of friction

is neglected in the present model.

3.2. Damage activation functions

The determination of the domain of elastic

response under complex stress states is an essential

component of an accurate damage model. Based on

the previously described mechanisms of crack gen-

eration in advanced composites, a strain space is

considered where the material is linear elastic. In

the present model, it is assumed that the elastic

domain is enclosed by four surfaces, each of them

accounting for one failure mechanism: longitudinal

and transverse fracture under tension and compres-

sion. Those surfaces are formulated by the damage

activation functions based on the LaRC03 and

LaRC04 failure criteria. The LaRC03-04 failure

criteria have been shown to represent accurately

the physical process of failure onset in laminated

composites. The LaRC04 criteria represent an evo-

lution of the LaRC03 criteria: some criteria such as

the one for ber kinking, are more accurate in

LaRC04. However, the improvement in accuracy

is associated with a signicant increase in the com-

putational eort. The present damage model uses a

combination of both sets of criteria to achieve a

compromise between accuracy and computational

eciency. The full details of the derivation and val-

idation of the LaRC04 failure criteria are presented

in references (Davila et al., 2005; Pinho et al.,

2004).

The four damage activation functions, F

N

, asso-

ciated with failure mechanisms in the longitudinal

(N = 1+, 1) and transverse (N = 2+, 2) direc-

tions, shown in Fig. 1, are dened as

F

1

/

1

r

1

6 0; F

1

/

1

r

1

6 0

F

2

/

2

r

2

6 0; F

2

/

2

r

2

6 0

7

where the loading functions /

N

(N = 1+, 1, 2+,

2) depend on the strain tensor and material con-

stants (elastic and strength properties). The elastic

domain thresholds r

N

(N = 1+, 1, 2+, 2) take

an initial value of 1 when the material is undam-

aged, and they increase with damage. The elastic do-

main thresholds are internal variables of the

constitutive model, and are related to the damage

variables d

M

(M = 1+, 1, 2+, 2, 6) by the dam-

age evolution laws. The elastic domain threshold de-

nes the level of elastic strains that can be attained

before the accumulation of additional damage.

3.2.1. Longitudinal tensile fracture

The LaRC04 criterion for ber tensile failure,

Fig. 1a, is a non-interacting maximum allowable

strain criterion dened as

/

1

E

1

X

T

e

11

~ r

11

m

12

~ r

22

X

T

8

where the eective stress tensor ~ r is computed as

~ r H

1

0

: e. H

0

is the undamaged compliance tensor

obtained from Eq. (5) using d

1

= d

2

= d

6

= 0.

3.2.2. Longitudinal compressive fracture

The LaRC03 failure criterion for longitudinal

compressive fracture, Fig. 1b, postulates that a kink

band is triggered by the onset of damage in the sup-

porting matrix. Under this circumstance, the bers

lose lateral support and fail under the eect of lon-

gitudinal compressive stresses. The initial ber mis-

alignment and the rotation of the bers as a

function of the applied stress state are the parame-

ters used in the damage activation function.

The damage activation function used to predict

damage under longitudinal compression ~ r

11

< 0

and in-plane shear (ber kinking) is established as

a function of the components of the stress tensor

~ r

m

in a coordinate system (m) representing the ber

misalignment:

/

1

hj ~ r

m

12

j g

L

~ r

m

22

i

S

L

9

where the longitudinal friction coecient can be

approximated as (Davila et al., 2005).

902 P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908

g

L

%

S

L

cos2a

0

Y

C

cos

2

a

0

10

The components of the eective stress tensor in the

coordinate system associated with the rotation of

the bers are calculated as

~ r

m

22

~ r

11

sin

2

u

C

~ r

22

cos

2

u

C

2j~ r

12

j sin u

C

cos u

C

~ r

m

12

~ r

22

~ r

11

sinu

C

cos u

C

j~ r

12

jcos

2

u

C

sin

2

u

C

11

where the absolute value of the shear stress is taken

because the misalignment angle can be positive or

negative.

The misalignment angle (u

C

) is determined using

standard shear and longitudinal compression

strengths, S

L

and X

C

(Davila et al., 2005):

u

C

arctan

1

1 4

S

L

X

C

g

L

_ _

S

L

X

C

_

2

S

L

X

C

g

L

_ _

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

12

It should be noted that the LaRC03 failure crite-

rion, derived to predict the onset of damage in lam-

inated composites, calculates the misalignment

angle as a function of the applied stress. The

LaRC03 failure criterion is modied here assuming

a constant misalignment angle, corresponding to the

rotation of the bers at failure under pure longitudi-

nal compression. This modication of LaRC03 fail-

ure criterion ensures that /

1

is a monotonic

increasing function under any state of proportional

loading.

It should be pointed out that two criteria are used

in LaRC03 for ber kinking: Eq. (9) for ~ r

m

22

6 0 and

a second equation for ~ r

m

22

P0. However, the omis-

sion of the second equation results in a minor loss

of accuracy because the equation is the same as

Eq. (13.a) with the stresses transformed into the

misaligned coordinate frame.

3.2.3. Transverse fracture perpendicular to the

laminate mid-plane (a

0

= 0)

Transverse matrix cracks perpendicular to the

mid-plane of the ply, i.e. with a

0

= 0 (Fig. 1c),

are created by a combination of in-plane shear stres-

ses and transverse tensile stresses, or in-plane shear

stresses and small transverse compressive stresses.

These conditions are represented by the following

LaRC04 failure criterion:

/

2

1 g

~ r

22

Y

T

g

~ r

22

Y

T

_ _

2

~ r

12

S

L

_ _

2

_

if ~ r

22

P0

1

S

L

hj ~ r

12

j g

L

~ r

22

i if ~ r

22

< 0

_

_

13

where g is the fracture toughness ratio dened as:

g

G

Ic

G

IIc

.

3.2.4. Transverse fracture with a

0

= 53

The LaRC04 matrix failure criterion for high

transverse compressive stresses, Fig. 1d, consists of

a quadratic interaction between the eective shear

stresses acting on the fracture plane:

/

2

~s

T

eff

S

T

_ _

2

~s

L

eff

S

L

_ _

2

if ~ r

22

< 0 14

where the eective stresses ~s

T

eff

and ~s

L

eff

are computed

as (Pinho et al., 2004)

~s

T

eff

h~ r

22

cosa

0

sina

0

g

T

cosa

0

coshi

~s

L

eff

hcosa

0

j~ r

12

j g

L

~ r

22

cosa

0

sinhi

15

The sliding angle h is calculated as (Pinho et al.,

2004)

h arctan

j~ r

12

j

~ r

22

sina

0

_ _

16

The transverse shear strength and transverse friction

coecient can be approximated as

S

T

Y

C

cosa

0

sina

0

cosa

0

tan2a

0

_ _

g

T

1

tan2a

0

17

The fracture angle a

0

is approximately 53 in uniax-

ial compression. With increasing amounts of in-

plane shear, the fracture angle diminishes up to

about 40 and then abruptly switches to 0. To nd

the correct angle of fracture, a maximization of the

LaRC03-04 failure criteria as a function of a should

be performed. However, in order to improve the

computational eciency of the present model, it is

assumed that the fracture angle can only take one

of two discrete values: 0 or 53.

The elastic domain in the ~ r

11

, ~ r

22

, ~ r

12

space rep-

resented by the LaRC04 failure criteria is shown in

Fig. 2.

3.3. Dissipation

The rate of energy dissipation per unit volume

resulting from the evolution of damage is given by

P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908 903

N

oG

od

1

_

d

1

oG

od

2

_

d

2

oG

od

6

_

d

6

Y

1

_

d

1

Y

2

_

d

2

Y

6

_

d

6

P0 18

The form of the complementary free energy dened

in Eq. (1) ensures that the thermodynamic forces

(Y

M

) conjugated to their respective damage vari-

ables (d

M

) are always positive:

Y

1

oG

od

1

r

2

11

21 d

1

2

E

1

P0

Y

2

oG

od

2

r

2

22

21 d

2

2

E

2

P0

Y

6

oG

od

6

r

2

12

21 d

6

2

G

12

P0

19

Therefore, the condition of positive evolution of

damage variables

_

d

M

P0 is a sucient condition

for the fulllment of the second law of

thermodynamics.

It is important to note that the proposed model

does not generate spurious energy dissipation, i.e.,

the loss or gain of mechanical energy, under crack

closure or opening. At load reversal, the time deriv-

ative of the damage variable is non-zero

_

d

M

6 0.

Considering Eq. (18), the thermodynamical forces,

Y

M

, associated with the damage variables, d

M

, must

be zero to avoid spurious energy dissipation at load

reversal (Carol and Willam, 1996). This condition is

trivially satised in the present model (Eq. (19)).

Damage evolution without energy dissipation is

physically inadmissible. Therefore, it is necessary

to avoid damage evolution when the corresponding

conjugated thermodynamic force is zero. Consider

the load history represented in Fig. 3: the material

is loaded in transverse tension and shear to t

1

and

then loaded to t

2

. At time t

2

, the damage variable

d

2

evolves because the corresponding damage acti-

vation function is activated. However, the corre-

sponding thermodynamic force is zero (r

22

= 0,

Y

2

= 0).

This non-physical response is avoided by modify-

ing the longitudinal and transverse damage activa-

tion functions. The transverse damage activation

function is modied using the following equation:

/

2

min

~s

T

eff

S

T

_ _

2

~s

L

eff

S

L

_ _

2

;

~ r

22

X

_

_

_

_

_

_

20

where the constant X is equal to ~ r

22

when

/

2

= /

2+

(Fig. 3).

The longitudinal damage activation function is

modied by taking into account that under shear

dominated loads, matrix cracking is the rst form

Fig. 2. Elastic domain in the ~ r

11

, ~ r

22

, ~ r

12

space.

Fig. 3. Evolution of elastic domain in the ~ r

22

~ r

12

space.

904 P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908

of damage to occur. After matrix cracking, the

transverse and shear stresses are zero and the ber

misalignment angle u tends to p/4. Under these cir-

cumstances, the kink band criteria, Eq. (9), reads

/

1

min

hj ~ r

m

12

j g

L

~ r

m

22

i

S

L

;

g

L

1

2S

L

~ r

11

_ _

21

3.4. Damage evolution

The evolution of the damage threshold values r

N

is expressed by the KuhnTucker conditions:

_ r

N

P0; F

N

6 0; _ r

N

F

N

0 22

Neglecting viscous eects, the damage activation

functions, Eqs. (7), always have to be non-positive.

While the damage activation function F

N

is nega-

tive, the material response is elastic. When the strain

state activates a criterion, F

N

= 0, it is necessary to

evaluate the gradient

_

/

N

. If the gradient is not posi-

tive, the state is one of unloading or neutral loading.

If the gradient

_

/

N

is positive, there is damage evolu-

tion, and the consistency condition has to be

satised:

_

F

N

_

/

N

_ r

N

0 23

Two important characteristics of the model pro-

posed here are that the damage threshold values

are a function of the damage variables, and that

the loading functions depend on the strain tensor.

Under these conditions, it is possible to integrate

the constitutive model explicitly (Simo and Ju,

1987a,b).

In the denition of the constitutive model, it is

necessary to represent the relation between active

and inactive elastic domains. The evolution of an

active elastic domain is dened by the consistency

condition, i.e., it is dened with respect to the corre-

sponding damage activation function. However, it is

also necessary to specify how the inactive elastic

domain evolves if other damage modes are active.

It is assumed that the longitudinal and transverse

domains are not coupled. On the other hand, com-

pression damage is coupled with tension damage, as

explained in the next section.

3.4.1. Transverse loading

As described previously, transverse damage in

the form of matrix cracks can have dierent orienta-

tions as a result of tension, shear, or compression-

dominated loads. Under load reversal, transverse

cracks, which are perpendicular to the ply mid-

plane, do not aect the compression response: the

elastic domain and the compressive damage variable

(d

2

) are unaected by r

2+

.

On the other hand, matrix cracks at a fracture

angle a

0

= 53 caused by high compressive transverse

stresses have the same eect as cracks perpendicular

to the mid-plane (a = 0) when the load is reversed

from compression to tension. Therefore, the evolu-

tion of the transverse tensile elastic domain threshold

(r

2+

) is governed by both damage mechanisms.

Based on the above considerations, the evolution

of the elastic domain in the transverse direction can

be represented by the following equations:

Tension loading: _ r

2

_

/

2

and _ r

2

0

Compression loading: _ r

2

_

/

2

and

_ r

2

_

/

2

if r

2

6 r

2

0 if r

2

> r

2

_

The integration of the previous expressions results in

r

2

max 1; max

s0;t

f/

s

2

g; max

s0;t

f/

s

2

g

_ _

r

2

max 1; max

s0;t

f/

s

2

g

_ _ 24

3.4.2. Longitudinal loading

Under longitudinal tensile stresses, the fracture

plane is perpendicular to the ber direction. When

reversing the load, the cracks close and can still

transfer load. However, the broken and misaligned

bers do not carry any additional load. Therefore,

the compressive stiness is inuenced by longitudi-

nal damage. However, the elastic domain is

assumed to remain unchanged.

Under longitudinal compression, damaged mate-

rial consisting of broken bers and matrix cracks

forms a kink band, and there is not a unique orien-

tation for the damage planes. When the loads are

reversed, the cracks generated in compression open

and the elastic domain threshold increases.

Therefore, the evolution of damage thresholds

for longitudinal damage are dened as

Tension loading: _ r

1

_

/

1

and _ r

1

0

Compression loading: _ r

1

_

/

1

and

_ r

1

_

/

1

if r

1

6 r

1

0 if r

1

> r

1

_

25

P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908 905

The integration of the previous expressions results in

r

1

max 1; max

s0;t

f/

s

1

g; max

s0;t

f/

s

1

g

_ _

r

1

max 1; max

s0;t

f/

s

1

g

_ _ 26

3.5. Damage evolution laws

The internal variables r

N

dene the threshold of

the elastic domains, and are related to the damage

state of each lamina, i.e., the damage variables

depend on the values of the internal variables. In

order to fully dene the constitutive model, it is nec-

essary to dene the relation between the internal

variables and the damage variables.

When the material is undamaged the internal

variables r

N

take the initial value of 1, and

d

N

(r

N

= 1) = 0. Eqs. (24) and (26) dene the evolu-

tion of the internal variables ensuring that _ r

N

P0.

As shown in Eqs. (18) and (19), the condition for

positive dissipation is satised if

_

d

N

P0. The condi-

tion for positive dissipation is automatically fullled

if the damage evolution law satises the condition

od

N

/or

N

P0. When the material is completely dam-

aged, a fracture plane is created, the strains are

localized in a plane in which r

N

! 1 and the related

components of the stiness tensor are zero,

d

N

(r

N

! 1) = 1.

Matrix cracks are related to the internal variables

r

2+

and r

2

. The internal variable r

2

accounts for

compressive damage only, whereas r

2+

accounts

for both, compressive and tensile, failure mecha-

nisms. Therefore, for tensile transverse stresses dam-

age is a function of d

2+

(r

2+

) because both types of

cracks (a = 0 and a = 53) are open. Under trans-

verse compressive loads, the damage is only inu-

enced by the inclined cracks, d

2

(r

2

).

Kink bands are related to the internal variable

r

1

. The internal variable r

1+

accounts for kink

bands and ber tensile fracture. For tensile longitu-

dinal stresses, the material loses stiness as a result

of both damage modes because the cracks open.

Therefore, the damage variable can be expressed

as d

1+

(r

1+

).

When a lamina which is fully damaged in tension

(d

1+

= 1) is subjected to load reversal and the crack

closes, some of the original stiness is recovered

because the tractions can be transmitted through

the crack faces. However, the broken bers lose

their alignment. Assuming that the bers do not

carry any load, which can be considered as a limit

case, the compressive stiness can be approximated

by the rule of mixtures applied for components in

parallel as: (1 d

1

)E

1

= V

m

E

m

. The generalization

of the above arguments for an intermediate damage

state can be expressed as d

1

A

1

d

1

, with

A

1

% b

V

f

E

f

V

m

E

m

V

f

E

f

% b

E

1

E

2

E

1

27

where E

f

and E

m

are the ber and matrix Young

modulus, V

f

and V

m

the corresponding volume frac-

tions, and b is an adjustment parameter between 0

and 1. If b = 1, the stiness recovery is due only

to matrix closure, and if b = 0, the stiness recovery

is total and it is assumed that broken bers do not

lose alignment under compressive loads, and the ini-

tial stiness is recovered.

The damage law for longitudinal compression

can be expressed as a combination of the failure

mechanisms caused by tension loads, d

1+

(r

1+

), and

the failure mechanisms generated under compres-

sion, d

1

(r

1

):

d

1

1 1 d

1

r

1

1 A

1

d

1

r

1

28

Longitudinal failure (d

1

) is not inuenced by

matrix cracking (r

2

) as shown in experimental

results carried by Carlsson and Pipes (1987) and in

micromechanical models (Dvorak et al., 1985; Laws

et al., 1983; Nuismer and Tan, 1988; Tan and

Nuismer, 1989) of cracked composites. Therefore,

the longitudinal stiness is not function of trans-

verse matrix cracks.

The shear stiness is reduced as a result of longi-

tudinal and transverse cracks. Under these circum-

stances, the damage variable d

6

is given by

d

6

1 1 d

6

r

2

1 d

1

29

The damage evolution laws used force strain-

softening as soon as one damage activation criterion

is satised. Softening constitutive equations may

result in physically inadmissable responses: the

damage is localized in a plane and fracture occurs

without energy dissipation. The numerical imple-

mentation of softening constitutive equations using

the nite element method may result in mesh-depen-

dent results because the energy dissipated is a func-

tion of the element size.

The solution normally used to ensure the correct

computation of the energy dissipated regardless of

the renement of the mesh is to adjust the damage

evolution laws using a characteristic dimension of

the nite element. The denition of the damage evo-

lution laws is therefore related to the computational

906 P. Maim et al. / Mechanics of Materials 39 (2007) 897908

model, and it is described in the accompanying

paper (Maim et al., in press).

4. Conclusions

A new constitutive model for the prediction of

the onset and growth of intralaminar failure mech-

anisms in composite laminates under plane stress

was proposed. The model is based on four possible

ply fracture planes related to ber tensile fracture,

ber kinking, and matrix cracking with fracture

planes oriented at 0 and 53 with respect to the

ply thickness direction.

The onset of the intralaminar failure mechanisms

related to the four fracture planes is predicted using

a simplication of the LaRC04 failure criteria. The

eect of ply thickness on the onset of transverse

matrix cracking is taken into account by replacing

the unidirectional strengths by the in situ strengths

in the failure criteria.

The unilaterality of damage is taken into account

by the ability of the model to represent complex

load histories, including tensioncompression load

reversals. The computational implementation of

the constitutive model and its validation are

described in part two of this work (Maim et al.,

in press).

Acknowledgements

The research visits of the rst author at the Uni-

versity of Porto, Portugal, were funded by the

University of Girona (BE-UdG-2004) and by the

Spanish government under Acciones Integradas

Hispano-Portuguesas (HIP2004-0031). The rst

and third authors also acknowledge funding from

the Spanish government through DGICYT under

the contract MAT 2003-09768-C03-01.

The nancial support of the Portuguese Founda-

tion for Science and Technology (FCT) under the

project PDCTE/50354/EME/2003 is acknowledged

by the second author.

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