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Lowind Gay F.



I.OBJECTIVES At the end of the 60 minute lesson, the pupils are expected to: 1. Distinguish the characteristics of the stars. 2. Organize the stars according to colors. 3. Be aware of the relation of the color of the stars to the temperature. II.SUBJECT MATTER Topic: Stars and Their characteristics References: Smart Science 6, page 234-236 Materials: Book, Pictures, Model image III.PROCEDURES A. Preparatory Activities 1. Motivation Teacher: I have here stars in different colors. I need a volunteer to arrange these stars according to what do you think is the hottest. Place the number on the star. 1 is the hottest and 5 is the least.

Call five volunteers to do the activity. Teacher: You did a great job. Are they correct with their choice? To find out if these are right, we will proceed to our lesson.


B. Developmental Activities 1. Presentation Teacher: Have you seen the sky at night? At night the sky is seem like a jewelry shop, with full of brilliant diamonds which are the stars. Today, we will tackle about the characteristics of the stars so that we can find out if what we did earlier is right. 2. Discussion: Teacher: Stars are glowing bodies of gas. They are composed of hydrogen and helium. They have different sizes, shape and brightness. Open your book to page 235 and read the selection about the color.
COLOR BLUE TEMPERATURE RANGE(in Kelvin) 28 000 50 000


10 000 28 000


7 500 10 000


6 000 7 500


4 900 6 000


3 500 4 900


2 000 3 500

Twinkling of the stars- as the light of the stars travels through the many layers of the earth, it is bent and refracted many times and in random directions. The random refraction results in the twinkling of the stars. Stars are not only classified according to their colors but also Teacher: with their size.

Supergiant are the largest stars. It is an old blue white star. They expanded just like others do. Ex. Betelgeuse 500 times wider than the sun. This star will collapse in a huge explosion called supernova and later become black hole.

Blue - White stars burn up their hydrogen quickly to produce heat and made them their color Ex. Sirius brightest star in the sky after the sun. Its surface temperature is 10 000 K and 2 bigger than the sun.

Average sized stars have the surface temperature of 6 000K and are bright yellow almost white. They will swell up to become giant stars and shrink to become white dwarf.

Sun- an average size star. 1 million kilometer wide and 4.5 billion Teacher: With the given information on the board we can now check years old. our answers in our activity earlier.

If there are corrections, call a volunteer to correct and replace the ranks. Teacher: As we can see, the blue is the hottest followed by the skyblue, white, yellow, orange and red. Give five minutes for the pupils to study the information on the board. 3. Application Fill in the blanks. The largest stars are known as __________. They are _____times wider than the sun. _________is an example of this star. This star will have a huge explosion called ____and will become a ______or neutron. The sun belongs to the _______stars. They have the surface temperature of _____and are bright yellow. They will swell up to become ____stars and shrink to become ______. ______ is an example of blue-white star; it is the brightest star in the sky next to the sun. they burn up _____supplies to make up their colors. 4. Generalization Teacher: Today, we learned the different characteristics of the stars and how its size and color relates to its temperature. IV. EVALUATION Match column A to column B 1. White 2. Supernova 3. Blue 4. Betelgeuse 5. Red 6. Sun 7. Blue-white stars a. Supergiant b. Huge explosion c. Burns up hydrogen supplies d. 4.5 billion years old e. Results of random refractions f. 2 000 3 500 K

V. ASSIGNMENT Perform the explorer on page 234 and write your observations in a sheet of paper.

The Life Cycle of a Star: A Focus on the Sun

Focus Group: Grade 4 Setting: Classroom Goal of Lesson: To investigate the life cycle of the sun. Objectives of Lesson: Upon completion of this lesson the students will be able to: 1.) describe the characteristics of a star, 2.) describe what a force is, 3.) classify the sun as a star, 4.) create the life cycle of the sun through a flipbook activity. Alignment with WV CSOs: SC.4.3.1 identify that systems are made of parts that interact with one another. SC.4.3.3 observe that changes occur gradually, repetitively, or randomly within the environment and question causes of changes. SC.4.4.30 identify the sun as a star. Materials: Heavy White Paper 3x5 (15-20 sheets per student for flipbooks) Finished Flipbook for Demonstration Crayons, Markers, or Colored Pencils Stapler or Hole Punch (Yarn) Texts with pictures of information about the life cycles of stars Computer Power Point Presentation Safety Concerns: None Procedure: 1. Pre-assessment: Discussion/Predictions: What is a star? Is the sun a star? A good way to begin this discussion is by showing the students a picture slideshow of various types of stars. Talk about the different types of stars that are found in the universe. How are stars born? How long do they live? How do they die?

2. Exploration: The teacher should begin the exploration section by teaching the students about the life of a star like the sun through a Power Point Presentation. The teacher should also explain to the students how stars are formed, how long they live, and how they die. Outline of Power Point Presentation: The Life Cycle of a Star: A Focus on the Sun What is a STAR? STARS A star is a big ball of gas that gives off heat and light. Stars are formed from gravity and dust in outer space. Stars evolve, or change, over time. It may take millions of years or it may take billions of years for a star to complete its life cycle. There are many types of stars. Can you think of a star? Heres a Hint THE SUN The sun is star! The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system. It contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System. The sun provides life for Planet Earth. How would life on Earth be different without the sun? Would there even be life? How old is the Sun? Scientists suspect that the sun is almost 4.6 billion years old. Scientists also believe that the sun has enough fuel in it to live on for about 5 billion more years. The Sun is our own special star yet, as stars go, it is a very average star. There are stars far brighter, fainter, hotter and cooler than the Sun. The SUN Medium mass stars, like our Sun, live by burning the hydrogen that dwells within their cores, turning it into helium. This is what our Sun is doing now. The heat the Sun generates by its nuclear fusion of hydrogen into helium creates an outward pressure. In another 5 billion years, the Sun will have used up all the hydrogen in its core. The Life Cycle of a Star like the Sun A Star is Born! A star is formed from a nebula. A nebula is an interstellar cloud of dust and plasma. A nebula is also known as a stellar nursery.

The SUN The Sun is a great ball of gas held together by equal forces. Inside the sun is burning gases like hydrogen and helium. When these gases are burned they push outward. The force of gravity pushes inward. When the forces are equal then an object is stable. Test Your Force Assign each student a partner Decide which partner wants to be A and which partner wants to be B Test your force! How Does a Star Die? When a star runs out of fuel it dies because the inside force of burning the fuel is not equal to the gravity pushing on it from the outside. When a main sequence star like the sun begins to die it will turn into.. A Giant! No, no, not that type of a giant, the sun will turn into a RED GIANT! What is a Red Giant? A Red Giant is a star like the sun when it begins to die. Because the star has run out of fuel, it begins to cool, and contract. The core of the star is now hotter because of the unequal force of gravity pushing on the star. The star becomes a red giant. What Next? We already know that medium mass stars, like our Sun, become red giants. But what happens after that? Well, our red giant Sun is still eating up helium and cranking out carbon. But when it's finished its helium, it isn't quite hot enough to be able to burn the carbon it created. What now? What will the sun turn into next? A Dwarf! No, No, not that type of dwarf. The sun will turn into a WHITE DWARF! What is a White Dwarf? A white dwarf is a star about the size of the earth. A white dwarf is an astronomical object which is produced when a low or medium mass star dies. A white dwarf is one of the densest forms of matter. The higher the density or mass of the white dwarf the smaller the size. Most white dwarfs are extremely hot and remain hot for an extremely long time. Is this end to our SUN? Not Quite! The White Dwarf will turn into a Black Dwarf

A black dwarf is what is left of a white dwarf star after it cools. Black dwarfs are not visible because they have no more fuel. Is this FINALLY the End Miss Webb? Well Almost, I LIED! Summary The life cycles of stars like the sun take place over millions and billions of years so you guys dont need to worry about the sun starting to die anytime soon. The Universe is a place that is vast beyond imagining because there is so much left to be discovered! Questions: 1.) Is the sun a star? 2.) What are some of the characteristics of stars? 3.) What types of stars might the sun turn into when it starts to die? 3. Concept Development: Question: How would our life be different without the sun? Would there even be life? Test Your Force: Gentle arm wresting used to show how forces on an object make it stable or unstable. 1. The teacher should assign each student in the room a partner. 2. One partner will be student A and one partner will be student B. 3. The teacher should have the students clasp hands and emit the same amount of force on each other. Note: The students arms are stable because each student is emitting an equal amount of force. 4. The teacher should have the students clasp hands again and ask student A to relax and student B to push. Note: The forces are unbalanced and unstable. 5. Repeat. 4. Concept Application: The teacher should explain to the students that they will be making a flipbook movie to show the life cycle of the sun. In this movie the students will accurately depict the life of the sun though each frame. 5. Assessment/Evaluation: Is the sun a star? What are the characteristics of stars? What is force? How does force affect stars? What type of stars might the sun turn into when it starts to die? Did the student accurately depict the life cycle of the sun through his or her flipbook?

6. Extension: As an extension to this lesson the teacher could choose to teach the students about other types of stars. The teacher may also choose to teach the students about supernovas, neutron stars, and black holes. 7. Integration: This lesson can be integrated into art because the students are sketching and coloring the life cycles of the sun. The lesson can be integrated into math because the students could graph stars based on the Hertz-Russell Diagram.