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Fluid Mechanics

Q. 1. 1) A 150 mm diameter pipe reduces in diameter abruptly to 100 mm. if the pipe carries water at 30 liters/sec. calculates the pressure loss across the contraction and expresses this as a percentage of the pressure loss to be expected if the flow were reversed. Take the coefficient of contraction as 0.6 Given data, Diameter of large pipe D1= 150 mm= 0.15 m Diameter of large pipe D2= 100 mm= 0.10 m Discharge Q= 30 lit/sec= 0.03 m3/s Coefficient of contraction = 0.6

Applying Bernoullis Equation before and after contraction, But Z1=Z2 Head loss due to contraction is given by,

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

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University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

2) Show that the two dimensional flow described by the eq - Is irrotational. What is the velocity potential of the flow? If the density of the fluid is 1.12 Kg/m3 and the pressure at a point (1,-2) is 4.8 KPa what is the pressure at point (9, 6)? Laplace Eqn gives,

=4+(-4) =0 Laplace equation satisfies therefore the flow is irrotational. Now Velocity potential of the flow=

3) Given Data, Tube diameter= 1mm Surface tension coefficient= 0.0712 We know that,

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

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University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

True Water Height:

= and

is calculated

The general form of the stream function in rectangular co-ordinates can be written as,

Resultant Velocity

(i)

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

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University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

(ii)

FY= Weight of the water enclosed or supported actually or imaginary by curved surface ABC =Weight of the water in portion CODEABC =Weight of the water in CODFBC-Weight of the water in AEFB But Weight of the water in CODFBC= Weight of the water in (COB+ODFBO)

Given data, Length of pipe1 = L1 =100 m Length of pipe2 = L2 =100 m Total rate of flow = Q = 2000 lit/min = 2 m3/s Co-efficient of Friction = f1=f2=0.02 Let Q1, Q2, are rate of flows in pipe 1 and 2 respectively Q = Q1, + Q2 but Q= 2 Q2 3Q2=2 Q2=0.66 m3/s 2= Q1+0.66= 1.34 m3/s Q1=1.34 m3/s Q2=0.66 m3/s

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

Page 4 of 11

University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

Applying Bernoullis equation to a and b

Q.4. 1) Given,

We get

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

Page 5 of 11

University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

Substituting the values of delta in equation we get,

2) Given Data, = Distance of C.G. from free liquid surface =x+0.61 = Distance of C.P. from free liquid surface=x+0.686 We know that,

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

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University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

By solving this we get X =0.97 m

Force exerted on submerged surface Total force= Q.5. 1) Assumptions: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) FX=FY=FZ=0 From continuity equation, The fluid is incompressible The flow is one dimensional The flow is steady The flow is independent of any variation in z direction Body force per unit mass are zero

We get

Integrating we get

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

Page 7 of 11

University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

(i) At y=0 u=0 c2=0 (ii) At y=b u=v

2) Consider a fluid element of length dx, dy, dz in the direction of x, y, z. let u, v, w, are inlet velocity components Mass of the fluid entering the face ABCD,

Similarly, The net gain of mass in Y direction and Z direction are given as,

Since the mass is neither created nor destroyed in the fluid element, the net increase of mass per unit time in the fluid element must be equal to the rate of increase of mass

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

Page 8 of 11

University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

Mass of the element= Rate of increase of mass with time = Equating the two expressions we get,

Q.6. 1. Boundary layer separation: When a solid body is immersed in a flowing fluid, a thin layer of fluid called the boundary layer is formed adjacent to the solid body. In this thin layer of the fluid the velocity varies from zero to free stream velocity in the direction normal to the solid body, the thickness of the boundary layer increases the fluid layer adjacent to solid surface has to do work against surface friction at the expense of its kinetic energy. This loss of kinetic energy is recovered from the immediate fluid layer in contact with the layer adjacent to solid surface through momentum exchange process. Thus the velocity of the layer goes on decreasing. Along the length of the solid body, at a certain point a stage may come when the boundary layer may not be able to keep sticking to the solid body. If it can not provide kinetic energy to overcome the resistance offered by the solid body, the boundary layer will be separated from the surface. This phenomenon is called as boundary layer separation.When a solid body is immersed in a flowing fluid, a thin layer of fluid called the boundary layer is formed adjacent to the solid body. In this thin layer of the fluid the velocity varies from zero to free stream velocity in the direction normal to the solid body, the thickness of the boundary layer increases the fluid layer adjacent to solid surface has to do work against surface friction at the expense of its kinetic energy. This loss of kinetic energy is recovered from the immediate fluid layer in contact with the layer adjacent to solid surface through momentum exchange process. Thus the velocity of the layer goes on decreasing. Along the length of the solid body, at a certain point a stage may come when the boundary layer may not be able to keep sticking to the solid body. If it can not provide kinetic energy to overcome the resistance offered by the solid body, the boundary layer will be separated from the surface. This phenomenon is called as boundary layer separation

2) Methods of preventing separation of boundary layer: when the boundary layer separates from the surface, a certain portion adjacent to the surface has a back flow and eddies are continuously

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

Page 9 of 11

University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

formed in this region and hence continuously loss of energy takes place. Thus the separation of boundary layer is undesirable The following are the methods of preventing the boundary layer separation 1. Suction of the slow moving fluid by suction slot 2. Supplying additional energy from blower 3. Providing a bypass in slotted wing 4. Rotating boundary in direction of flow 5. Providing small divergence in a diffuser 6. Providing the guide blades 7. Providing the trip wire ring in the laminar region for the flow over a sphere

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

Page 10 of 11

University of Mumbai Automobile Engineering Sem-V (Rev) Winter 2010(10-WIN-AUTO-V-REV-FM)

Fluid Mechanics

Pressure: Velocity at inlet end,

For laminar flow Reynolds number is, As the Reynolds number is less than 2000 therefore the flow is Laminar. For laminar flow,

Shear stress,

As atmosphere is at 101.3 Kpa Pressure is 74.62 Kpa bellow atmosphere II. 125990 Pascal into meters of oil column

Q.P.Code: GT 6636

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