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A

Dissertation Report
On

Consumer Behaviour and Satisfaction


Regarding various brands of 21” colour television
At Jagadhri

SUBMITTED TO: KURUKSHETRA UNIVERSITY


KURUKSHETRA IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER
IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (MBA)

Under supervision of: Submitted by:


Ms. Neeti Sharma Vikas Sudan
Lecturer of MBA S/o Sh. Barkat Ram Sharma
SDDIET BARWALA Univ.regi.no-03-my-861
Univ.roll no.

Swami Davi Dyal Institute of Engineering &Technology Barwala


(SDDIET)
(Affiliated to Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Approved By AICTE)
PREFACE

Research work is management parlance is extremely important for a given


close view of the relatives of the real life business issues. For any management
student who is striving to perform outstandingly, it is of paramount importance
that apart from theoretical knowledge the most also gain some practical
knowledge. Survey report deals specially with providing an opportunity to
management students to have some exposure in real business world. My study
topic deals with analyzing the customer preferences in 21 flatron Television.
Television regarded as one of the major achievement of modern science
everywhere, in every nook and corner of the world. Television is such a powerful
media that it can make or mar any person, product, idea or service. The
attraction towards the product (TV) category is so great that it compelled me to
undertake the research work in this segment.
The main objective of dissertation and project i.e. familiarization with the
necessary theoretical input and to gain sufficient practical exposure to establish a
distant linkage between the conceptual knowledge acquired at the institute and
practicing these concepts.
The dissertation is concerned with the consumer behavior & satisfaction
regarding various brand of 21" Colour T.V. at Jagadhri. During my tenure of
destination, I studied the various elements of consumer behavior and deeply
analyzed the functions.
The objective of the survey is to analyze the brand awareness and brand
preference of customers in Television segment in Jagadhri.
Prior to making reference to working of the dissertation prepared the
analysis, feasibility and all other aspects were taken into consideration. The
dissertation shows the very aspect undertaken in context to21" Colour Television.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I express my utmost gratitude and indebt ness to all who have contributed in
some way or the other and been linked with the project from day one.
From the core of my heart. I express my sincere thanks to Dr. Swita
Sharma(HOD), Tilak Raj Chadha Institute of Management And Technology
Yamuna Nagar for encouragement and guidance.
I would also like to thanks to Ms. Neeti (Lecturer) for her ready assistance,
interest and valuable suggestions.
I am extremely grateful to my parents, the respondents and all my
friends for their unconditional support and ready assistance

(Vikas Sudan)
STUDENT DECLARATION
I here declare that the project report title “Consumer Behaviour &
Satisfaction Regarding 21” Colour Television at Jagadhari”submitted in
partial fulfillment of the recuiretment for the Degree of Master of
Adnistration in Marketing /HR is record of bonafide research work
carried out by Vikas Sudan and that no part of this report has been
submitted for the award of any other diploma degree fellowship or
other similar title prize. The report is based on my personal opinion
here cannot be referred for official or legal purpose.

Vikas Sudan
Executive Summary

Management ideas without any action based on them mean nothing. That is why
practical experience is vital for any management studies. Theoretical studies in
the class room are not sufficient to understand the functioning climate and the
real problems coming in the way of management. So, practical exposures are
indispensable to such courses. Thus, practical experience acts as a supplement
to the classroom studies.

This report deals with “Consumer Behavior and Satisfaction


Regarding various brands of 21” flat colour television at jagadhri”

Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how products and


services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. In a
competitive marketplace where businesses compete for customers, customer
satisfaction is seen as a key differentiator and increasingly has become a key
element of business strategy.
The individual consumer has a set of preferences and values whose
determinations are outside the realm of economics. They are no doubt
dependent upon culture, education, and individual tastes, among a plethora of
other factors. The measure of these values in this model for a particular good is
in terms of the real opportunity cost to the consumer who purchases and
consumes the good.

In this era of cut throat competition, no company can even survive in the market
place without knowing its and its products strengths and weaknesses. It has to
fortify itself against threats from the environment and exploit its strengths or
increase profits. And in order to do so, the company has to conduct regular
surveys to know the customer’s opinions, needs, and preferences. This helps the
company to manufacture the product like wise for each customer’s expectations.
CONTENTS

1. Introduction

a. Introduction to Topic

b. Justification of Topic

2. Objective of Study

3. Literature Review

4. Research Methodology & Statistical Tools

a. Sample & Sampling Design

b. Area of Study

c. Statistical Tools

d. Data Collection Sources

d. Limitation

5. Data Analyzes & Interpretation

6. Findings

7. Suggestions & Recommendation

8. Appendix

a. Questioner
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION OF TV
Profile of the study

Television as you know is one of the biggest sources of entertainment especially


in India. Where the income level of consumer is low.

India because of its huge population are burgeoning middle class of an


opportunity to the TV manufacturers to sell their products, but recently many TV
companies have suffered disappointment because there are so many consume
durable, which are fighting for moderate disposable income of the middle class.
So, in order to sell their products (TV etc.) the companies have to do a lot of
efforts. In other words, they have to adopt various promotional strategies in order
to attract the customers.

Consume Electronic or White goods Industries (mainly TV market)

The consumer electronic or white good industries are redeveloping in India and
development of such industries is making the companies to initiate some efforts
for promoting the sale of their products. The main reasons can be summed up as
under:

1. Increase of high disposable incomes.


2. Increase of transmission facilities.
3. Increasing demand of rural market.
4. Increasing income of middle class couple.
5. The Govt. liberalization policy for the free trade, less excise and
custom duties are attracting more of foreign giants like Akai,
Samsung, LG. Thomson, Panasonic, Daewoo, and Sony etc.
6. Many easy interest rates with long-term payable financial schemes.
7. Rapid increase in population also affects the growth of white
industries.
8. More attractive and discount offer by Indian and foreign companies
mainly in festive time, helps in the growth of the television market.

INTRODUCTION OF TV INDUSTRIES

Television in India has been in existence for three decades. For the first 17 years,
it spread haltingly and transmission was mainly in black and white. The thinkers
and policy makers of the country, which had just been liberated from centuries of
colonial rule, frowned upon television, looking on at it as a luxury Indians could
do without. In 1955 a Cabinet decision was taken disallowing any foreign
investments in print media, which has since been followed religiously for nearly
45 years. Sales of TV sets, as reflected by licenses issued to buyers were just
7,36,615 until 1977.

Television has come to the forefront only in the past 15 years and more so in the
past seven. There have been two ignition points: the first in the eighties when
State-owned broadcaster Doordarshan (DD) introduced color TV during the 1982
Asian Games. It then proceeded to install transmitters nationwide rapidly for
terrestrial broadcasting. In this period no private enterprise was allowed to set up
TV stations or to transmit TV signals.

The second spark came in the early nineties with the broad cast of satellite TV by
foreign programmers like CNN followed by Star TV and a little later by domestic
channels such as Zee TV and Sun TV into Indian homes. Prior to this, Indian
viewers had to make do with DD's chosen fare, which was dull, non-commercial
in nature, directed towards only education and socio-economic development.
Entertainment programs were few and far between. And when the solitary few
serials like Hum Log (1984), and mythological dramas: Ramayana ((1987-88)
Mahabharata (1988-89) were televised, millions of viewers stayed glued to their
sets.

When, urban Indians learnt that it was possible to watch the Gulf War on
television, they rushed out and bought dishes for their homes. Others turned
entrepreneurs and started offering the signal to their neighbors by flinging cable
over treetops and verandahs. From the large metros satellite TV delivered via
cable moved into smaller towns, spurring the purchase of TV sets and even the
up gradation from black and white to colour TVs.

DD responded to this satellite TV invasion by launching an entertainment and


commercially driven channel and introduced entertainment programming on its
terrestrial network. This again fuelled the purchase of sets in the hinterlands
where cable TV was not available.

The initial success of the channels had a snowball effect: more foreign
programmers and Indian entrepreneurs flagged off their own versions. From two
channels prior to 1991, Indian viewers were exposed to more than 50 channels
by 1996. Software producers emerged to cater to the programming boom almost
overnight. Some talent came from the film industry, some from advertising and
some from journalism.

More and more people set up networks until there was a time DD responded to
this satellite TV invasion by launching an entertainment and commercial driven
channel and introduced entertainment programming on its terrestrial network.
This again fuelled the purchase of sets in the hinterlands where cable TV was not
available. From two channels prior to 1991, Indian viewers were exposed to more
than 50 channels by 1996.
The 1990's time period:

The production of TV sets plummeted to 4.5 millions units in 1991 due to higher
taxes and devaluation. The revival began in 1993 when import duties where
slashed on TV components and Sales Tax and excise duties were reduced. This
combined with rise in purchasing power in urban and rural areas, strong
replacement demand and market improvement in TV software provided a fillip to
the industry. The exchange offer and replacement schemes were earlier handled
by traders in small way the took on every attractive hue with manufacturers like
AKAI promoting these in you big way. There have been other reasons too. The
proliferation of satellite channels have also acted as an incentive explains K.S.
raman president of CETMA (Consume Electronics and TV Manufacturers
Association), the association of consumer electronic manufacturers: "These
schemes were helped along by the proliferation of satellite channels which made
even a two year only TV out dated as it did not have the S and HY bands to tune
in to all the channels offered by the cable networks. The replacement schemes
were also saved the consumer the trouble of finding a buyer. For his old TV set
for a decent price. This led to you proponent of purchase mainly this all activities
done though dealers. "The demand has improved since then to touch 7.9 million
units 1996-97. The period saw entry of MNC's which has altered the equations in
one industry.

BPL, VIDEOCON, SONY, SAMSUNG, LG in the industry has dominated


the scene in an oligopoly - the market in this manner is rarely seen in any other
sector of Indian industry. But now whose market seems to be ablaze with
aggressive marketing maneuvers by MNC hoarding, TV, spats, ads, etc.
1. BPL (BRITISH PHYSICAL LABORATOURIES):
BPL was set up by an NRI TPG Nambiar in 1961 and three decades later group
is in to automation, communication, computer, components have appliances and
refrigerators with a combined group turnover of Rs. 2700 crores, A and M
ORGMARG ranked BPL as India's most admired consume durables marketing
company in 1997.

Apart from CTV's, BPL portfolio include B and W TVs, Audio, VCRs, Washing
machines, Vacuum cleaners, Refrigerators, Microwave Ovens, Gas stove, Excel
alkaline cell, Telephone instruments, Cellular services, Paging and Professional
electronic products among other things, BPL CTV sales stood at 5.5 lakh CTV
BPL expanded in market share to 21% in CTV market. It has been increasing its
market share every year, even during the reversionary hears. it is a very strong
comp any with tremendous brand equity and a great reputation for reliability and
quality.

Major New Products:

Include 14 inch TNT, 21 inch F and FST, BPL< DOCBY PROLOG, HOME
THEATRE, 3-DTV.

 Turbo Tough (20")


 Budget line (20", 21")
 Private (14")
 Bazooka (21")

Various brands of 21"flatCTV are:

CV 21 AF 38
CV 21 AFI
CV 21 NF2
STRENGTHS:
1. Second in term of market share.
2. Every high brand awareness in the market.
3. Enjoys high corporate premium in the region.
4. Strong distribution network in the region.
5. Positioned as a premium brand in the market and has been
accepted.

WEAKNESSES:
1. No technological USP over the multinationals.
2. Multi dealer policy is eroding the dealer's confidence and they are
opting for other brand on the counter.
3. No response to the onslaught on the global brands.

2. VIDEOCON:
TIE UP : TOSHIBA OF JAPAN
MARKET SHARE : MARKET LEADER

The Videocon group was founded by "Dhoot Brother" with Venugopal Dhoot as
Chairman the three Dhoot Brothers started off by making light dimmers in a small
shed in Ahmednagar in 1947 and it was in 1984, they started CTV manufacturing
by borrowing 60 lakh from their father and a 3 crore SBI laon. Besides TV's they
are also into business of home applicances, Video Cassettes, VCR's Glass and
fianance.

Videocon is an extremely aggressive player in the market. It has a track record of


surprising its competitors and making drastic decisions overnight. It has acquired
huge brand equity as well.
Videocon joined the industry at about the same time BPL. Although it
started off as market leader, it lost its leadership to BPL around 1991. But now it
has regained its prominent position in both the CTV and B&W TV markets. It sold
some 6.0 million TV sets in 2001. This is attributed mainly to its introduction of
the budget line range, economy range, and due to dealer push and marketing
skills.

STRENGTHS:
1. Market leader.
2. Largest brand awareness.
3. Strong distribution channels.
4. Strong U.S.P. because of pricing strategy.
5. Presence in various home applications and consumer product.

WEAKNESSES:
1. Has remained as an economy brand in the market.
2. Multi dealer policy in each town is eroding dealers confidence.

Various 21" Flat Colour Television


5504 QST - Bozon Flat
5512 QST- Pure Flat TV
5548 QST- Bazomba
5453QST- Challenger

3. SONY:

Entry of Sony is posing a major threat to the existing TV brands. It has set up an
independent manufacturing facility and currently has an import content of 99%.
This level is expected to go down to 80%. The company produced around 50,000
units in 1995 and increased to 1 million in 2000-2001. By that time is aiming for a
market share of 30%.
Sony enjoys high brand recall among Indian consumers. It is perceived as being
of superior quality and technologically advancede.

Various 21" Flat Colour Television


KV- AR 212M83
KV- HP 21 M83
KV- SW 21 M80
KV- B221M80

4. LG:- (Life Good)

The South Korean consumer electronics giant Goldstar has entered India
with a tie-up through Bestavision Electronics Ltd. The Tie-up covers
bgrand licensing and technological assistance. This group has already
appointed 800 dealers allover India and has ahead start over other new
entrants.

VARIOUS MODELS

 Flatron GE
 Maestro GE
 GE Swing
 GE Pride
 GE Supreme
 GE Plus
 Joy Max
 Sampoorna III
 Home Cinema

Various 21" Flat Colour Television


21FC80Q
21fa20vc
21FC20KQ
21FD20VE

5. SAMSUNG:

The consumer electronics and white goods major Samsung India Electronics'
(SIEL) has so far invested nearly Rs. 100 crore in the country. It achieved a
turnover of 540 crores in the year 1998. This shows a growth of 37% over 1997.
In 1998 the sales contribution from the various parts of India was as follows:
Eastern India 7% Northern India 44%
Western India 24% Southern India 25%
Samsung India Electronics (SIEL) turnover has risen more than 156 per cent to
Rs. 400 crore in 1997 from Rs. 156 crore the previous year. The company, in its
third year of operation, has reached a break-even point with more than 80% of its
revenues coming from audio and visual segment. At the end of 1997-98 fiscal,
the company's accumulated losses stood at $2 million, while its reserves were
Rs. 556 crore. Through a fresh issue of preference shares at par, Samsung
Electronics Company is hiking its stake in the India subsidiary form 51 per cent to
74 percent.

Various 21" Flat Colour Television


21K5
21K10
21T4
21M21
21K3

Customer satisfaction

Customer satisfaction, a business term, is a measure of how products and


services supplied by a company meet or surpass customer expectation. It is seen
as a key performance indicator within business and is part of the four
perspectives of a Balanced Scorecard. In a competitive marketplace where
businesses compete for customers, customer satisfaction is seen as a key
differentiator and increasingly has become a key element of business strategy.

Satisfaction is a person’s feeling of pleasure and disappointment resulting from


comparing a product’s perceived performance in relation to his or her
expectations. It is only the customer delight that marketer aims for. Increasing
competition (whether for-profit or nonprofit) is forcing businesses to pay much
more attention to satisfying customers. (It may help the reader to notice the role
of customer satisfaction in the overall context of product or service development
and management. See Product/Service Management. Also notice the Related
Info (including customer service) in the library.

Measuring customer satisfaction4

Organizations are increasingly interested in retaining existing customers while


targeting non-customers; measuring customer satisfaction provides an indication
of how successful the organization is at providing products and/or services to the
marketplace.

Customer satisfaction is an ambiguous and abstract concept and the actual


manifestation of the state of satisfaction will vary from person to person and
product/service to product/service. The state of satisfaction depends on a
number of both psychological and physical variables which correlate with
satisfaction behaviors such as return and recommend rate. The level of
satisfaction can also vary depending on other options the customer may have
and other products against which the customer can compare the organization's
products.

Because satisfaction is basically a psychological state, care should be taken in


the effort of quantitative measurement, although a large quantity of research in
this area has recently been developed. Work done by Berry, Brodeur between
1990 and 1998 defined ten 'Quality Values' which influence satisfaction behavior,
further expanded by Berry in 2002 and known as the ten domains of satisfaction.
These ten domains of satisfaction include: Quality, Value, Timeliness, Efficiency,
Ease of Access, Environment, Inter-departmental Teamwork, Front line Service
Behaviors, Commitment to the Customer and Innovation. These factors are
emphasized for continuous improvement and organizational change
measurement and are most often utilized to develop the architecture for
satisfaction measurement as an integrated model. The usual measures of
customer satisfaction involve a survey with a set of statements using a Likert
Technique or scale. The customer is asked to evaluate each statement and in
term of their perception and expectation the of the performance of the
organisation being measured.

Customer Satisfaction – a Critical Component of Profitability 4

Exceptional customer service results in greater customer retention, which in turn


results in higher profitability. Customer loyalty is a major contributor to
sustainable profit growth. To achieve success, you must make superior service
second nature of your organization. A seamless integration of all components in
the service-profit chain – employee satisfaction, value creation, customer
satisfaction, customer loyalty, and profit and growth – links all the critical
dynamics of top customer service.
Sadly, mature companies often forget or forsake the thing that made them
successful in the first place: a customer-centric business model. They lose focus
on the customer and start focusing on the bottom line and quarterly results. They
look for ways to cut costs or increase revenues, often at the expense of the
customer.

They forget that satisfying customer needs and continuous value innovation is
the only path to sustainable growth. This creates opportunities for new, smaller
companies to emulate and improve upon what made their bigger competitors
successful in the first place and steal their customers
OBJECTIVE OF THE
STUDY
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

Consumer satisfaction procedure has a great importance in every organization.


The objectives are set up in the start of the study, because on the basis of these
objectives we have to do the research work. There are two types of objectives
.these are summarized as under

Primary Objective:-

 To know the impact of various external factors on buying behavior of


consumer.
• Quality
• Price
• Brand name
• Scheme
• Technology

Secondary Objectives:-

 To study the satisfaction level with after sales service of company.


 To make suggestions to company to improve the level of satisfaction
among customers.
 To know the price effect on the purchase of colour TV.
 To find the cause behind choice of particular brand of 21"flat CTV and
reasons to switch over by consumer.
Literature review
Literature review

Websites
1. http://www.ciadvertising.org/sa/fall_05/adv380j/gaemi/final/home.htm-
consumer1 from this site I have gathered the information about the
consumer preference.

2. http://madeinatlantis.com/smartshopping/new_products_consumer_prefer
ences.htm2 from this site I have gathered the information about the
consumer preference about the new products that are being launched by
these companies into the markets.

3. www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/customer_satisfa
ction.html3 from this site I have gathered the information about the
customer satisfaction

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customer_satisfaction4- From this site I have


taken the matter regarding how to measure customer satisfaction and how
it is a a component of profitability.

5. 5. http://www.LG.com/dist.asp5

From this site i have taken the matter regarding the distribution policy of the
LG CTV company.
6
6. http://www.Videocon.com : I have taken the matter regarding the
general information about the Videocon Company

7. http://www.Samsung.com/ 7: from this site I have gathered the information


regarding the various products that they are providing to the customers.
8. http://www.BPL.com/8 : I have taken the matter regarding the general
information about the BPL and the history of the BPL group

9. http://www.Sony.com 9: I have taken the matter regarding the general


information of Sony company product.

BOOKS:

 Suja R. Nair, Consumer Behaviour in Indian Perspectives (First


Edition: 2001), Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai-400004. Chapter
1, PP 3-6.10
“Factors influencing consumer behaviour, Decision making, Concept of
consumer behaviour” is studied to know about the various factors those
effects the consumer behaviour these can be external as well as internal”

 Leon G. Schiff man and Lesli Lazar kanauk, Consumer Behaviour,


Eight Edition, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, PP 8,9,11,19,20.11
Study of the customer behaviour is the study of how individuals make
decisions to spend their available resources (Time, Money and Efforts) on
consumption related items. It includes the study what they buy, when they
buy it, when they buy it, where they buy it, how often they buy it and how
often they use it.

 G.C. Beri, Marketing research, Third Edition, Tata Mc graw Hill


Publications PP 95-98,233.12
Matter regarding the sampling size decisions, determination of sample
size and other sampling methods.

 Kothari, C.R, Research methodology, methods & techniques, new


age international ltd. Publishers, Second edition, P.no27-42.13
“Methods of data collection, collection of data through Questionnaire,
collection of secondary data” are referred before the data collection from
this book” Decisions regarding what, where, when, how much, by what
means concerning an enquiry or a research study constitute a research
design

 Gupta, S.P. Stastical methods and techniques, Sultan Chand & Sons.
Educational Publishers, New Delhi,P.no237-241,628-629 14
From this book I have taken the matter regarding the hypothesising testing
and what should be the size of the sample for the application.

 Jain,T.R, Statistics for MBA,V.K.(India) enterprises, New


Delhi.,edition2006-07,P.no 135-13715
From this book I have taken the matter regarding the multiple correlations
and their use

16
1. Sampling, Business Research, June 2005, pp 31 - From this magazine
I have taken the matter regarding the sampling size and the sampling size
determination.

2. Chandra Suresh Indian Journal Of Marketing –


xxxv edition January 2006, P no. 35:17

From this very journal I took the information about various


marketing concepts

3. Suresh k Advertising Express-February 2006, Traditional Mass

Media, February 2006Vol. 15 No. 3, Page 3518: from this site I have
taken the information related to various advertising media and concept.

RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology is systematically solving the research problem. It may


be understand as science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it
we study the various steps that are generally adopted by the researcher in
studying his research problem along with logic behind them.
Hypothesis
H0 = after sale service and consumer behavior are Correlated.
H1= after sale service and consumer behavior are not
Correlated.

Research purpose can be divided into four categories:


• Exploratory research
• Descriptive research
• Diagnostic research
• Hypothesis research

Exploratory research:
It is also termed as formulate research the main purpose of such research is
to gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights.

Descriptive research:
This portrays the particular characteristics of a particular individual situation or
a group.

Diagnostic research:
To determine the frequency something occurred or which associated with
something else.
Hypothesis testing research:
To test hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables.
Sampling and Sampling design

Sampling may be defined as the selection of some part of an aggregate or totality


on the basis of which a judgment or inference about the aggregate or totality is
made. In simple words, it is the process of obtaining information about the
population by examining only a part of it.

The sampling procedure followed is as follows:


1. Identification of the Universe: The universe to be studied is the whole
population of Orient Craft Ltd from where the information has been sought
.
2. Defining a Sampling unit: Here the sampling unit is the same population of
the company. Various personnel who gave me information regarding their own.

3. Determining the size of the sample : Taking into consideration the size of
the population , the population variance , cost involved and the requirements of
efficiency , representative ness , reliability , flexibility , and the parameters of
interest in the research , the sample size selected was 100.

Analytical Tools

After collection of data another work necessary for any data collector is to
correctly analysis that data. So statistical tolls helps us to correctly analysis the
data .As I am here using the software for analysis of the data XLSTAT. I will use
following statistical tools:
 Multi Dimension Scaling :

Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a method for analyzing a (similarity or


dissimilarity) proximity matrix based on a set of observations. The purpose of
MDS is to model the proximity of observations in order to represent them as
accurately as possible in a limited number of dimensions (usually 2). There are
different MDS algorithms: XLSTAT uses the SMACOF (Scaling by Major zing a
Convex Function) algorithm that minimizes the "normalized stress" function.
Furthermore, there are several MDS models (or representation functions), i.e.
several ways to transform the dissimilarities into disparities. The disparities are
the distances that describe the optimal representation for the observations. The
difference between the disparities and the distances measured on the
representation resulting from the MDS is called the stress: the lower the stress,
the better the representation of the observations.

Hypothesis Testing

Chi-square test is used when the set of observed frequencies obtained after
experimentation have to be supported by hypothesis or theory. The test is known
as X2- test of goodness of fit and is used to test if the deviation between
observation (experiment) and theory may be attributed to chance (fluctuations of
sampling).χ2 also enables us to explain whether or not two attributes are
associated or related to each other.

To test the goodness of fit


The null and alternative hypothesis to be tested is as follows:
Null Hypothesis Ho: There is no significant difference between the sample
statistic and the population parameter.
Alternative Hypothesis H1: There is significant difference between the sample
statistic and the population parameter.
Procedure:
(1) Set up the null hypothesis that there is no significant
difference between the observed and expected value.
(2) We compute the value of CHI- square by using the formula

CHI-square = ∑ χ2=Σ (( Oi- Ei)2/Ei)


O- Observed value
E- Expected value
Degree of freedoms=(R-1)(C-1)
Level of significance=5

 LIKERT SCALE:

A Likert scale is a type of psychometric response scale often used in


questionnaires, and is the most widely used scale in survey research.
When responding to a Likert questionnaire item, respondents specify their
level of agreement to a statement. The scale is named after Rensis Likert,
who published a report describing its use.

A important distinction must be made between a Likert Scale and a Likert item.
The Likert Scale is the sum of responses on several Likert items. Because
Likert items are often accompanied by a visual analog scale (e.g., a horizontal
line, on which a subject indicates his or her response by circling or checking tick-
marks), the items are sometimes called scales themselves. This is the source of
much confusion; it is better, therefore, to reserve the word 'Likert scale' to apply
to the summated scale, and 'Likert item' to refer to an individual item.
A Likert item is a statement. The respondent is asked to indicate his or her
degree of agreement with the statement or any kind of subjective or objective
evaluation of the statement. Often ordered five response levels are used,
however many psychometricians advocate using a seven or nine levels. A recent
empirical study showed that data from 5-level, 7-level and 10-level items showed
very similar characteristics in terms of mean, variance, skewness and kurtosis
after a simple transformation was applied. Example of a five-level Likert item:

1. Strongly disagree
2. Disagree
3. Neither agree nor disagree
4. Agree
5. Strongly agree

Likert scaling is a bipolar scaling method, measuring either positive or negative


response to a statement. Sometimes a four-point scale is used; this is a
forced choice method since the middle option of "Neither agree nor
disagree" is not available. Likert scales may be subject to distortion from
several causes. Respondents may avoid using extreme response
categories (central tendency bias); agree with statements as presented
(acquiescence bias); or try to portray themselves or their organization in a
more favorable light (social desirability bias).

Area of Study:

To analyze the consumers preference with regard to 21"flat cokour TV, of the
residents of Yamuna Nagar ,sample survey method has been implemented.
Though other methods important, this method is given prime significance in
modern research because of its extensive use to study the relationship of
different factors, attitudes and practices of society and to explore the
problems that cannot be treated by experiment methods.
Data Collection

Data collection is known as the process of taking the views of the different
respondent about the given phenomenon. This is also very difficult to ask as first
of all we have decided that what type of the questions should be included in the
questionnaire so that the respondents are able to give the correct answer to the
researcher. There should not be any linguistic problems in understanding the
meaning of the question in the questionnaire.

Questionnaire:-

Questionnaire is he standard form of he document that is used for the collection


of the data from the respondents. The method includes a set of he questions that
are selected by the panel of the judges and is sent to the respondents for taking
their response. This method is very important the Govt. Project, the Private
company where the company gets the response about their products from the
consumers, So that they can improve the quality of their products by adding or
deleting some of the feature that the required by the consumers.
LIMITATIONS

 The primary limitation was the small size of customer so due to small
samples out of big universe the results may not be completely correct.
 Some of the respondent through me as representative of the company,
hence instead of answering my question they put than question to me and
expected me to answer than.
 Most of people were at their work they did not have time to give all replies.
 Time period was very short.
 The chances of personal prejudice and bias are possible at respondent
level.
 The people were quite hesitant in inquiring exact data regarding their
income level.
 The primary limitation was the limited area of the research so due to small
area out of the country the results may not be completely correct.
 The secondary limitation was the small size of customer so due to small
samples out of big universe the results may not be completely correct
 The chances of personal prejudice and bias are possible at respondent
level. Also the people were quite hesitant in inquiring exact data regarding
their income level.
 Most of people were at their work they did not have time to give all replies.
Also time period was very short.
DATA ANALYZES
&
INTERPRETATION
Results & Discussions
The analyzed date performing to brand ownership, preferred features, role play in
decision making by the head of the family, grand lady etc., awareness about CTV
brands, price influence on purchase behaviour, customer satisfaction etc
revealed an interesting out come which are discussed as under different context.
1) Brand owner (%)

Brand Name Owner (%)


LG 29
Samsung 24
Sony 14
Videocon 10
BPL 22
Owner(%)

40
30
20 Owner(%)
29 24 22
10 14 10
0
n
ng

y
LG

PL
co
on
su

B
eo
S
am

id
V
S

The above results reveal that most a large number of people i.e.29% owned LG
CTV. 24% people owned Samsung CTV, 22% people owned BPL CTV, 14%
people owned Sony CTV, and 10% people owned Videocon CTV. This means
that different customer have different point of view regarding different CTV
companies.
2) Preferable feature by customer (%)

Features Preferred by customers (%)


Price 22
Brand Name 26
Technology 30
Quality 13
Scheme 9

preferred by customers(%)

40
30
preferred by
20
22 26 30 customers(%)
10 13 9
0
an rice

Sc y
e
gy
ch e

it
m
Te am

al
lo
P

he
Qu
no
dN
Br

The above results reveal that while purchasing Colour television a large number
i.e.30% of customer preferred the technology of colour television, 22% customer
preferred the price, 26% customer preferred brand name. This also shows that
different customer have different point of view.
3) Role plays in decision making (%)

Players Role play (%)


Head of Family 23
Children 22
lady 27
Grand Lady 13
Combined 9
Any other 6

Role play(%)

6 Head of Family
9 23
Children
13 lady
Grand Lady
22 Combined
27 Any other

The above results reveal that while taking decision to purchase the CTV most of
the customer wants to consult with their ladies.27% of the customer consult with
their ladies.23% of the customer consult with their head of the family.This also
shows that different customer have different point of view.
4) Knowing (%) of CTV brands

Means Knowing (%)


Through Friends 25
Family Members 22
Advertisement 31
Publicity 12
Any other 9

Knowing(%) Through
Friends
Family
9 Members
25
12 Advertisement

Publicity

31 22
Any other

The above Pie chart reveals that a large number of the people i.e. 30% come to
know with these brands with the help of advertisement and 25% of the people
through friends and 22% of the people by family members.
5) Media’s influence on purchase behavior (%)

Influence
Media Behavior(%)

TV 33

Hording 22

Newspaper 26

Magazine 14

Wall painting 5

Influence Behaviour(%)

5
14 TV
33
Hording
Newspaper
26 Magazine
Wallpainting
22

The above Pie chart reveals that televisions plays important role in influencing
the purchase behavior of the customer.33% of the customer influenced through
television.26% of the customer influence through magazine.
6) Involvement in purchasing (%)

Involvement In Purchasing (%)

More involvement 18

Normal involvement 32

less involvement 28

No involvement 22

35 32
28
30 22
25 18
20 Series1
15 Series2
10
5
0
involvement
involvement

involvement

involvement
Normal
More

No
less

The above results reveal that 32% of the customers have normal involvement in
purchasing of Flat colour television. 28% of the customers have less involvement
in purchasing of Flat colour television. Thus this means that different people have
different point of view.
7) Price influence on purchase behavior (%)

Price influence Purchase Behavior (%)


Very High 13
High Average 27
Average 24
Average Low 20
Low 16

Purchase Behaviour(%)

16 13
Very High
High Average
20 27 Average
Average Low
Low
24

The above Pie chart reveals that a large number of customers i.e. 27% are highly
influenced by the price. Only 16% of the customers are low influenced by the
price. This means that most of the customer are influenced by the price.
8) Role of advertisement (%)

Role of
Opinion Advertisement

Provides important details 16

Creates Awareness 27

Give information 22

Convenience in Purchase 21

Misleading 14

corrospondence Provides important


details
Creates
14 16 Awareness
Give information
21
27 Convenience in
Purchase
22
Misleading

The above results reveal that advertisement plays an important role in decision-
making. Most of the people’s i.e.27% opinioned that advertisements create
awareness, which is necessary for the customer’s point of view.
9) Maximum benefits to customers by companies

Company Benefits to customers (%)

LG 28

Samsung 20

Sony 22

Videocon 18

BPL 12

Benefits(%)

12
28 LG
Samsung
18
Sony
Videocon
22 20 BOL

The above Pie chart reveals that LG Company provides maximum benefits to
their customersi.e.28%. BPL Company provides 12% benefits to their customers
which are very less for the point of view of customer.
10) Promotional activities adopted by companies

Promotion Activities Awareness (%)

Yes 65

No 35

Awareness(%)

No 35

Awareness(%)

Yes 65

0 20 40 60 80

This diagram revels that 65% of the customers are aware about the different
promotion activities which are adopted by different companies.35% of the people
are not aware about this activities.
11) Preference to change the Brand (%)

Preference Change (%)

Sure 12

Often 22

Neutral 18

Not Sure 28

Never 20

30 28

25 22
20
20 18

15 12 Series1
10
5
0
Sure Often Neutral Not Sure Never

The above results reveal that only 12% of the peoples want to change their CTV
if other brands offering those attractive schemes. But 28% of the people are not
sure about that. They don’t want to change their brand.
12) Post purchase experience in purchasing (%)

Experience In Purchasing (%)

Excellent 17

Very Good 18

Good 24

Average 26

Poor 15

30 26
24
25
17 18
20 15
15 Series1
10
5
0
or
od

ge
nt

od

Po
Go
lle

era
Go
ce

Av
Ex

ry
Ve

The above results reveal that post purchase experience of most of the peoples
are averagei.e26(%). Only 17% of the peoples have excellent experience in
purchasing.
13) Behavior of customer towards brand (%)

Behavior of
customer
towards
Behavior Level brand (%)
Strongly recommend 13
Moderately Recommend 27
Neutral 24
Not recommend 20
Never recommend 16

Strongly
recommend
16 13
Moderately
Recommend

20 27
Neutral

24 Not recommend

Never recommend
The above Pie chart reveals that 27% of the customers are moderately
recommended their CTV brand they are purchased. 24% of the customers are
neutral recommend their CTV brand they are purchased.20% of the customers
are not recommended their CTV brands.

14) Customer satisfaction towards CTV

Customer
Satisfaction level Satisfaction (%)

Highly Satisfied 25

Satisfied 23

Average 27

Less Satisfied 14

Poor 11

11
25
Highly Satisfied
14
Satisfied
Average
Less Satisfied
23 Poor
27

The above results reveal that 27% of customers are average satisfied with the
CTV they are purchased. This means that customer satisfaction level is average.
25% of customers are highly satisfied with the CTV they are purchased.
15) Ranks given by groups to CTV companies

Companie Rank
s G1 G2 G3 G4 G5
LG 28 26 27 25 30
Samsung 22 20 13 22 18
Sony 18 22 20 11 16
Videocon 20 16 18 22 24
BPL 12 16 22 20 12

35
30 LG
25 Samsung
20
Sony
15
10 Videocon
5 BPL
0
Rank G2 G3 G4 G5
G1

The above results reveal that all the groups give highest rank to the LG CTV
Company. This means that most of the customer gives highest preference to LG
CTV Company. After that customers give lower rank to Videocon CTV.
MultiDimensional Scaling

Ranks given by groups to CTV companies

Companie Rank
s G1 G2 G3 G4 G5

LG 28 26 27 25 30

Samsung 22 20 13 22 18

Sony 18 22 20 11 16

Videocon 20 16 18 22 24

BPL 12 16 22 20 12
Hypothesis Testing

Lets take the hypothesis as :-

H0 = Let there is correlation between various factors like


quality, price, brand, scheme, technology and C.T.V purchase.
H1 = There is no correlation between various factors like
quality, price, brand, scheme, technology and C.T.V purchase.

X SAMSUNG LG VIDEO- BPL SONY


Dx CON
+2 +1 0 -1 -2 f fdy fdy2 fdxdy

Y
Dy
QUALITY +2 8 8 4 4 4 28 56 11 24
(32) (16) (0) (-8) (-16) 2
PRICE +1 6 10 6 2 2 26 26 26 16
(12) (10) (0) (-2) (-4)
BRAND NAME 0 6 6 4 4 2 22 0 0 0
(0) (0) (0) (0) (0)
SCHEME -1 2 2 4 6 2 16 -1 16 4
(-4) (-2) (0) (6)` (4) 6
TECNOLOGY -2 0 2 2 6 6 16 -3 64 32
(0) (-4) (0) (12) (24) 2
f 22 28 20 22 16 10 34 21 76
8 8
fdx 44 28 0 -22 -32 18
fdx2 88 28 0 22 64 20
2
fdxdy 40 20 0 8 8 76

Coefficient of Correlation =
N ∑fdxdy - ∑fdx∑fdy
r = √ N∑fdx2-(∑fdx)2 √ N∑fdy2-(∑fdy)2

r = 108x76 – (18)(34)__________
108x202-(18)2 √ 108x218-(34)2 √

r = 8208_____
146.6 x 149.62
= 8208___ = 0.3741
21935.2
There is positive correlation between various factors, which I
considered, and the CTV purchase.

Let us take the hypothesis that there is association between CTV


purchased and price influence.

Price Influence on Color Television


CTV High High Average Avg. Low Low
Brand Avg.
Samsung 0 4 6 4 2
LG 2 2 4 4 2
Videocon 4 0 2 2 4
BPL 0 4 6 4 2
Sony 4 2 4 0 2
Total 10 12 22 14 14

Price Influence on Color Television

CTV High High Average Avg. Low Low


Brand Avg.
Samsung 2.28 2.74 5.03 3.2 2.74
LG 2 2.4 4.4 2.8 2.4
Videocon 1.72 2.06 3.77 2.4 2.06
BPL 2.28 2.74 5.03 3.2 2.74
Sony 1.72 2.06 3.77 2.4 2.06
Total 10 12 22 14 12

Observed Expected
Value value (O-E)2 (O-E)2/E
0 2.28 5.20 2.28
2 2 0.00 0.00
4 1.72 5.20 3.02
0 2.28 5.20 2.28
4 1.72 5.20 3.02
4 2.74 1.59 0.58
2 2.4 0.16 0.07
0 2.06 4.24 2.06
4 2.74 1.59 0.58
2 2.06 0.00 0.00
6 5.03 0.94 0.19
4 4.4 0.16 0.04
2 3.77 3.13 0.83
6 5.03 0.94 0.19
4 3.77 0.05 0.01
4 3.2 0.64 0.20
4 2.8 1.44 0.51
2 2.4 0.16 0.07
4 3.2 0.64 0.20
0 2.4 5.76 2.40
2 2.74 0.55 0.20
2 2.4 0.16 0.07
4 2.06 3.76 1.83
2 2.74 0.55 0.20
2 2.06 0.00 0.00
20.83

χ2 Calculated = 20.83
V = (r-1) (c-1) = (5-1) (4-1) = 16
for V = 16 χ2 0.05 table value = 26.3
So, χ2 0.05 table value greater than χ2 calculated value so
hypothesis is accepted and there is positive relation between price
influence and CTV purchased.

Likert Scaling

Are you satisfied with the CTV that you have purchased?
Customer
Satisfaction level Satisfaction (%)

Highly Satisfied 25

Satisfied 23

Average 27

Less Satisfied 14

Poor 11

11
25
Highly Satisfied
14
Satisfied
Average
Less Satisfied
23 Poor
27

The above result revels that 27% of customers are average satisfied with the
CTV they are purchased. This means that customer satisfaction level is average.
25% of customers are highly satisfied with the CTV they are purchased.

25 23 27 14 11
5 4 3 2 1
Highly Satisfied average satisfied less satisfied Poor
Satisfied

100*5=500 Highly satisfied


100*4=400 Satisfied
100*3=300 average satisfied
100*2=200 less satisfied
100*1=100 Poor
25*5 +23*4 +27*3 +14*2 +11*1 = 337

Here the score is 337 that lies between 300 & 400, So the consumer are satisfied
with the CTV they are purchased.
FINDINGS

FINDINGS

 Mostly the purchasing of TV done by combined decision of family. Head of


family is also taking the important role in decision making in CTV
purchase.
 Quality of T.V. is most preferred features which the costumers consider
during purchase of CTV followed by brand name and price.
 Price has a significant influence on the purchase of T.V. because of in
Yamuna Nagar large population belongs to medium class family.
 Price also play a measure role in switching over in another brand C.T.V. by
customers. References group also has significant effect on switching
decisions.
 If we see the after sales service of the companies most of the people are
satisfied with the after sales services of the their T.V
 After sales service SAMSUNG has gain rank 1 followed by BPL, LG,
SONY and VIDEOCON.
 Coupon & exchange offer are the most preferred schemes consider by
consumer during purchase because they attract the customer quickly
 Consumer gives preferences to the CTV companies on the basis of brand
image and durability
 Most of the CTV Companies are spending lot on the promotion activities to
increase the brand awareness.
 When it comes to giving benefits to customers sample thinks that LG CTV
Company provides the maximum benefits.
,

SUGGESTIONS

 Manufacturers most try to improve upon after sales service which is


measure calls for repurchase of brand.
 Scheme like coupon free gift should be provided to the customers.
 Quality should be improved and new technology should be adopted.
 Price has significant influence in purchasing so it is require that company
should try to cut out their cost like by reducing cost of advertisement.
 Companies most take a step to improve the dealership network and
service station and required to putting afford for motivation through
demonstrations.
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION

After analysis observed that the main points of consideration buying a CTV are
price and the brand. It is generally the trade off between these two, which
determines the purchase.

The entry of foreign companies and the revival by domestic player has provided
the Indian consumer with plethora of opportunities to choose from in addition to
creating clutter. Thus consumers are definitely not brand loyal while purchasing
CTV.

More customers of Indian Market lie in the middle class and hence they prefer
product of competitive price. Consumer generally prefers to buy a brand with
high quality features at less price. The purchase decision of the consumer is
affected by the brand and price of the product.

After sale service, price and quality play in important role in the purchasing
decision of CTV in Yamuna Nagar and promotional schemes like coupon, free
gift, exchange offer, guaranty, play important role in attracting the customer to
purchase new colour Television.
Bibliography
Bibliography

Websites
1. http://www.ciadvertising.org/sa/fall_05/adv380j/gaemi/final/home.htm-
consumer

2. http://madeinatlantis.com/smartshopping/new_products_consumer_prefer
ences.htm

3. www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/customer_satisfa
ction.html

4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customer_satisfaction

5. 5. http://www.LG.com/dist.as

6. http://www.Videocon.com :

7. http://www.Samsung.com/

8. http://www.BPL.com/

9. http://www.Sony.com

BOOKS:
 Suja R. Nair, Consumer Behaviour in Indian Perspectives (First
Edition: 2001), Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai-400004. Chapter
1, PP 3-6.
 Leon G. Schiff man and Lesli Lazar kanauk, Consumer Behaviour,
Eight Edition, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi, PP 8,9,11,19,20.
 G.C. Beri, Marketing research, Third Edition, Tata Mc graw Hill
Publications PP 95-98,233.
 Kothari, C.R, Research methodology, methods & techniques, new
age international ltd. Publishers, Second edition, P.no27-42
 Gupta, S.P. Stastical methods and techniques, Sultan Chand & Sons.
Educational Publishers, New Delhi,P.no237-241,628-629
 Jain,T.R, Statistics for MBA,V.K.(India) enterprises, New
Delhi.,edition2006-07,P.no 135-137
Magazines
1. Sampling, Business Research, June 2005, pp 31

2. Chandra Suresh Indian Journal Of Marketing xxxv edition January 2006,


P no. 35:

3. Suresh k Advertising Express-February 2006, Traditional Mass Media,


and February 2006Vol. 15 No. 3, Page 3518: f
ANNEXUTRE
Annexure
QUESTIONNAIRE

Consumer Behaviour and Satisfaction


Regarding various brands of 21” flat colour television.
A case study of Yamuna Nagar

Name _________________ S/O______________________


Age ___________________________________________
Occupation ______________Income per annum______________
Address ___________________________________________
________________________________Ph.________

1) Which Brand of the flat colour television do you own?

LG Videocon

Samsung BPL

Sony

2) What is most preferable feature you consider while purchasing CTV?

Price Scheme

Brand Name Quality

Technology
3) Who plays important play role in decision making of purchase of CTV?

Head of family Children

Lady Grand lady

Combined Any other

4) How would you come to know about these CTV brands?

Through friends Family members

Advertisement Publicity

Any other

5) If other brands offering attractive schemes, will you change to other


brands, if yes, will you prefer?

Sure often

Neutral Not sure

Never

6) Which type of media influence your purchase behaviour?

T.V. Hording

Newspaper Magazine

Wall painting
7) How much aware are you and involved in purchasing of flat CTV?

More involvement Normal involvement

Less involvement No involvement

8) In your opinion what role advertisement plays?

Provides important details Creates awareness

Give information Convenience in purchase

Misleading

9) In your opinion which company gives the maximum benefits to customers?

LG Samsung

Videocon BPL

Sony

10)Which is your post purchase experience with your CTV?

Excellent very good

Good Average
Poor

11) If anybody asks you about which CTV purchased by you then your
behavior towards your brand

Strongly recommend Moderately Recommend

Neutral Not recommend

Never recommend

12)Are you satisfied with the CTV that you have purchased?

Highly satisfied Satisfied

Average Less satisfied

Poor

13)To what extent price influence your purchase behaviour of flat CTV?

Very High High average

Average Average low

Low

14)Are you aware about different promotion of activities adopted by flat CTV?
Yes No

15) How do you rank the colour T.V. companies in the scale of 1-5?
Group 1 Group2 Group3 Group4 Group5

LG
Samsung
Sony
Videocon
BPL

KINDLY SUGGEST TWO REFERENCES:

____________________________________________________

____________________________________________________

Place ______________

Date_______________ Signature