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GSM Based Patient Monitoring System Chapter 1 Introduction

Mobile Telemedicine System are becoming more important all the time, specially in care of patients that are isolated or travelling ,far from a reference hospitals. Incorporating technologies such as GSM to this system allow wireless transmission to health or control centers. This project provides an excellent equipment using Wireless technology especially for monitoring the patient and sending data over GSM to the Doctor. This system also provides an excellent requirment option when ever patient needed using touch screen. The equipment has a better fesability to send the data continuosly from time to time. This paper describes a low cost, portable system with wireless transmission capabilities for the processing and visualization in real time of the electrical activity of the heart to a mobile phone , a PDA. 1.1 System Discription The system consists of three modules: the patients acquisition and processing for monitoring parameter of patient,the medical control unit board(Micro controller), and the medical cotrol unit for receiving data as Mobile .The system block diagram is as shown in fig.1.

Fig.1:System diagram The Micro-controller module is a tool with a user interface that simulates an heart beat monitor and offers the functionalities as to send the data over a wireless GSM to the mobile and LCD module. The aquisition module consists of a amplifier, a microcontroller and a GSM for wireless transmission, touch screen with a voice activation module according to the option specified for the patient . The purpose of choosing GSM as a transmission module is that, it provide a data transfer over a global area. It is a wide range technology that allows security and robust communications. For data transfer using GSM the protocol used is AT commands . 1.2 Background of the Project The software application and the hardware implementation help the microcontroller to read the data from the Sensors(Heartbeat and Temperature) through the reader and send the data using GSM and requirement of the patient is indiacated by the Voice module. The measure of efficiency is based on the range of the GSM communication to the mobile is used in this project and how fast the microcontroller can read the data from the Sensor and perform the specified task. The system is totally designed using GSM and embedded systems technology. The performance of the design is maintained by controlling unit. The GSM with micro controller will be wired to the machine(Micro-controller) and to that to sensors. Whenever any sensors crosses the level of heart beat or temperature , the

depending on the logic designed in the controller, it will send the required data over a GSM device using AT commands and it will send SMS to the owner . Touch Screen is also used to fullfill the patient needs when he/she is unable to speak. And it is done by Voice activated module which can generate a voice to a perticular operation .The voice activated IC used is APR9600.

1.3 Organization of the Thesis In view of the proposed thesis work explanation of theoretical aspects and algorithms used in this work are presented as per the sequence described below. Chapter1: Describes a brief review of the objectives and goals of the work. Chapter2: Discusses the existing technologies and the study of various technologies in detail. Chapter3: Describes the Block diagram of the project and its description. The construction and description of various modules used for the application are described in detail. Chapter4: Explains the Software tools required for the project, the Code developed for the design. Chapter5:Presents the results, overall conclusions of the study and proposes possible improvements and directions of future research work.

Chapter 2 Overview of the technologies used


Embedded Systems: An embedded system can be defined as a computing device that does a specific focused job. Appliances such as the air-conditioner, VCD player, DVD player, printer, fax machine, mobile phone etc. are examples of embedded systems. Each of these appliances will have a processor and special hardware to meet the specific requirement of the application along with the embedded software that is executed by the processor for meeting that specific requirement. The embedded software is also called firm ware. The desktop/laptop computer is a general purpose computer. You can use it for a variety of applications such as playing games, word processing, accounting, software development and so on. In contrast, the software in the embedded systems is always fixed listed below: Embedded systems do a very specific task, they cannot be programmed to do different things. Embedded systems have very limited resources, particularly the memory. Generally, they do not have secondary storage devices such as the CDROM or the floppy disk. Embedded systems have to work against some deadlines. A specific job has to be completed within a specific time. In some embedded systems, called real-time systems, the deadlines are stringent. Missing a deadline may cause a catastrophe-loss of life or damage to property. Embedded systems are constrained for power. As many embedded systems operate through a battery, the power consumption has to be very low. Some embedded systems have to operate in extreme environmental conditions such as very high temperatures and humidity. Following are the advantages of Embedded Systems: 1. They are designed to do a specific task and have real time performance constraints which must be met. 2. They allow the system hardware to be simplified so costs are reduced.

3. They are usually in the form of small computerized parts in larger devices which serve a general purpose. 4. The program instructions for embedded systems run with limited computer hardware resources, little memory and small or even non-existent keyboard or screen. Introduction to GSM Technology The GSM/GPRS modem comes with a serial interface through which the modem can be controlled using AT command interface. An antenna and a power adapter are provided. The figure of GSM is shown in Fig2. The basic segregation of working of the modem is as under: Voice SMS GSM Data Calls GPRS GSM converter will be add-on device to be attached between a terminal which wants data transfer and the GSM modem. This GSM coverter will take care of call establishment where the embedded device cannot make a call. The converter will remain trasnparent through-out the call once call is established. The BSM converter will be a very small piece of hardware possibly embedded inside the cable itself. GSM System has a frequency bandwidth of 200kHz and a data transmission rate of approximately 270kpbs. One of the key features of GSM is the Subscriber identity module,commonly called known as SIM card. The SIM is a detachable smart card containing the users subscription information and phone book. This allows the user to retain his or her information after switching handsets.

Fig: GSM/GPRS Modem. Definition of GSM(TDMA) technology 1991 GSM, which stands for Global System for Mobile communications, reigns as the worlds most widely used cell phone technology. Cell phones use a cell phone service carriers(TDMA) GSM network by searching for cell phone towers in the nearby area. GSM uses digital technology and is a second-generation (2G) cell phone system. GSM, which predates CDMA, is especially strong in Europe. EDGE is faster than GSM and was built upon GSM. The GSM platform is a hugely successful wireless technology and an unprecedented story of global achievement and cooperation. Todays GSM platform is living, growing and evolving and already offers an expanded and feature-rich family of voice and multimedia services. New developments that will push up data transfer rates for GSM users are HSCSD (high speed circuit switched data) and GPRS (general packet radio service) are now available. .

Chapter 3 Hardware Implementation of the Project


This chapter briefly explains about the Hardware Implementation of the project. It discusses the design and working of the design with the help of block diagram and circuit diagram and explanation of circuit diagram in detail. It explains the features of LPC2148 microcontroller. It also explains the various modules used in this project. 3.1 Project Design The implementation of the project design can be divided in two parts. Hardware implementation Firmware implementation Hardware implementation deals in drawing the schematic on the plane paper according to the application, testing the schematic design over the breadboard using the various ICs to find if the design meets the objective, carrying out the PCB layout of the schematic tested on breadboard, finally preparing the board and testing the designed hardware. The firmware part deals in programming the microcontroller so that it can control the operation of the ICs used in the implementation. In the present work, we have used the Orcad design software for PCB circuit design, the Keil v4 software development tool to write and compile the source code, which has been written in the C language. The Flashmagic programmer has been used to write this compile code into the microcontroller. The firmware implementation is explained in the next chapter. The project design and principle are explained in this chapter using the block diagram and circuit diagram. The block diagram discusses about the required components of the design and working condition is explained using circuit diagram and system wiring diagram.

3.1.1 Block Diagram of the Project and its Description The block diagram of the design is as shown in Fig 3.1. It consists of power supply unit, microcontroller LPC2148, GSM module, Heart-beat sensor and Temperature sensor, LCD display, Touch screen, voice IC APR9600, LM386 operational amplifier and loudspeaker. The brief description of each unit is explained as follows.

3.2 Power Supply:


The input to the circuit is applied from the regulated power supply. The a.c. input i.e., 230V from the mains supply is step down by the transformer to 12V and is fed to a rectifier. The output obtained from the rectifier is a pulsating d.c voltage. So in order to get a pure d.c voltage, the output voltage from the rectifier is fed to a filter to remove any a.c components present even after rectification. Now, this voltage is given to a voltage regulator to obtain a pure constant dc voltage.

Transformer: Usually, DC voltages are required to operate various electronic equipment and these voltages are 5V, 9V or 12V. But these voltages cannot be obtained directly. Thus the a.c input available at the mains supply i.e., 230V is to be brought down to the required voltage level. This is done by a transformer. Thus, a step down transformer is employed to decrease the voltage to a required level. Rectifier: The output from the transformer is fed to the rectifier. It converts A.C. into pulsating D.C. The rectifier may be a half wave or a full wave rectifier. In this project, a bridge rectifier is used because of its merits like good stability and full wave rectification. Filter: Capacitive filter is used in this project. It removes the ripples from the output of rectifier and smoothens the D.C. Output received from this filter is constant until the mains voltage and load is maintained constant. However, if either of the two is varied, D.C. voltage received at this point changes. Therefore a regulator is applied at the output stage.

Voltage regulator: As the name itself implies, it regulates the input applied to it. A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level. In this project, power supply of 5V and 12V are required. In order to obtain these voltage levels, 7805 and 7812 voltage regulators are to be used. The first number 78 represents positive supply and the numbers 05, 12 represent the required output voltage levels.

3.3 LPC2141/42/44/46/48 General description


The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 microcontrollers are based on a 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support, that combine microcontroller with embedded high speed flash memory ranging from 32 kB to 512 kB. A 128-bit wide memory interface and a unique accelerator architecture enable 32-bit code execution at the maximum clock rate. For critical code size applications, the alternative 16-bit Thumb mode reduces code by more than 30 % with minimal performance penalty. Due to their tiny size and low power consumption, LPC2141/42/44/46/48 are ideal for applications where miniaturization is a key requirement, such as access control and point-of-sale. Serial communications interfaces ranging from a USB 2.0 Full-speed device, multiple UARTs, SPI, SSP to I2C-bus and on-chip SRAM of 8 kB up to 40 kB, make these devices very well suited for communication gateways and protocol converters, soft modems, voice recognition and low end imaging, providing both large buffer size and high processing power. Various 32-bit timers, single or dual 10-bit ADC(s), 10-bit DAC, PWM channels and 45 fast GPIO lines with up to nine edge or level sensitive external interrupt pins make these microcontrollers suitable for industrial control and medical systems.

Features
1. 16-bit/32-bit ARM7TDMI-S microcontroller in a tiny LQFP64 package. 2. 8 kB to 40 kB of on-chip static RAM and 32 kB to 512 kB of on-chip flash memory. 128-bit wide interface/accelerator enables high-speed 60 MHz operation.

3. In-System Programming/In-Application Programming (ISP/IAP) via on-chip boot loader software. Single flash sector or full chip erase in 400 ms and programming of 256 bytes in 1 ms. 4. EmbeddedICE RT and Embedded Trace interfaces offer real-time debugging with the on-chip RealMonitor software and high-speed tracing of instruction execution. 5. USB 2.0 Full-speed compliant device controller with 2 kB of endpoint RAM. In addition, the LPC2146/48 provides 8 kB of on-chip RAM accessible to USB by DMA.
6. One or two (LPC2141/42 vs. LPC2144/46/48) 10-bit ADCs provide a total of

6/14 analog inputs, with conversion times as low as 2.44 s per channel. 7. Single 10-bit DAC provides variable analog output (LPC2142/44/46/48 only).
8. Two 32-bit timers/external event counters (with four capture and four compare

channels each), PWM unit (six outputs) and watchdog. 9. Low power Real-Time Clock (RTC) with independent power and 32 kHz clock input. Single-chip 16-bit/32-bit microcontrollers

Multiple serial interfaces including two UARTs (16C550), two Fast I2C-bus (400 kbit/s), SPI and SSP with buffering and variable data length capabilities. Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) with configurable priorities and vector addresses. Up to 45 of 5 V tolerant fast general purpose I/O pins in a tiny LQFP64 package. Up to 21 external interrupt pins available. 60 MHz maximum CPU clock available from programmable on-chip PLL with settling time of 100 s. On-chip integrated oscillator operates with an external crystal from 1 MHz to 25 MHz. Power saving modes include Idle and Power-down. Individual enable/disable of peripheral functions as well as peripheral clock scaling for additional power optimization. Processor wake-up from Power-down mode via external interrupt or BOD.

Block diagram

Pinning information

Pin description

[1] 5 V tolerant pad providing digital I/O functions with TTL levels and hysteresis and 10 ns slew rate control. [2] 5 V tolerant pad providing digital I/O functions with TTL levels and hysteresis and 10 ns slew rate control. If configured for an input function, this pad utilizes built-in glitch filter that blocks pulses shorter than 3 ns. [3] Open-drain 5 V tolerant digital I/O I2C-bus 400 kHz specification compatible pad. It requires external pull-up to provide an output functionality. [4] 5 V tolerant pad providing digital I/O (with TTL levels and hysteresis and 10 ns slew rate control) and analog input function. If configured for an input function, this pad

utilizes built-in glitch filter that blocks pulses shorter than 3 ns. When configured as an ADC input, digital section of the pad is disabled. [5] 5 V tolerant pad providing digital I/O (with TTL levels and hysteresis and 10 ns slew rate control) and analog output function. When configured as the DAC output, digital section of the pad is disabled. [6] 5 V tolerant pad with built-in pull-up resistor providing digital I/O functions with TTL levels and hysteresis and 10 ns slew rate control. The pull-up resistors value typically ranges from 60 k to 300 k. [7] Pad is designed in accordance with the Universal Serial Bus (USB) specification, revision 2.0 (Full-speed and Low-speed mode only). [8] 5 V tolerant pad providing digital input (with TTL levels and hysteresis) function only. [9] Pad provides special analog functionality. 1. Functional description Architectural overview The ARM7TDMI-S is a general purpose 32-bit microprocessor, which offers high performance and very low power consumption. The ARM architecture is based on Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) principles, and the instruction set and related decode mechanism are much simpler than those of microprogrammed Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC). This simplicity results in a high instruction throughput and impressive real-time interrupt response from a small and cost-effective processor core. Pipeline techniques are employed so that all parts of the processing and memory systems can operate continuously. Typically, while one instruction is being executed, its successor is being decoded, and a third instruction is being fetched from memory. The ARM7TDMI-S processor also employs a unique architectural strategy known as Thumb, which makes it ideally suited to high-volume applications with memory restrictions, or applications where code density is an issue. The key idea behind Thumb is that of a super-reduced instruction set. Essentially, the

ARM7TDMI-S processor has two instruction sets: The standard 32-bit ARM set. A 16-bit Thumb set. The Thumb sets 16-bit instruction length allows it to approach twice the density of standard ARM code while retaining most of the ARMs performance advantage over a traditional 16-bit processor using 16-bit registers. This is possible because Thumb code operates on the same 32-bit register set as ARM code. Thumb code is able to provide up to 65 % of the code size of ARM, and 160 % of the performance of an equivalent ARM processor connected to a 16-bit memory system. The particular flash implementation in the LPC2141/42/44/46/48 allows for full speed execution also in ARM mode. It is recommended to program performance critical and short code sections (such as interrupt service routines and DSP algorithms) in ARM mode. The impact on the overall code size will be minimal but the speed can be increased by 30% over Thumb mode. 2. On-chip flash program memory The LPC2148 incorporates a 32 kB, 64 kB, 128 kB, 256 kB and 512 kB flash memory system respectively. This memory may be used for both code and data storage. Programming of the flash memory may be accomplished in several ways. It may be programmed In System via the serial port. The application program may also erase and/or program the flash while the application is running, allowing a great degree of flexibility for data storage field firmware upgrades, etc. Due to the architectural solution chosen for an on-chip boot loader, flash memory available for users code on LPC2141/42/44/46/48 is 32 kB, 64 kB, 128 kB, 256 kB and 500 kB respectively. The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 flash memory provides a minimum of 100,000 erase/write cycles and 20 years of data-retention. 3. On-chip static RAM On-chip static RAM may be used for code and/or data storage. The SRAM may be accessed as 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit. The LPC2141, LPC2142/44 and LPC2146/48

provide 8 kB, 16 kB and 32 kB of static RAM respectively. In case of LPC2146/48 only, an 8 kB SRAM block intended to be utilized mainly by the USB can also be used as a general purpose RAM for data storage and code storage and execution. 4. Memory map The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 memory map incorporates several distinct regions, as shown in Figure 5. In addition, the CPU interrupt vectors may be remapped to allow them to reside in either flash memory (the default) or on-chip static RAM. This is described in System control.

5. Interrupt controller The Vectored Interrupt Controller (VIC) accepts all of the interrupt request inputs and categorizes them as Fast Interrupt Request (FIQ), vectored Interrupt Request (IRQ), and non-vectored IRQ as defined by programmable settings. The programmable assignment scheme means that priorities of interrupts from the various peripherals can be dynamically assigned and adjusted. Fast interrupt request (FIQ) has the highest priority. If more than one request is assigned to FIQ, the VIC combines the requests to produce

the FIQ signal to the ARM processor. The fastest possible FIQ latency is achieved when only one request is classified as FIQ, because then the FIQ service routine does not need to branch into the interrupt service routine but can run from the interrupt vector location. If more than one request is assigned to the FIQ class, the FIQ service routine will read a word from the VIC that identifies which FIQ source(s) is (are) requesting an interrupt. Vectored IRQs have the middle priority. Sixteen of the interrupt requests can be assigned to this category. Any of the interrupt requests can be assigned to any of the 16 vectored IRQ slots, among which slot 0 has the highest priority and slot 15 has the lowest. Non-vectored IRQs have the lowest priority. The VIC combines the requests from all the vectored and non-vectored IRQs to produce the IRQ signal to the ARM processor. The IRQ service routine can start by reading a register from the VIC and jumping there. If any of the vectored IRQs are pending, the VIC provides the address of the highest-priority requesting IRQs service routine, otherwise it provides the address of a default routine that is shared by all the non-vectored IRQs. The default routine can read another VIC register to see what IRQs are active. Interrupt sources Each peripheral device has one interrupt line connected to the Vectored Interrupt Controller, but may have several internal interrupt flags. Individual interrupt flags may also represent more than one interrupt source. 6. Pin connect block The pin connect block allows selected pins of the microcontroller to have more than one function. Configuration registers control the multiplexers to allow connection between the pin and the on chip peripherals. Peripherals should be connected to the appropriate pins prior to being activated, and prior to any related interrupt(s) being enabled. Activity of any enabled peripheral function that is not mapped to a related pin should be considered undefined. The Pin Control Module with its pin select registers defines the functionality of the microcontroller in a given hardware environment. After reset all pins

of Port 0 and 1 are configured as input with the following exceptions: If debug is enabled, the JTAG pins will assume their JTAG functionality; if trace is enabled, the Trace pins will assume their trace functionality. The pins associated with the I2C0 and I2C1 interface are open drain.

7. Fast general purpose parallel I/O (GPIO) Device pins that are not connected to a specific peripheral function are controlled by the GPIO registers. Pins may be dynamically configured as inputs or outputs. Separate registers allow setting or clearing any number of outputs simultaneously. The value of the output register may be read back, as well as the current state of the port pins. LPC214148 introduces accelerated GPIO functions over prior LPC2000 devices: GPIO registers are relocated to the ARM local bus for the fastest possible I/O timing. Mask registers allow treating sets of port bits as a group, leaving other bits unchanged. All GPIO registers are byte addressable. Entire port value can be written in one instruction. Features Bit-level set and clear registers allow a single instruction set or clear of any number of bits in one port. Direction control of individual bits. Separate control of output set and clear. All I/O default to inputs after reset. 8. 10-bit ADC The LPC2141/42 contain one and the LPC2144/46/48 contain two analog to digital converters. These converters are single 10-bit successive approximation analog to digital converters. While ADC0 has six channels, ADC1 has eight channels. Therefore, total number of available ADC inputs for LPC2141/42 is 6 and for LPC2144/46/48 is 14.

Features 10 bit successive approximation analog to digital converter. Measurement range of 0 V to VREF (2.0 V VREF VDDA). Each converter capable of performing more than 400,000 10-bit samples per second. Every analog input has a dedicated result register to reduce interrupt overhead. Burst conversion mode for single or multiple inputs. Optional conversion on transition on input pin or timer match signal. Global Start command for both converters (LPC2142/44/46/48 only). 9. 10-bit DAC The DAC enables the LPC2141/42/44/46/48 to generate a variable analog output. The maximum DAC output voltage is the VREF voltage. 9.1 Features 10-bit DAC. Buffered output. Power-down mode available. Selectable speed versus power. 10. USB 2.0 device controller The USB is a 4-wire serial bus that supports communication between a host and a number (127 max) of peripherals. The host controller allocates the USB bandwidth to attached devices through a token based protocol. The bus supports hot plugging, unplugging, and dynamic configuration of the devices. All transactions are initiated by the host controller. The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 is equipped with a USB device controller that enables 12 Mbit/s data exchange with a USB host controller. It consists of a register interface, serial interface engine, endpoint buffer memory and DMA controller. The serial interface engine decodes the USB data stream and writes data to the appropriate end point buffer memory. The status of a completed USB transfer or error condition is indicated via status registers. An interrupt is also generated if enabled. A DMA controller (available in LPC2146/48 only) can transfer data between an endpoint buffer and the USB RAM.

10.1 Features Fully compliant with USB 2.0 Full-speed specification. Supports 32 physical (16 logical) endpoints. Supports control, bulk, interrupt and isochronous endpoints. Scalable realization of endpoints at run time. Endpoint maximum packet size selection (up to USB maximum specification) by software at run time. RAM message buffer size based on endpoint realization and maximum packet size. Supports SoftConnect and GoodLink LED indicator. These two functions are sharing one pin. Supports bus-powered capability with low suspend current. Supports DMA transfer on all non-control endpoints (LPC2146/48 only). One duplex DMA channel serves all endpoints (LPC2146/48 only). Allows dynamic switching between CPU controlled and DMA modes (only in LPC2146/48). Double buffer implementation for bulk and isochronous endpoints.

11. UARTs The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 each contains two UARTs. In addition to standard transmit and receive data lines, the LPC2144/46/48 UART1 also provide a full modem control handshake interface. Compared to previous LPC2000 microcontrollers, UARTs in LPC2141/42/44/46/48 introduce a fractional baud rate generator for both UARTs, enabling these microcontrollers to achieve standard baudrates such as 115200 with any crystal frequency above 2 MHz. In addition, auto-CTS/RTS flow-control functions are fully implemented in hardware (UART1 in LPC2144/46/48 only). 11.1 Features 16 byte Receive and Transmit FIFOs. Register locations conform to 550 industry standard. Receiver FIFO trigger points at 1, 4, 8, and 14 bytes Built-in fractional baud rate generator covering wide range of baud rates without a need for external crystals of particular values. Transmission FIFO control enables implementation of software (XON/XOFF) flow control on both UARTs. LPC2144/46/48 UART1 equipped with standard modem interface signals. This module also provides full support for hardware flow control (auto-CTS/RTS). 12. I2C-bus serial I/O controller

The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 each contain two I2C-bus controllers. The I2C-bus is bidirectional, for inter-IC control using only two wires: a serial clock line (SCL), and a serial data line (SDA). Each device is recognized by a unique address and can operate as either a receiver-only device (e.g., an LCD driver or a transmitter with the capability to both receive and send information (such as memory)). Transmitters and/or receivers can operate in either master or slave mode, depending on whether the chip has to initiate a data transfer or is only addressed. The I2C-bus is a multi-master bus, it can be controlled by more than one bus master connected to it. The I2C-bus implemented in LPC2141/42/44/46/48 supports bit rates up to 400 kbit/s (Fast I2C-bus). 12.1 Features Compliant with standard I2C-bus interface. Easy to configure as master, slave, or master/slave. Programmable clocks allow versatile rate control. Bidirectional data transfer between masters and slaves. Multi-master bus (no central master). Arbitration between simultaneously transmitting masters without corruption of serial data on the bus. Serial clock synchronization allows devices with different bit rates to communicate via one serial bus. Serial clock synchronization can be used as a handshake mechanism to suspend and resume serial transfer. The I2C-bus can be used for test and diagnostic purposes. 13. SPI serial I/O controller The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 each contain one SPI controller. The SPI is a full duplex serial interface, designed to handle multiple masters and slaves connected to a given bus. Only a single master and a single slave can communicate on the interface during a given data transfer. During a data transfer the master always sends a byte of data to the slave, and the slave always sends a byte of data to the master.

13.1 Features Compliant with Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) specification. Synchronous, Serial, Full Duplex, Communication. Combined SPI master and slave. Maximum data bit rate of one eighth of the input clock rate.

14. SSP serial I/O controller The LPC2148 contains one SSP. The SSP controller is capable of operation on a SPI, 4-wire SSI, or Microwire bus. It can interact with multiple masters and slaves on the bus. However, only a single master and a single slave can communicate on the bus during a given data transfer. The SSP supports full duplex transfers, with data frames of 4 bits to 16 bits of data flowing from the master to the slave and from the slave to the master. Often only one of these data flows carries meaningful data. 14.1 Features Compatible with Motorolas SPI, TIs 4-wire SSI and National Semiconductors Microwire buses. Synchronous serial communication. Master or slave operation. 8-frame FIFOs for both transmit and receive. Four bits to 16 bits per frame. 15. General purpose timers/external event counters The Timer/Counter is designed to count cycles of the peripheral clock (PCLK) or an externally supplied clock and optionally generate interrupts or perform other actions at specified timer values, based on four match registers. It also includes four capture inputs to trap the timer value when an input signal transition, optionally generating an interrupt. Multiple pins can be selected to perform a single capture or match function, providing an application with or and and, as well as broadcast functions among them. The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 can count external events on one of the capture inputs if the

minimum external pulse is equal or longer than a period of the PCLK. In this configuration, unused capture lines can be selected as regular timer capture inputs, or used as external interrupts. 15.1 Features A 32-bit timer/counter with a programmable 32-bit prescaler. External event counter or timer operation. Four 32-bit capture channels per timer/counter that can take a snapshot of the timer value when an input signal transitions. A capture event may also optionally generate an interrupt. Four 32-bit match registers that allow: Continuous operation with optional interrupt generation on match. Stop timer on match with optional interrupt generation. Reset timer on match with optional interrupt generation. Four external outputs per timer/counter corresponding to match registers, with the following capabilities: Set LOW on match. Set HIGH on match. Toggle on match. Do nothing on match. 16. Watchdog timer The purpose of the watchdog is to reset the microcontroller within a reasonable amount of time if it enters an erroneous state. When enabled, the watchdog will generate a system reset if the user program fails to feed (or reload) the watchdog within a predetermined amount of time. 16.1 Features Internally resets chip if not periodically reloaded.

Debug mode. Enabled by software but requires a hardware reset or a watchdog reset/interrupt to be disabled. Incorrect/Incomplete feed sequence causes reset/interrupt if enabled. Flag to indicate watchdog reset. Programmable 32-bit timer with internal pre-scaler. Selectable time period from (TPCLK 256 4) to (TPCLK 232 4) in multiples of TPCLK 4. 17. Real-time clock The RTC is designed to provide a set of counters to measure time when normal or idle operating mode is selected. The RTC has been designed to use little power, making it suitable for battery powered systems where the CPU is not running continuously (Idle mode).

17.1 Features Measures the passage of time to maintain a calendar and clock. Ultra-low power design to support battery powered systems. Provides Seconds, Minutes, Hours, Day of Month, Month, Year, Day of Week, and Day of Year. Can use either the RTC dedicated 32 kHz oscillator input or clock derived from the external crystal/oscillator input at XTAL1. Programmable reference clock divider allows fine adjustment of the RTC. Dedicated power supply pin can be connected to a battery or the main 3.3 V. 18. Pulse width modulator The PWM is based on the standard timer block and inherits all of its features, although only the PWM function is pinned out on the LPC2141/42/44/46/48. The timer is designed to count cycles of the peripheral clock (PCLK) and optionally generate interrupts or perform other actions when specified timer values occur, based on seven match registers.

The PWM function is also based on match register events. The ability to separately control rising and falling edge locations allows the PWM to be used for more applications. For instance, multi-phase motor control typically requires three nonoverlapping PWM outputs with individual control of all three pulse widths and positions. Two match registers can be used to provide a single edge controlled PWM output. One match register (MR0) controls the PWM cycle rate, by resetting the count upon match. The other match register controls the PWM edge position. Additional single edge controlled PWM outputs require only one match register each, since the repetition rate is the same for all PWM outputs. Multiple single edge controlled PWM outputs will all have a rising edge at the beginning of each PWM cycle, when an MR0 match occurs. Three match registers can be used to provide a PWM output with both edges controlled. Again, the MR0 match register controls the PWM cycle rate. The other match registers control the two PWM edge positions. Additional double edge controlled PWM outputs require only two match registers each, since the repetition rate is the same for all PWM outputs. With double edge controlled PWM outputs, specific match registers control the rising and falling edge of the output. This allows both positive going PWM pulses (when the rising edge occurs prior to the falling edge), and negative going PWM pulses (when the falling edge occurs prior to the rising edge). 18.1 Features Seven match registers allow up to six single edge controlled or three double edge controlled PWM outputs, or a mix of both types. The match registers also allow: Continuous operation with optional interrupt generation on match. Stop timer on match with optional interrupt generation. Reset timer on match with optional interrupt generation. Supports single edge controlled and/or double edge controlled PWM outputs. Single edge controlled PWM outputs all go HIGH at the beginning of each cycle unless the output is a constant LOW. Double edge controlled PWM outputs can have either edge

occur at any position within a cycle. This allows for both positive going and negative going pulses. Pulse period and width can be any number of timer counts. This allows complete flexibility in the trade-off between resolution and repetition rate. All PWM outputs will occur at the same repetition rate. Double edge controlled PWM outputs can be programmed to be either positive going or negative going pulses. Match register updates are synchronized with pulse outputs to prevent generation of erroneous pulses. Software must release new match values before they can become effective. May be used as a standard timer if the PWM mode is not enabled. A 32-bit Timer/Counter with a programmable 32-bit Prescaler. 19. System control 19.1 Crystal oscillator On-chip integrated oscillator operates with external crystal in range of 1 MHz to 25 MHz. The oscillator output frequency is called fosc and the ARM processor clock frequency is referred to as CCLK for purposes of rate equations, etc. fosc and CCLK are the same value unless the PLL is running and connected. Refer to Section 6.19.2 PLL for additional information. 19.2 PLL The PLL accepts an input clock frequency in the range of 10 MHz to 25 MHz. The input frequency is multiplied up into the range of 10 MHz to 60 MHz with a Current Controlled Oscillator (CCO). The multiplier can be an integer value from 1 to 32 (in practice, the multiplier value cannot be higher than 6 on this family of microcontrollers due to the upper frequency limit of the CPU). The CCO operates in the range of 156 MHz to 320 MHz, so there is an additional divider in the loop to keep the CCO within its frequency range while the PLL is providing the desired output frequency. The output divider may be set to divide by 2, 4, 8, or 16 to produce the output clock. Since the minimum output divider value is 2,

it is insured that the PLL output has a 50 % duty cycle. The PLL is turned off and bypassed following a chip reset and may be enabled by software. The program must configure and activate the PLL, wait for the PLL to Lock, then connect to the PLL as a clock source. The PLL settling time is 100 s. 19.3 Reset and wake-up timer Reset has two sources on the LPC2141/42/44/46/48: the RESET pin and watchdog reset. The RESET pin is a Schmitt trigger input pin with an additional glitch filter. Assertion of chip reset by any source starts the Wake-up Timer (see Wake-up Timer description below), causing the internal chip reset to remain asserted until the external reset is deasserted, the oscillator is running, a fixed number of clocks have passed, and the on-chip flash controller has completed its initialization. When the internal reset is removed, the processor begins executing at address 0, which is the reset vector. At that point, all of the processor and peripheral registers have been initialized to predetermined values. The Wake-up Timer ensures that the oscillator and other analog functions required for chip operation are fully functional before the processor is allowed to execute instructions. This is important at power on, all types of reset, and whenever any of the aforementioned functions are turned off for any reason. Since the oscillator and other functions are turned off during Power-down mode, any wake-up of the processor from Power-down mode makes use of the Wake-up Timer. The Wake-up Timer monitors the crystal oscillator as the means of checking whether it is safe to begin code execution. When power is applied to the chip, or some event caused the chip to exit Power-down mode, some time is required for the oscillator to produce a signal of sufficient amplitude to drive the clock logic. The amount of time depends on many factors, including the rate of VDD ramp (in the case of power on), the type of crystal and its electrical characteristics (if a quartz crystal is used), as well as any other external circuitry (e.g. capacitors), and the characteristics of the oscillator itself under the existing ambient conditions.

19.4 Brownout detector The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 includes 2-stage monitoring of the voltage on the VDD pins. If this voltage falls below 2.9 V, the BOD asserts an interrupt signal to the VIC. This signal can be enabled for interrupt; if not, software can monitor the signal by reading dedicated register. The second stage of low voltage detection asserts reset to inactivate the LPC2141/42/44/46/48 when the voltage on the VDD pins falls below 2.6 V. This reset prevents alteration of the flash as operation of the various elements of the chip would otherwise become unreliable due to low voltage. The BOD circuit maintains this reset down below 1 V, at which point the POR circuitry maintains the overall reset. Both the 2.9 V and 2.6 V thresholds include some hysteresis. In normal operation, this hysteresis allows the 2.9 V detection to reliably interrupt, or a regularly-executed event loop to sense the condition. 19.5 Code security This feature of the LPC2148 allows an application to control whether it can be debugged or protected from observation. If after reset on-chip boot loader detects a valid checksum in flash and reads 0x8765 4321 from address 0x1FC in flash, debugging will be disabled and thus the code in flash will be protected from observation. Once debugging is disabled, it can be enabled only by performing a full chip erase using the ISP. 19.6 External interrupt inputs The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 include up to nine edge or level sensitive External Interrupt Inputs as selectable pin functions. When the pins are combined, external events can be processed as four independent interrupt signals. The External Interrupt Inputs can optionally be used to wake-up the processor from Power-down mode. Additionally capture input pins can also be used as external interrupts without the option to wake the device up from Power-down mode. 19.7 Memory mapping control The Memory Mapping Control alters the mapping of the interrupt vectors that appear beginning at address 0x0000 0000. Vectors may be mapped to the bottom of the on-chip

flash memory, or to the on-chip static RAM. This allows code running in different memory spaces to have control of the interrupts.

19.8 Power control The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 supports two reduced power modes: Idle mode and Powerdown mode. In Idle mode, execution of instructions is suspended until either a reset or interrupt occurs. Peripheral functions continue operation during Idle mode and may generate interrupts to cause the processor to resume execution. Idle mode eliminates power used by the processor itself, memory systems and related controllers, and internal buses. In Power-down mode, the oscillator is shut down and the chip receives no internal clocks. The processor state and registers, peripheral registers, and internal SRAM values are preserved throughout Power-down mode and the logic levels of chip output pins remain static. The Power-down mode can be terminated and normal operation resumed by either a reset or certain specific interrupts that are able to function without clocks. Since all dynamic operation of the chip is suspended, Power-down mode reduces chip power consumption to nearly zero. Selecting an external 32 kHz clock instead of the PCLK as a clock-source for the on-chip RTC will enable the microcontroller to have the RTC active during Power-down mode. Power-down current is increased with RTC active. However, it is significantly lower than in Idle mode. A Power Control for Peripherals feature allows individual peripherals to be turned off if they are not needed in the application, resulting in additional power savings during active and idle mode. 19.9 VPB bus The VPB divider determines the relationship between the processor clock (CCLK) and the clock used by peripheral devices (PCLK). The VPB divider serves two purposes. The first is to provide peripherals with the desired PCLK via VPB bus so that they can operate at the speed chosen for the ARM processor. In order to achieve this, the VPB bus may be slowed down to 12 to 14 of the processor clock rate. Because the VPB bus must work

properly at power-up (and its timing cannot be altered if it does not work since the VPB divider control registers reside on the VPB bus), the default condition at reset is for the VPB bus to run at 14 of the processor clock rate. The second purpose of the VPB divider is to allow power savings when an application does not require any peripherals to run at the full processor rate. Because the VPB divider is connected to the PLL output, the PLL remains active (if it was running) during Idle mode.

20. Emulation and debugging The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 support emulation and debugging via a JTAG serial port. A trace port allows tracing program execution. Debugging and trace functions are multiplexed only with GPIOs on Port 1. This means that all communication, timer and interface peripherals residing on Port 0 are available during the development and debugging phase as they are when the application is run in the embedded system itself. 20.1 EmbeddedICE Standard ARM EmbeddedICE logic provides on-chip debug support. The debugging of the target system requires a host computer running the debugger software and an EmbeddedICE protocol convertor. EmbeddedICE protocol convertor converts the remote debug protocol commands to the JTAG data needed to access the ARM core. The ARM core has a Debug Communication Channel (DCC) function built-in. The DCC allows a program running on the target to communicate with the host debugger or another separate host without stopping the program flow or even entering the debug state. The DCC is accessed as a co-processor 14 by the program running on the ARM7TDMI-S core. The DCC allows the JTAG port to be used for sending and receiving data without affecting the normal program flow. The DCC data and control registers are mapped in to addresses in the EmbeddedICE logic. 20.2 Embedded trace Since the LPC2141/42/44/46/48 have significant amounts of on-chip memory, it is not possible to determine how the processor core is operating simply by observing the

external pins. The Embedded Trace Macrocell (ETM) provides real-time trace capability for deeply embedded processor cores. It outputs information about processor execution to the trace port. The ETM is connected directly to the ARM core and not to the main AMBA system bus. It compresses the trace information and exports it through a narrow trace port. An external trace port analyzer must capture the trace information under software debugger control. Instruction trace (or PC trace) shows the flow of execution of the processor and provides a list of all the instructions that were executed. Instruction trace is significantly compressed by only broadcasting branch addresses as well as a set of status signals that indicate the pipeline status on a cycle by cycle basis. Trace information generation can be controlled by selecting the trigger resource. Trigger resources include address comparators, counters and sequencers. Since trace information is compressed the software debugger requires a static image of the code being executed. Self-modifying code can not be traced because of this restriction. 20.3 RealMonitor RealMonitor is a configurable software module, developed by ARM Inc., which enables real-time debug. It is a lightweight debug monitor that runs in the background while users debug their foreground application. It communicates with the host using the DCC, which is present in the EmbeddedICE logic. The LPC2141/42/44/46/48 contain a specific configuration of RealMonitor software programmed into the on-chip flash memory.

3.4 Serial Communication:


The main requirements for serial communication are: 1. Microcontroller 2. PC 3. RS 232 cable 4. MAX 232 IC 5. HyperTerminal When the pins P3.0 and P3.1 of microcontroller are set, UART which is inbuilt in the microcontroller will be enabled to start the serial communication.

Timers: The 8051 has two timers: Timer 0 and Timer 1. They can be used either as timers to generate a time delay or as counters to count events happening outside the microcontroller. Both Timer 0 and Timer 1 are 16-bit wide. Since the 8051 has an 8-bit architecture, each 16-bit timer is accessed as two separate registers of low byte and high byte. Lower byte register of Timer 0 is TL0 and higher byte is TH0. Similarly lower byte register of Timer1 is TL1 and higher byte register is TH1. TMOD (timer mode) register: Both timers 0 and 1 use the same register TMOD to set the various operation modes. TMOD is an 8-bit register in which the lower 4 bits are set aside for Timer 0 and the upper 4 bits for Timer 1. In each case, the lower 2 bits are used to set the timer mode and the upper 2 bits to specify the operation.

GATE Every timer has a means of starting and stopping. Some timers do this by software, some by hardware and some have both software and hardware controls. The timers in the 8051 have both. The start and stop of the timer are controlled by the way of software by the TR (timer start) bits TR0 and TR1. These instructions start and stop the timers as long as GATE=0 in the TMOD register. The hardware way of starting and stopping the timer by an external source is achieved by making GATE=1 in the TMOD register. C/T

Timer or counter selected. Cleared for timer operation and set for counter operation. M1 Mode bit 1 M0 Mode bit 0 Mode Selection M1 0 0 1 M0 0 1 0 Mode 0 1 2 Operating Mode 13-bit timer mode 8-bit timer/counter THx with TLx as 5-bit prescaler 16-bit timer mode 16-bit timer/counters THx and TLx are cascaded 8-bit auto reload timer/counter THx holds a value that is to be reloaded into TLx each time it overflows 1 1 3 Split timer mode

The mode used here to generate a time delay is MODE 2. This mode 2 is an 8-bit timer and therefore it allows only values of 00H to FFH to be loaded into the timers register TH. After TH is loaded with the 8-bit value, the 8051 give a copy of it to TL. When the timer starts, it starts to count up by incrementing the TL register. It counts up until it reaches its limit of FFH. When it rolls over from FFH to 00H, it sets high the TF (timer flag). If Timer 0 is used, TF0 goes high and if Timer 1 is used, TF1 goes high. When the TL register rolls from FFH to 0 and TF is set to 1, TL is reloaded automatically with the original value kept by the TH register. Asynchronous and Synchronous Serial Communication Computers transfer data in two ways: parallel and serial. In parallel data transfers, often 8 or more lines are used to transfer data to a device that is only a few feet away. Although a

lot of data can be transferred in a short amount of time by using many wires in parallel, the distance cannot be great. To transfer to a device located many meters away, the serial method is best suitable. In serial communication, the data is sent one bit at a time. The 8051 has serial communication capability built into it, thereby making possible fast data transfer using only a few wires. The fact that serial communication uses a single data line instead of the 8-bit data line instead of the 8-bit data line of parallel communication not only makes it cheaper but also enables two computers located in two different cities to communicate over the telephone. Serial data communication uses two methods, asynchronous and synchronous. The synchronous method transfers a block of data at a time, while the asynchronous method transfers a single byte at a time. With synchronous communications, the two devices initially synchronize themselves to each other, and then continually send characters to stay in sync. Even when data is not really being sent, a constant flow of bits allows each device to know where the other is at any given time. That is, each character that is sent is either actual data or an idle character. Synchronous communications allows faster data transfer rates than asynchronous methods, because additional bits to mark the beginning and end of each data byte are not required. The serial ports on IBM-style PCs are asynchronous devices and therefore only support asynchronous serial communications. Asynchronous means "no synchronization", and thus does not require sending and receiving idle characters. However, the beginning and end of each byte of data must be identified by start and stop bits. The start bit indicates when the data byte is about to begin and the stop bit signals when it ends. The requirement to send these additional two bits causes asynchronous communication to be slightly slower than synchronous however it has the advantage that the processor does not have to deal with the additional idle characters.

There are special IC chips made by many manufacturers for serial data communications. These chips are commonly referred to as UART(universal asynchronous receivertransmitter) and USART(universal synchronous-asynchronous receiver-transmitter). The 8051 has a built-in UART. In the asynchronous method, the data such as ASCII characters are packed between a start and a stop bit. The start bit is always one bit, but the stop bit can be one or two bits. The start bit is always a 0 (low) and stop bit (s) is 1 (high). This is called framing. The rate of data transfer in serial data communication is stated as bps (bits per second). Another widely used terminology for bps is baud rate. The data transfer rate of a given computer system depends on communication ports incorporated into that system. And in asynchronous serial data communication, this baud rate is generally limited to 100,000bps. The baud rate is fixed to 9600bps in order to interface with the microcontroller using a crystal of 11.0592 MHz. RS232 CABLE: To allow compatibility among data communication equipment, an interfacing standard called RS232 is used. Since the standard was set long before the advent of the TTL logic family, its input and output voltage levels are not TTL compatible. For this reason, to connect any RS232 to a microcontroller system, voltage converters such as MAX232 are used to convert the TTL logic levels to the RS232 voltage levels and vice versa. MAX 232: Max232 IC is a specialized circuit which makes standard voltages as required by RS232 standards. This IC provides best noise rejection and very reliable against discharges and short circuits. MAX232 IC chips are commonly referred to as line drivers. To ensure data transfer between PC and microcontroller, the baud rate and voltage levels of Microcontroller and PC should be the same. The voltage levels of microcontroller are logic1 and logic 0 i.e., logic 1 is +5V and logic 0 is 0V. But for PC, RS232 voltage levels

are considered and they are: logic 1 is taken as -3V to -25V and logic 0 as +3V to +25V. So, in order to equal these voltage levels, MAX232 IC is used. Thus this IC converts RS232 voltage levels to microcontroller voltage levels and vice versa.

SCON (serial control) register: The SCON register is an 8-bit register used to program the start bit, stop bit and data bits of data framing.

SM0 SM1 SM2 REN TB8 RB8 TI

SCON.7 SCON.6 SCON.5 SCON.4 SCON.3 SCON.2 SCON.1

Serial port mode specifier Serial port mode specifier Used for multiprocessor communication Set/cleared by software to enable/disable reception Not widely used Not widely used Transmit interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in mode 1. Must be cleared by software.

RI

SCON.0

Receive interrupt flag. Set by hardware at the beginning of the stop bit in mode 1. Must be

cleared by software. SM0 0 0 1 1 SM1 0 1 0 1 Serial Mode 0 Serial Mode 1, 8-bit data, 1 stop bit, 1 start bit Serial Mode 2 Serial Mode 3

Of the four serial modes, only mode 1 is widely used. In the SCON register, when serial mode 1 is chosen, the data framing is 8 bits, 1 stop bit and 1 start bit, which makes it compatible with the COM port of IBM/ compatible PCs. And the most important is serial mode 1 allows the baud rate to be variable and is set by Timer 1 of the 8051. In serial mode 1, for each character a total of 10 bits are transferred, where the first bit is the start bit, followed by 8 bits of data and finally 1 stop bit.

8051 interface with any External Devices using Serial Communication:

3.5 GSM System Technology:


GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications. Just like computers, mobile phones have evolved over time. There were first generation mobile phones in the 70's, there are 2nd generation mobile phones in the 80's and 90's, and now there are 3rd gen phones which are about to enter the Indian market. GSM is called a 2nd generation, or 2G communications technology. Now, GSM makes use of two principles. The first called Time division Multiplexing is very simple. On the same lines, in GSM, the radio frequency say 890 Mhz is shared by different users in time. This means if user A, B, C and D all talk at the same time. You assign the 890 Mhz frequency to A for some time and allow him to talk, then you assign 890 band to B for sometime to speak, then to C , and finally to D, before coming back to A. So the process continues in a round robin fashion, as long as A, B, C, and D want to

talk. This way many users talk at same time on the same frequency. This has to be done, because as we now frequency or Bandwidth is a scarce resource and is not available in plentiful, so it must be shared. Now the second principle that GSM uses is Frequency Division Multiplex. In Frequency Division Multiplex, users A, B, C and D, all use different frequency say 890, 900, 910 , 920 for their respective communications. A very good example of this is Radio broadcasting. Now, GSM uses a combination of TDMA and FDMA. This means that users A and B are not only sharing the channel in time but also frequency. This means that user A is on the channel 890Mhz for 2 seconds, then jumps to 900Mhz channel for the next to seconds, then jumps to 910Mhz for the next 2 seconds and so on... Thus, each user is uses a different frequency at different time slots. This is called Frequency Hopping.

GSM Architecture
Global system for mobile communication (GSM) is a globally accepted standard for digital cellular communication. GSM is the name of a standardization group established in 1982 to create a common European mobile telephone standard that would formulate specifications for a pan-European mobile cellular radio system operating at 900 MHz. It is estimated that many countries outside of Europe will join the GSM partnership. Cellular is one of the fastest growing and most demanding telecommunications applications. Throughout the evolution of cellular telecommunications, various systems have been developed without the benefit of standardized specifications. This presented many problems directly related to compatibility, especially with the development of digital radio technology. The GSM standard is intended to address these problems. From 1982 to 1985 discussions were held to decide between building an analog or digital system. After multiple field tests, a digital system was adopted for GSM. The next task was to decide between a narrow or broadband solution. In May 1987, the narrowband time division multiple access (TDMA) solution was chosen.

GSM provides recommendations, not requirements. The GSM specifications define the functions and interface requirements in detail but do not address the hardware. The GSM network is divided into three major systems: the switching system (SS), the base station system (BSS), and the operation and support system (OSS).
GSM Architecture:

The Switching System:


The switching system (SS) is responsible for performing call processing and subscriberrelated functions. The switching system includes the following functional units.

Home location register (HLR) The HLR is a database used for storage and

management of subscriptions. The HLR is considered the most important database, as it stores permanent data about subscribers, including a subscriber's service profile, location information, and activity status. When an individual buys a subscription from one of the PCS operators, he or she is registered in the HLR of that operator.

Mobile services switching center (MSC) The MSC performs the telephony

switching functions of the system. It controls calls to and from other telephone and data systems. It also performs such functions as toll ticketing, network interfacing, common channel signaling, and others.

Visitor location register (VLR) The VLR is a database that contains temporary

information about subscribers that is needed by the MSC in order to service visiting subscribers. The VLR is always integrated with the MSC. When a mobile station roams into a new MSC area, the VLR connected to that MSC will request data about the mobile station from the HLR. Later, if the mobile station makes a call, the VLR will have the information needed for call setup without having to interrogate the HLR each time.

Authentication center (AUC) A unit called the AUC provides authentication

and encryption parameters that verify the user's identity and ensure the confidentiality of each call. The AUC protects network operators from different types of fraud found in today's cellular world.

Equipment identity register (EIR) The EIR is a database that contains

information about the identity of mobile equipment that prevents calls from stolen, unauthorized, or defective mobile stations. The AUC and EIR are implemented as standalone nodes or as a combined AUC/EIR node.

The Base Station System (BSS): All radio-related functions are performed in the BSS, which consists of base station controllers (BSCs) and the base transceiver stations (BTSs).

BSC The BSC provides all the control functions and physical links between the

MSC and BTS. It is a high-capacity switch that provides functions such as handover, cell configuration data, and control of radio frequency (RF) power levels in base transceiver stations. A number of BSCs are served by an MSC.

BTS The BTS handles the radio interface to the mobile station. The BTS is the

radio equipment (transceivers and antennas) needed to service each cell in the network. A group of BTSs are controlled by a BSC. The Operation and Support System: The operations and maintenance center (OMC) is connected to all equipment in the switching system and to the BSC. The implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system (OSS). The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a GSM network. An important function of OSS is to provide a network overview and support the maintenance activities of different operation and maintenance organizations. Additional Functional Elements: Other functional elements shown in Figure 2 are as follows:

Message center (MXE) The MXE is a node that provides integrated voice, fax,

and data messaging. Specifically, the MXE handles short message service, cell broadcast, voice mail, fax mail, e-mail, and notification.

Mobile service node (MSN) The MSN is the node that handles the mobile

intelligent network (IN) services.

Gateway mobile services switching center (GMSC) A gateway is a node used

to interconnect two networks. The gateway is often implemented in an MSC. The MSC is then referred to as the GMSC.

GSM interworking unit (GIWU) The GIWU consists of both hardware and

software that provides an interface to various networks for data communications. Through the GIWU, users can alternate between speech and data during the same call. The GIWU hardware equipment is physically located at the MSC/VLR. GSM network areas: In a GSM network, the following areas are defined:

Cell: Cell is the basic service area: one BTS covers one cell. Each cell is given a Cell Global Identity (CGI), a number that uniquely identifies the cell. Location Area: A group of cells form a Location Area. This is the area that is paged when a subscriber gets an incoming call. Each Location Area is assigned a Location Area Identity (LAI). Each Location Area is served by one or more BSCs.

MSC/VLR Service Area: The area covered by one MSC is called the MSC/VLR service area. PLMN: The area covered by one network operator is called PLMN. A PLMN can contain one or more MSCs.

GSM Device Control


GSM modem (900/1800 MHz) Semens GSM/GPRS Smart Modem is a multifunctional, ready to use, rugged unit that can be embedded or plugged into any application. The Smart Modem can be controlled and customized to various levels by using the standard AT commands. The modem is fully type-approved, it can

speed up the operational time with full range of Voice, Data, Fax and Short Messages (Point to Point and Cell Broadcast), the modem also supports GPRS (Class 2*) for spontaneous data transfer. Description of the interfaces The modem comprises several interfaces: - LED Function including operating Status External antenna ( via SMA) - Serial and control link - Power Supply ( Via 2 pin Phoenix tm contact ) - SIM card holder

LED Status Indicator The LED will indicate different status of the modem: - OFF Modem Switched off - ON Modem is connecting to the network - Flashing Slowly Modem is in idle mode Flashing rapidly Modem is in transmission/communication (GSM only)

SIM300 AT Command Set In application, controlling device controls the GSM engine by sending AT Command via its serial interface. The controlling device at the other end of the serial line is referred to as following term: 1) TE (Terminal Equipment); 2) DTE (Data Terminal Equipment)

AT Command syntax The "AT" or "at" prefix must be set at the beginning of each command line. To terminate a command line enter <CR>. Commands are usually followed by a response that includes.<CR><LF><response><CR><LF>

The AT command set implemented by SIM300 is a combination of GSM07.05, GSM07.07 and ITU-T recommendation V.25ter and the AT commands developed by SIMCOM. Note: Only enter AT command through serial port after SIM300 is power on and Unsolicited Result Code RDY is received from serial port. And if unsolicited result codeSCKS: 0 returned it indicates SIM card isnt present. If autobauding is enabled, the Unsolicited Result Codes RDY and so on are not indicated when you start up

Types of AT commands and responses Test command AT+<x>=? The mobile equipment returns the list of parameters and value ranges set with the corresponding Write command or by internal

processes. Read command AT+<x>? This command returns the currently set value of the parameter or parameters. Write command AT+<x>=<> This command sets the user-definable parameter values. Execution command AT+<x> The execution command reads non-variable parameters affected by internal processes in the GSM engine.

Heart Beat Sensor interfacing

As shown the heart beat sensor is a combination of IR TX(Transmitter) and IR RX(receiver). When ever the patient uses the sensor sense the flow of blood by injecting IR (transmitter)signal ,and the varition in the pulse is sensed by the IR receiver. As it is a electronic device the output of the sensor is a voltage and it is weak signal. Then signal is amplified by the Op Amp series LM358 a low power comparator in built. The amplified signal is used by the controller to perform task.

Temperature Sensor (LM 35) interfacing


As shown the temperature sensor used is a LM35Precision Centigrade Temperature Sensors. Its output voltage is linearly proportional to the celsius temperature, and its range is 55 to +150C. It it draws only 60 A from its supply, it has very low selfheating. The LM35 series is available packaged in hermetic TO-46 transistor packages, while the LM35C, LM35CA, and LM35D are also available in the plastic TO-92 transistor package. The linear scale factor is +10.0mV/C with a suitable for remote

applicaton at low cost due to wafer-level trimming. The device operatea at 4 to 30 volts and a low impedance output, 0.1 W for 1 mA load.

3.6 Single-Chip Voice Recording & Playback Device 60-Second Duration


Features Single-chip, high-quality voice recording & playback solution - No external ICs required - Minimum external components Non-volatile Flash memory technology - No battery backup required User-Selectable messaging options - Random access of multiple fixed-duration messages - Sequential access of multiple variable duration messages User-friendly, easy-to-use operation - Programming & development systems not required - Level-activated recording & edge-activated playback switches Low power consumption - Operating current: 25 mA typical - Standby current: 1 uA typical - Automatic power-down Chip Enable pin for simple message expansion

General Description The APR9600 device offers true single-chip voice recording, non-volatile storage, and playback capability for 40 to 60 seconds. The device supports both random and sequential access of multiple messages. Sample rates are user-selectable, allowing designers to customize their design for unique quality and storage time needs. Integrated output amplifier, microphone amplifier, and AGC circuits greatly simplify system design. The device is ideal for use in portable voice recorders, toys, and many other consumer and industrial applications. APLUS integrated achieves these high levels of storage capability by using its proprietary analog/multilevel storage technology implemented in an advanced Flash non-volatile memory process, where each memory cell can store 256 voltage levels. This technology enables the APR9600 device to reproduce voice signals in their natural form. It eliminates the need for encoding and compression, which often introduce distortion.

Functional Description The APR9600 block diagram is included in order to give understanding of the APR9600 internal architecture. At the left hand side of the diagram are the analog inputs. A differential microphone amplifier, including integrated AGC, is included on-chip for applications requiring its use. The amplified microphone signal is fed into the device by

connecting the Ana_Out pin to the Ana_In pin through an external DC blocking capacitor. Recording can be fed directly into the Ana_In pin through a DC blocking capacitor, however, the connection between Ana_In and Ana_Out is still required for playback. The next block encountered by the input signal is the internal anti-aliasing filter. The filter automatically adjusts its response according to the sampling frequency selected so Shannons Sampling Theorem is satisfied. After anti-aliasing filtering is accomplished the signal is ready to be clocked into the memory array. This storage is accomplished through a combination of the Sample and Hold circuit and the Analog Write/Read circuit. These circuits are clocked by either the Internal Oscillator or an external clock source. When playbackis desired the previously stored recording is retrieved from memory, low pass filtered, and amplified as shown on the right hand side of the diagram. The signal can be heard by connecting a speaker to the SP+ and SP- pins. Message management is controlled through the message control block represented in the lower center of the block diagram.

Message Management Message Management General Description

Playback and record operations are managed by on chip circuitry. There are several available messaging modes depending upon desired operation. These message modes determine message management style, message length, and external parts count. Therefore, the designer must select the appropriate operating mode before beginning the design. Operating modes do not affect voice quality; for information on factors affecting quality refer to the Sampling Rate & Voice Quality section. The device supports three message management modes (defined by the MSEL1, MSEL2 and /M8_Option pins Random access mode with 2, 4, or 8 fixed-duration messages Tape mode, with multiple variable-duration messages, provides two options: - Auto rewind - Normal Modes cannot be mixed. Switching of modes after the device has recorded an initial message is not recommended. If modes are switched after an initial recording has been made some unpredictable message fragments from the previous mode may remain present, and be audible on playback, in the new mode. These fragments will disappear after a record operation in the newly selected mode. An important feature of the APR9600 message management capabilities is the ability to audibly prompt the user to changes in the devices status through the use of beeps superimposed on the devices output. This feature is enabled by asserting a logic high level on the BE pin.

Random Access Mode Random access mode supports 2, 4, or 8 messages segments of fixed duration. As suggested, recording or playback can be made randomly in any of the selected messages. The length of each message segment is the total recording length available (as defined by the selected sampling rate) divided by the total number of segments enabled. Random access mode provides easy indexing to message segments. Functional Description of Recording in Random Access Mode On power up, the device is ready to record or play back, in any of the enabled message segments. To record, /CE must be set low to enable the device and /RE must be set low to enable recording. You initiate recording by applying a low level on the message trigger pin that represents the message segment you intend to use. The message trigger pins are labeled /M1_Message - /M8_Option on pins 1-9 (excluding pin 7) for message segments 1-8 respectively. When actual recording begins the device responds with a single beep (if the BE pin is high to enable the beep tone) at the speaker outputs to indicate that it has started recording. Recording continues as long as the message pin stays low. The rising edge of the same message trigger pin during record stops the recording operation (indicated with a single beep). If the message trigger pin is held low beyond the end of the maximum allocated duration, recording stops automatically (indicated with two beeps) regardless of the state of the message trigger pin. The chip then enters low-power mode until the message trigger pin returns high. After the message trigger pin returns to high, the chip enters standby mode. Any subsequent high to low transition on the same message trigger pin will initiate recording from the beginning of the same message segment. The entire previous message is then overwritten by the new message, regardless of the duration of the new message. Transitions on any other message trigger pin or the /RE pin during the record operation are ignored until after the device enters standby mode.

Functional Description of Playback in Random Access Mode On power up, the device is ready to record or playback, in any of the enabled message segments. To playback, /CE must be set low to enable the device and /RE must be set high to disable recording & enable playback. You initiate playback by applying a high to low edge on the message trigger pin that representing the message segment you intend to playback. Playback will continue until the end of the message is reached. If a high to low edge occurs on the same message trigger pin during playback, playback of the current message stops immediately. If a different message trigger pin pulses during playback, playback of the current message stops immediately (indicated by one beep) and playback of the new message segment begins. A delay equal to 8,400 cycles of the sample clock will be encountered before the device starts playing the new message. If a message trigger pin is held low, the selected message is played back repeatedly as long as the trigger pin stays low. A period of silence, of duration equal to 8,400 cycles of the sampling clock, will be inserted during looping as an indicator to the user of the transition between the end and the beginning of the message. Tape Mode Tape mode manages messages sequentially much like traditional cassette tape recorders. Within tape mode two options exist, auto rewind and normal. Auto rewind mode configures the device to automatically rewind to the beginning of the message immediately following recording or playback of the message. In tape mode, using either option, messages must be recorded or played back sequentially, much like a traditional cassette tape recorder. Function Description Recording in Tape Mode using the Normal option On power up, the device is ready to record or play back, starting at the first address in the memory array. To record, /CE must be set low to enable the device and /RE must be set low to enable recording. A falling edge of the /M1_Message pin initiates voice recording

(indicated by one beep). A subsequent rising edge of the /M1_Message pin during recording stops the recording (also indicated by one beep). If the /M1_Message pin is held low beyond the end of the available memory, recording will stop automatically (indicated by two beeps). The device will then assert a logic low on the /M7_END pin for a duration equal to 1600 cycles of the sample clock, regardless of the state of the /M1_Message pin. The device returns to standby mode when the /M1_Message pin goes high again. After recording is finished the device will automatically rewind to the beginning of the most recently recorded message and wait for the next user input. The auto rewind function is convenient because it allows the user to immediately playback and review the message without the need to rewind. However, caution must be practiced because a subsequent record operation will overwrite the last recorded message unless the user remembers to pulse the /M2_Next pin in order to increment the device past the current message. A subsequent falling edge on the /M1_Message pin starts a new record operation, overwriting the previously existing message. You can preserve the previously recorded message by using the /M2_Next input to initiate recording in the next available message segment. To perform this function, the /M2_Next pin must be pulled low for at least 400 cycles of the sample clock. The auto rewind mode allows the user to record over the previous message simply by initiating a record sequence without first toggling the /M2_Next pin. To record over any other message however requires a different sequence. You must pulse the /CE pin low once to rewind the device to the beginning of the voice memory. The /M2_Next pin must then be pulsed low for the specified number of times to move to the start of the message you wish to overwrite. Upon arriving at the desired message a record sequence can be initiated to overwrite the previously recorded material. After you overwrite the message it becomes the last available message and all previously recorded messages following this message become inaccessible. If during a record operation all the available memory is used the device will stop recording automatically,(double beep) and set the /M7_END pin low for a duration equal to 1600 cycles of the sample clock. Playback can be initiated on

this last message, but pulsing the /M2_Next pin will put the device into an overflow state. Once the device enters an overflow state any subsequent pulsing of /M1_Message or /M2_Next will only result in a double beep and setting of the /M7_END pin low for a duration equal to 400 cycles of the sample clock. To proceed from this state the user must rewind the device to the beginning of the memory array. This can be accomplished by toggling the /CE pin low or cycling power. All inputs, except the /CE pin, are ignored during recording. Function Description of Playback in Tape Mode using Normal Option On power-up, the device is ready to record or play back, starting at the first address in the memory array. Before you can begin playback, the /CE input must be set to low to enable the device and /RE must be set to high to disable recording and enable playback. The first high to low going pulse of the /M1_Message pin initiates playback from the beginning of the current message; on power up the first message is the current message. When the /M1_Message pin pulses low the second time, playback of the current message stops immediately. When the /M1_Message pin pulses low a third time, playback of the current message starts again from its beginning. If you hold the /M1_Message pin low continuously the same message will play continuously in a looping fashion. A 1,530 ms period of silence is inserted during looping as an indicator to the user of the transition between the beginning and end of the message. Note that in auto rewind mode the device always rewinds to the beginning of the current message. To listen to a subsequent message the device must be fast forwarded past the current message to the next message. This function is accomplished by toggling the /M2_Next pin from high to low. The pulse must be low for least 400 cycles of the sampling clock. After the device is incremented to the desired message the user can initiate playback of the message with the playback sequence described above. A special

case exists when the /M2_Next pin goes low during playback. Playback of the current message will stop, the device will beep, advance to the next message and initiate playback of the next message. (Note that if /M2_Next goes low when not in playback mode, the device will prepare to play the next message, but will not actually initiate playback). If the /CE pin goes low during playback, playback of the current message will stop, the device will beep, reset to the beginning of the first message, and wait for a subsequent playback command. When you reach the end of the memory array, any subsequent pulsing of /M1_Message or /M2_Next will only result in a double beep. To proceed from this state the user must rewind the device to the beginning of the memory array. This can be accomplished by toggling the /CE pin low or cycling power. Functional Description of Recording in Tape Mode using Auto Rewind mode On power-up, the device is ready to record or play back, starting at the first address in the memory array. Before you can begin recording, the /CE input must be set to low to enable the device and /RE must be set to low to enable recording. On a falling edge of the /M1_Message pin the device will beep once and initiate recording. A subsequent rising edge on the /M1_Message pin will stop recording and insert a single beep. If the /M1_Message pin is held low beyond the end of the available memory, recording stops automatically, and two beeps are inserted; regardless of the state of the /M1_Message pin. The device returns to the standby mode when the /M1_Message pin is returned high. A subsequent falling edge on the /M1_Message pin starts a new record operation in the memory array immediately following the last recorded message, thus preserving the last recorded message. To record over all previous messages you must pulse the /CE pin low once to reset the device to the beginning of the first message. You can then initiate a record sequence, as described above, to record a new message. The most recently recorded message will become the last recorded message and all previously recorded messages following this message will become inaccessible.

If you wish to preserve any current messages it is recommend that Auto Rewind option be used instead of Normal option. If Normal option is necessary the following sequence can be used. To preserve current messages you must fast forward past the messages you want to keep before you can record a new message. To fast forward when using the Normal option you must switch to play mode and listen to messages sequentially until you arrive at the beginning of the message you wish to overwrite. At this stage you should switch back to record mode and overwrite the desired message. The most recently recorded message will become the last recorded message and all previously recorded messages following this message will become inaccessible. All inputs, except /CE are ignored during recording. Functional Description of Playback in Tape Mode using Auto Rewind mode On power-up, or after a low to high transition on /RE the device is ready to record or play back starting at the first address in the memory array. Before you can begin playback of messages, the /CE input must be set to low to enable the device and /RE must be set to high to enable playback. The first high to low going pulse of the /M1_Message pin initiates playback from the beginning of the current message. When the /M1_Message pin pulses from high to low a second time, playback of the current message stops immediately. When the /M1_Message pin pulses from high to low a third time, playback of the next message starts again from the beginning. If you hold the /M1_Message pin low continuously, the current message and subsequent messages play until the one of the following conditions is met: the end of the memory array is reached, the last message is reached, the /M1_message pin is released. If the last recorded message has already played, any further transitions on the /M1_Message pin will initiate a double beep for warning and the /M7_END pin will go low. To exit this state you must pulse the /CE pin low once during standby to reset the pointer to the beginning of the first message. Signal Storage

The APR 9600 samples incoming voice signals and stores the instantaneous voltage samples in non-volatile FLASH memory cells. Each memory cell can support voltage ranges from 0 to 256 levels. These 256 discrete voltage levels are the equivalent of 8-bit (28=256) binary encoded values. During playback the stored signals are retrieved from memory, smoothed to form a continuous signal, and then amplified before being fed to an external speaker. Sampling Rate & Voice Quality According to the Shannons sampling theorem, the highest possible frequency component introduced to the input of a sampling system must be equal to or less than half the sampling frequency if aliasing errors are to be eliminated. The APR9600 automatically filters its input, based on the selected sampling frequency, to meet this requirement.

Pin description

3.7 LM386- Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier


General Description The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count low, but the addition of an external resistor and capacitor between pins 1 and 8 will increase the gain to any value from 20 to 200. The inputs are ground referenced while the output automatically biases to one-half the supply voltage. The quiescent power drain is only 24 milliwatts when operating from a 6 volt supply, making the LM386 ideal for battery operation. Features 1. Battery operation

2. Minimum external parts 3. Wide supply voltage range: 4V12V or 5V18V 4. Low quiescent current drain: 4mA 5. Voltage gains from 20 to 200 6. Ground referenced input 7. Self-centering output quiescent voltage 8. Low distortion: 0.2% (AV = 20, VS = 6V, RL = 8W, PO = 125mW, f = 1kHz) 9. Available in 8 pin MSOP package Applications AM-FM radio amplifiers Portable tape player amplifiers Intercoms TV sound systems Line drivers Ultrasonic drivers Small servo drivers Power converters

Application Hints GAIN CONTROL To make the LM386 a more versatile amplifier, two pins (1 and 8) are provided for gain control. With pins 1 and 8 open the 1.35 kW resistor sets the gain at 20 (26 dB). If a capacitor is put from pin 1 to 8, bypassing the 1.35 kW resistor, the gain will go up to 200 (46 dB). If a resistor is placed in series with the capacitor, the gain can be set to any value from 20 to 200. Gain control can also be done by capacitively coupling a resistor (or FET) from pin 1 to ground. Additional external components can be placed in parallel with the internal feedback resistors to tailor the gain and frequency response for individual applications. For example, we can compensate poor speaker bass response by frequency shaping the feedback path. This is done with a series RC from pin 1 to 5 (paralleling the internal 15 kW resistor). For 6 dB effective bass boost: R . 15 kW, the lowest value for good stable operation is R = 10 kW if pin 8 is open. If pins 1 and 8 are bypassed then R as low as 2 kW can be used. This restriction is because the amplifier is only compensated for closed-loop gains greater than 9. INPUT BIASING The schematic shows that both inputs are biased to ground with a 50 kW resistor. The base current of the input transistors is about 250 nA, so the inputs are at about 12.5 millivolts when left open. If the dc source resistance driving the LM386 is higher than

250 kW it will contribute very little additional offset (about 2.5 mV at the input, 50 mV at the output). If the dc source resistance is less than 10 kW, then shorting the unused input to ground will keep the offset low (about 2.5 mV at the input, 50 mV at the output). For dc source resistances between these values we can eliminate excess offset by putting a resistor from the unused input to ground, equal in value to the dc source resistance. Of course all offset problems are eliminated if the input is capacitively coupled. When using the LM386 with higher gains (bypassing the 1.35 kW resistor between pins 1 and 8) it is necessary to bypass the unused input, preventing degradation of gain and possible instabilities. This is done with a 0.1 F capacitor or a short to ground depending on the dc source resistance on the driven input.

Typical applications

3.8 Dynamic Loudspeaker Principle

An audio signal source such as a microphone or recording produces an electrical "image" of the sound. That is, it produces an electrical signal that has the same frequency and harmonic content, and a size that reflects the relative intensity of the sound as it changes. The job of the amplifier is to take that electrical image and make it larger, large enough in power to drive the coils of a loudspeaker. Having a "high fidelity" amplifier implies that the signal is made larger without changing any of its properties. Any changes would be perceived as distortions of the sound since the human ear is amazingly sensitive to such changes. Once the amplifier has made the electrical image large enough, it applies it to the voice coils of the loudspeaker, making them vibrate with a pattern that follows the variations of the original signal. The voice coil is attached to and drives the cone of the loudspeaker, which in turn drives the air. This action on the air produces sound that more-or-less reproduces the sound pressure variations of the original signal.

A current-carrying wire in a magnetic field experiences a magnetic force perpendicular to the wire.

Loudspeaker Details
An enormous amount of engineering work has gone into the design of today's dynamic loudspeaker. A light voice coil is mounted so that it can move freely inside the magnetic field of a strong permanent magnet. The speaker cone is attached to the voice coil and

attached with a flexible mounting to the outer ring of the speaker support. Because there is a definite "home" or equilibrium position for the speaker cone and there is elasticity of the mounting structure, there is inevitably a free cone resonant frequency like that of a mass on a spring. The frequency can be determined by adjusting the mass and stiffness of the cone and voice coil, and it can be damped and broadened by the nature of the construction, but that natural mechanical frequency of vibration is always there and enhances the frequencies in the frequency range near resonance.

Analog Touch Panel Controller Chip


It is an interface controller chip which senses pressed positions of a transparent analog resistive touch panel and can eliminate unstable data (voltage value) generated by softly pressing it or some external noises coming into the circuitry. By the internal filtering process, all of the pressed positions can be sensed with a high degree of accuracy and these data are sent to your host system with serial communication . Features (1) Power Supply 2.7 to 5.5 Volts 3.3 to 5.5 Volts (when using a 12bit external A/D converter) External Clock Frequency 4 MHz. Electric Resolution 10 bit (1024 x 1024) or 12 bit (4096 x 4096 : with an external ADC) Note: These values are electrical resolutions for the controller. The physical resolution of the touch panel key area is lower than that value and varies depending on each touch panel. Output Mode Continuously (When pressing the touch Panel, continuous data is being received.) Adaptable Touch panel

4 & 8 - wire resistive analog touch panel made by Gunze. 8 - wire is highly recommended. The CRS1 controller is recommended only for Gunzes touch panels. Terminal Arrangement Diagram

Function of Terminals

Continuous Mode When pressing the touch panel, the controller generates X-Y coordinates of the pressed position. If you maintain a continuous press, the controller keeps generating a string of data continuously. When releasing the press, a single data is generated. See below.

Serial Communication 1)Communication Setting


! ! ! !

Baud Rate: 9600, 19200 bps (ELO Mode: 9600 bps) Data Bits : 8 bit Parity : unidentified Stop Bit : 1 bit

2) Data Format AHL Mode (Gunze original Mode)

An example in Continuous Mode T0273, 0581 Press T0273,0582 T0272,0581 * * Continuing to press * T0273,0582 R0273,0581 Release T as a header for pressing the touch panel, and R as a header for releasing it Position values of both X and Y are from 0 to 1023 in decimal .The origin of X and Y axes is at the bottom left corner with proper line connections.

Calibration

Generally, touch panels have an equivalent circuit as the illustration above shows. When a DC voltage is applied to both terminal ends of the touch panel, the total voltage

drop across the circuit is equal to the sum of the voltage drops of a key area and both wiring sections. Each voltage drop will vary when any resistance varies. It means that a position shift on the monitor will occur even on the same point to be pressed if any resistance changes.

Fig : 4 Wires Touch Panel The controller outputs the digital position data converted from the analog voltage of the pressed position. For example, when the analog voltage of the pressed point is 2(V) for applying 5(V) to the terminals, 409 is the outputted data. 2(V) / 5(V) x 1023 = 409 The controller reads reference voltages (xRref, xLref, yUref, yLref) and outputs a compensated pressed position data calculated on the basis with xRref=0, xLref=1023, yUref=0, yLref=1023. For example, when the analog voltage of the pressed point is 2(V) for applying 5(V) to the terminals and xRref=20, xLref=1000, 406 is the outputted data. 2(V) / 5(V) x 1023 = 409 , (409-20) x (1023 / (1000-20)) = 406

User Calibration
We strongly recommend you to match the pressed position data with the displayed position data by calculating relative positions on your system, so-called User-Calibration.

You need to make it at least for the initial use or the time of recognizing an offset between a pressed position and a displayed one for any touch panels, even though they are totally in the same design.

Fig User calibration


*Position data of point-A : (Xa,Ya) *Position data of point-B : (Xb,Yb) Presumption : Xa<Xb and Ya<Yb *Displayed position of point-A : (DXa,DYa) *Displayed position of point-B : (DXb,DYb) Presumption : DXa<DXb and DYa<Dyb The constant value in direct proportion of the resolution between the touch panel and the display monitor in the X direction is; CX=(DXb-DXa)/(Xb-Xa) ---------------------- A) in the Y direction is; CY=(DYb-DYa)/(Yb-Ya) ---------------------- B)

SPEC 8.2.00 13
Consequently, the relationship between an arbitrary position on the touch panel(Xn,Yn) and an displayed position on the monitor(DXn,DYn) is; DXn=DXa+CX*(Xn-Xa) ------------------------- C) DYn=DYa+CY*(Yn-Ya) ------------------------- D) With the execution of Use Calibration, first of all, get the data Xa,Ya,Xb,Yb by pressing two points of the touch panel on the display monitor, and store them in the host system. Second of all, obtain the constant values of CX and CY from Eq.(A) and (B), and store

them in the host systemwith DXa and DYa. After all of those processes, you can obtain accurate pressed positions on the display monitor (DXn,DYn) by getting the pressed data(Xn,Yn) and utilizing Eq.(C) and (D) while in ordinary operation. User Calibration should be done whenever you press the touch panel.

Chapter 4 Firmware Implementation of the project design


This chapter briefly explains about the firmware implementation of the project. The required software tools are discussed in section 4.2. Section 4.3 shows the flow diagram of the project design. Section 4.4 presents the firmware implementation of the project design. 4.1 Software Tools Required Keil v3, Flahmagic are the two software tools used to program microcontroller. The working of each software tool is explained below in detail.

4.1.1 Programming Microcontroller

A compiler for a high level language helps to reduce production time. To program the LPC2148 microcontroller the Keil v3 is used. The programming is done strictly in the embedded C language. Keil v3 is a suite of executable, open source software development tools for the microcontrollers hosted on the Windows platform. The compilation of the C program converts it into machine language file (.hex). This is the only language the microcontroller will understand, because it contains the original program code converted into a hexadecimal format. During this step there are some warnings about eventual errors in the program. This is shown in Fig 4.1. If there are no errors and warnings then run the program, the system performs all the required tasks and behaves as expected the software developed. If not, the whole procedure will have to be repeated again. Fig 4.2 shows expected outputs for given inputs when run compiled program. One of the difficulties of programming microcontrollers is the limited amount of resources the programmer has to deal with. In personal computers resources such as RAM and processing speed are basically limitless when compared to microcontrollers. In contrast, the code on microcontrollers should be as low on resources as possible.

Fig 1:Schematic diagram of Heart beat monitoring Keil Compiler:


Keil compiler is software used where the machine language code is written and compiled. After compilation, the machine source code is converted into hex code which is to be dumped into the microcontroller for further processing. Keil compiler also supports C language code.

Fig 4.1: Compilation of source Code

Fig 4.2: Run the compiled program

Flashmagic:
Flash Magic is a PC tool for programming flash based microcontrollers from NXP using a serial or Ethernet protocol while in the target hardware. The figures below show how the baud rate is selected for the microcontroller, how are the registers erased before the device is programmed.

Chapter 5 Results and Discussions


5.1 Results Assemble the circuit on the PCB as shown in Fig 5.1. After assembling the circuit on the PCB, check it for proper connections before switching on the power supply. 5.2 Conclusion The implementation of GSM based Patient monitoring system using microcontroller(ARM Core) is done successfully. The communication is properly done without any interference between different modules in the design. Design is done to meet all the specifications and requirements. Software tools like Keil Uvision Simulator, Flashmagic to dump the source code into the microcontroller, Orcad Lite for the schematic diagram have been used to develop the software code before realizing the hardware. The performance of the system is more efficient. Reading the tag information and announcing the data using the loudspeaker is the main job of the microcontroller. The mechanism is controlled by the microcontroller. Circuit is implemented in Orcad and implemented on the microcontroller board. The performance has been verified both in software simulator and hardware design. The total circuit is completely verified functionally and is following the application software. It can be concluded that the design implemented in the present work provide portability, flexibility and the data transmission is also done with low power consumption.

WORKING PROCEDURE: GSM based patient monitoring system is an exclusive and a very simple but at the same time a very effective project. This project is especially designed for monitoring the patient continuously through sensors and send it to the patient monitor(Doctor) and it also fullfil the needs of the patient using touch screen depending on the requirments. The navigation system consists of GSM Modem, LPC2148 microcontroller, Temperature sensor LM35, Heart Beat Sensor, APR9600 voice IC, LM386 amplifier and the loudspeaker,Analog Touch screen. Now,as the patient uses the device it keeps on monitoring the medical parameters of the patient and data is sent over GSM to the doctor depending on the condition the doctor takes the respective step to recover the patient. The purpose of using the GSM is to use the communication globally atleast to three members. The voice IC APR 9600 is used to recognize the help of the patient through voice and, the voice will be heard from the loudspeaker which announces the information to the nearest person to help. Advantages: Low cost Easy to implement Low power consumption Communication globally using GSM Flexibility due to Embedded design Applications This project can be used to assist the patient when ever in emergency and to fullfill the requirement without moving using touch screen.

References: 1. http://www.keil.com/dd/docs/datashts/philips/lpc2141_42_44_46_48.pdf 2. http://www.microdigitaled.com/8051/Software/keil_tutorial.pdf 3. http://www.taltech.com/TALtech_web/resources/intro-sc.html 4. http://focus.ti.com/lit/ds/symlink/max232.pdf 5. http://www.aimglobal.org/technologies/rfid/what_is_rfid.asp 6. http://www.rfidjournal.com/faq 7. http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology-Article.asp 8. http://www.perada.eu/documents/articles-perspectives/an-introduction-to-rfidtechnology.pdf 9. http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-98/SP800-98_RFID-2007.pdf 10. http://www.biltek.tubitak.gov.tr/gelisim/elektronik/dosyalar/6/LM386.pdf 11. http://www.datasheetcatalog.org/datasheet/aplus/APR9600.pdf