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Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979

Modeling and analysis of unbalanced distribution system using

object-oriented methodology
M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup ∗
Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Madras 600036, India
Received 14 April 2005; received in revised form 1 December 2005; accepted 4 December 2005
Available online 3 February 2006

An object-oriented (OO) model for three-phase unbalanced distribution system is proposed and implemented. Single-phase system components
are initially modeled using object-oriented methodology. Later, it is extended to unbalanced three-phase distribution system using the “composition”
technique of object-oriented design. The main features of object-oriented methodology such as “inheritance”, “aggregation”, “association” and
“polymorphism” have been exploited to obtain a better software model. Three-phase distribution load flow analysis and short circuit analysis
modules have been developed using the proposed object model. The performance of the developed software has been tested on IEEE 13-Node,
IEEE 34-Node and IEEE 123-Node distribution systems.
© 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Object-oriented methodology; Three-phase unbalanced distribution system; Load flow; Short circuit analysis

1. Introduction forward and backward operations of backward/forward sweep

method [10], which does not require any additional matrix com-
Steady state analysis and time domain simulations of phys- putations in each iteration.
ical systems (e.g. power systems) are being extensively carried In this paper, backward/forward sweep method has been
out by digital computers to understand their complete behav- chosen for implementation of distribution system load flow anal-
ior. In power engineering research, object-oriented software ysis using object-oriented modeling, because this method can
development methodology [1] was accepted as a feasible alter- be easily adapted not only for different topologies of the bal-
native to traditional procedural programming due to its inherent anced system [10–12], but also for the unbalanced distribution
advantages over other methodologies [2–6]. Literature shows system [13]. It has been found that the number of iterations
numerous applications of object-oriented methodology (OOM) required by backward/forward sweep method for convergence
for the development of a well-organized energy management is almost equal to that of the NR based method. Since back-
system (EMS) application software. Attention is also given ward/forward sweep method uses the fundamental Kirchoff’s
to the object-oriented design of distribution management sys- current law (KCL) and Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL) locally in
tem (DMS) software [7,8]. Recently, Losi and Russo [9] pro- each branch to compute the branch current and nodal voltage,
posed an object-oriented load flow for distribution system using each iteration does not require any matrix computation and con-
Newton–Raphson (NR) algorithm, which involves matrix com- sumes less time. Hence, it is suitable for the analysis of very
putations in each iteration. They made some approximations large radial distribution systems [14].
to the jacobian matrix in order to exploit the radial nature of The important contribution of this paper is the development
the system. However, the method proposed in Ref. [9] requires of object-oriented software model for more realistic, complex,
upstream and downstream operations to employ the local pro- unbalanced, three-phase distribution systems. Further, programs
cessing technique of object-oriented paradigm. These down- for three-phase distribution system load flow analysis and short
stream and upstream operations may be compared with the circuit analysis also have been developed using the proposed
model. Different types of load models such as constant power,
constant current and constant impedance loads have been con-
∗ Corresponding author. sidered. Three-phase transformers with various types of winding

0378-7796/$ – see front matter © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979 969

configurations have also been included in this paper. The results 3.1. Radial distribution system
obtained for the test systems such as IEEE 13-Node, IEEE 34-
Node and IEEE 123-Node system have been found to be in exact The single line diagram of a typical radial distribution system
agreement with the results given in Ref. [15]. is shown in Fig. 1. Analyzing the distribution system, one can
This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the come up with the physically existing components such as feeder,
power distribution system and its software modeling. Section 3 bus, transformer, transmission line, switch, source (substation),
briefs the object-oriented design of balanced distribution system. load and shunt devices (shunt capacitor), etc. to be modeled as
Section 4 deals with the development of object-oriented model software objects. The distribution system itself can be modeled
of three-phase unbalanced distribution system. Implementation as an object, since it is an aggregation of other physically existing
of the load flow and short circuit analysis programs are described objects. The most important relationships of object-orientation
in Section 5. Section 6 provides important observations and con- such as “specialization”, “aggregation” and “association” are
clusions. exploited to model the distribution system.
The class diagram [1], which explains the classes in the
2. Software modeling of power distribution systems system and their relationships, of the radial distribution sys-
tem is shown in Fig. 2. The symbols used for representing
Distribution systems are generally unbalanced. Shunt devices the object relationships follow the unified modeling language
used for reactive power compensation and loads in the dis- (UML) developed by Booch and co-workers [22,23]. In the fol-
tribution system may be either single-phase or three-phase. lowing sections of this paper, the class names are given in italic
Three-phase loads and shunts may be either star connected or and start with CAPITAL letters to differentiate it from the nor-
delta connected. Transmission lines may be single-phase, two- mal text.
phase or three-phase [16,17]. Transformers are usually either In Fig. 2, the classes RootNode, ForkNode and TerminalNode
YGYG (both primary and secondary star connected and neutral are specialized classes derived from the class Bus. They inherit
grounded) or YGD (primary star connected neutral grounded all the primary attributes from the base class. RootNode, marked
and secondary delta connected) type. Distribution transformers as ‘R’ in Fig. 1, has the special property of having the source
may be connected in any other configuration (YY, YGY, YYG, connected to it (i.e. the node at which power is fed to the dis-
DY, DYG, YD, DD) depending on the requirement [18–20]. tribution system). ForkNode, marked as ‘F’ in Fig. 1, is a Bus
Representation of such a system involving different types of from where the laterals are emanating. TerminalNode, marked
components and performing various analyses on the system as ‘T’ in Fig. 1, is a Bus at which a feeder section terminates.
with traditional programming becomes more complex. An ele- TransmissionLine, Transformer, Cable and Switch are the spe-
gant and mature design can be obtained using object-oriented cializations of class Branch, which is an abstraction of any device
approach. connected between two Buses. Feeder is modeled as a software
object, which is a collection of objects of class Branch. An object
3. Object-oriented design of balanced distribution of class SubStation is a collection of objects of classes Trans-
system former and Switch. Table 1 describes the relationship between
the objects in object-oriented decomposition.
This section of the paper assumes that the three-phase dis-
tribution system is balanced and it is represented by a sin- 3.2. Weakly meshed distribution system
gle line diagram [21]. Initially, radial distribution system has
been designed using object-oriented approach. This design has Weakly meshed networks are generally formed under mainte-
been extended for weakly meshed system with few specialized nance or emergency operation. The loops in the weakly meshed
objects. To model the distributed generations integrated into the network are formed by tie lines. When the modeled objects are
radial distribution system, new classes have been derived using extended to accommodate these loops, some specialized classes
multiple inheritance technique. have been derived. They are Tie and DummyBus. Tie is modeled

Fig. 1. Radial distribution system.

970 M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979

Fig. 2. Class diagram of radial distribution system.

Table 1
Relationship between the objects in object-oriented decomposition
Object 1 Relationship Object 2 OO property

Feeder, Load, ShuntBranch Is physically connected to Bus Association

RootNode, ForkNode, TerminalNode Is a kind of Bus Specialization/inheritance
TransmissionLine, Cable, Transformer, Switch Is a kind of Branch Specialization/inheritance
Feeder Is a collection of Branches Aggregation
SubStation Is a collection of Transformers and Switches Aggregation
DistributionSystem Is a collection of SubStation, Buses and Feeders Aggregation

as a specialized class of Feeder consisting of only one Branch. 3.3. Distribution system with dispersed generation
For analysis purpose, a meshed network has to be converted
into radial network by breaking all the loops of the original net- Recent distribution networks are associated with dispersed
work and introducing a dummy bus at each loop breakpoint. generators driven by renewable energy such as wind, geother-
Dummy bus is created at the loop breakpoint by the bus at mal, etc. So, it is essential to incorporate the dispersed generators
which the loop is broken. Dummy bus is a conceptual object into the radial system model. The dispersed generation devices
and used only for the computational purpose. The DummyBus, with real power and voltage magnitude controls are only consid-
is modeled as a specialized class of the class Bus. Class Dum- ered in the present work. These generators are modeled as PV
myBus has a special attribute of Bus type, called parent, which buses for analysis. Object-oriented technique gives an elegant
creates it. This attribute is used to navigate the other end of design to include PV buses into the existing distribution system
the loop breakpoint. The extended class diagram to model the model. Fig. 4 shows the class diagram of the distribution system
weakly meshed distribution system is shown in Fig. 3. Table 2 with dispersed generation.
describes the details of the extended classes for the meshed A new class PVBus, which is specialized from the class Bus,
system. is introduced. PVBus is a Bus having a generator connected to it.
In practical distribution system, generators may be located either
at the Fork Node, Terminal Node or at any one bus along the
Table 2 feeder. So, a Fork Node or a Terminal Node may be a PV bus. To
Details of the extended classes for meshed system handle this condition, the class PVForkNode, which is a ForkN-
New class Extended from Exploited feature of OOM ode and is a PVBus, and the class PVTerminalNode, which is a
TerminalNode and is a PVBus, have been derived using multiple
DummyBus Bus Inheritance
inheritance technique of object-oriented methodology. PVFor-
TieLine Feeder Inheritance
kNode is derived from ForkNode and PVBus. PVTerminalNode
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Fig. 3. Extended class diagram of Fig. 2 to accommodate weakly meshed system.

Table 3 application of proposed object decomposition not only in load

Details of the extended classes to incorporate dispersed generation flow analysis but also in short circuit analysis and feeder recon-
New class Extended from Exploited feature of OOM figuration, etc. Since the load is modeled as a separate object,
PVBus Bus Inheritance
various load representations such as constant power, constant
PVForkNode PVBus, ForkNode Multiple inheritance current and constant impedance loads can be easily included in
PVTerminalNode PVBus, TerminalNode Multiple inheritance the analysis without any modification in the class Bus.

3.4. Load flow analysis of balanced distribution system

is derived from TerminalNode and PVBus. Table 3 describes the
details of the new classes. A software program for load flow analysis has been developed
Unlike the object decomposition proposed in Ref. [9], the based on backward/forward sweep method using the proposed
present work has modeled the feeder, the load, and the shunt object-oriented model [24]. The performance of the program
devices as objects. The feeder is modeled as an object, which has been tested on 10-bus, 23 kV [25], 33-bus, 12.66 kV [26],
is an aggregation of several branch objects. This enhances the 69-bus 12.66 kV [27] and IEEE 37-bus [28] distribution sys-

Fig. 4. Class diagram of the distribution system with dispersed generation.

972 M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979

Table 4 Table 5
Comparison of convergence for various loading conditions Abbreviations used in the class names
Loading (p.u.) Number of iterations PN Phase to neutral connected CS Constant complex power
PP Phase to phase connected CI Constant current
33-Bus system 69-Bus system Y Star connected CZ Constant impedance
a F/B method a F/B method b NR method [9] D Delta connected TP Three-phase

0.5 2 2 3
1.0 2 2 2
abstract classes for loads, single phase load (Load) and three-
1.5 3 3 4
2.0 3 4 4 phase load (TPLoad), which do not instantiate any objects. The
2.5 4 5 6 common characteristics of any type of load such as power rating
a and voltage rating have been abstracted in the class Load. Three
F/B, forward backward sweep employed.
b NR, Newton–Raphson based. subclasses such as constant complex power load (CSLoad),
constant current load (CILoad) and constant impedance load
(CZLoad) have been derived from the class Load based on their
tems, respectively. To ensure the robustness of the algorithm,
functionality. Two more classes, load connected between phase
the developed program has been tested with 33-bus and 69-bus
and neutral (PNLoad) and load connected between two phases
radial systems for various loading conditions. Table 4 shows the
(PPLoad), have also been derived from class Load based on their
number of iterations required by this algorithm to converge for
physical connection. The abbreviations used in the class names
various loading conditions with an accuracy of 0.0001, which
are listed in Table 5.
are comparable with the results published in Ref. [9]. 3715 kW,
Fig. 5 shows the class hierarchy of single-phase loads in three-
2300 kvar for 33-bus system and 3802.2 kW, 2694.7 kvar for 69-
phase distribution systems. All the five classes mentioned above
bus system are considered as the base load (1.0 p.u.). The number
are still abstract classes since a load object should represent
of iterations required by backward/forward sweep method for
both the physical nature and the physical connection of a prac-
convergence is almost equal to that of the Newton–Raphson
tical load in software modeling. So, six more classes have been
based method. It can be observed from Table 4 that the number of
derived from the combination of the above five classes using
iterations required for the convergence is not affected by system
multiple inheritance technique of object-oriented paradigm.
size when the loading level is around the base value. However,
Combining CSLoad, CILoad and CZLoad, respectively, with
it is affected by system size as the loading level increases. The
PNLoad, the subclasses PNCSLoad, PNCILoad and PNCZLoad
load flow results have been compared with those published in
have been derived. Similarly, PPCSLoad, PPCILoad and PPC-
literatures [26–28] and found to be in exact agreement. Since the
ZLoad have been derived by combining CSLoad, CILoad and
present intention is to illustrate the extensibility of the object-
CZLoad, respectively, with PPLoad.
oriented methodology for developing the objects of unbalanced
distribution system using the objects of single-phase distribution
4.2. Three-phase load modeling
system, the single-phase load flow results are not reproduced in
this paper. The subsequent section deals with the object-oriented
Three-phase load modeling has been done by deriving six
modeling of unbalanced three-phase distribution system.
classes from the abstract base class TPLoad. Fig. 6 shows the
4. Object-oriented design of unbalanced distribution hierarchy of three-phase loads. Each three-phase load object is
system a composition of three single-phase loads. For example, three-
phase constant complex power star connected load (TPCSY-
4.1. Single-phase load modeling Load) object is a composition of three single-phase PNCSLoad
objects and three-phase constant impedance delta connected
The design proposed in this section starts with the object load (TPCZDLoad) object is a composition of three single-
modeling of loads and shunt devices. The design contains two phase PPCZLoad objects. Software modeling of reactive power

Fig. 5. Class diagram of single-phase load in three-phase systems.

M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979 973

Fig. 6. Class diagram of three-phase load representation.

compensating shunt devices has also been done similar to load regulator. The object of the class TPVoltageRegulator represents
modeling. The classes PNShunt and PPShunt have been used to the star connected three-phase voltage regulator. TPVoltageReg-
model the phase to neutral connected and phase to phase con- ulator is the composition of three SPVoltageRegulator. The
nected devices. The classes TPYShunt and TPDShunt have been prime attributes of the SPVoltageRegulator are its number, ref-
used to model the three-phase star and delta connected devices, erence to the connected bus, tap setting, tap range, voltage level,
respectively. voltage bandwidth and volts per tap. Fig. 7 shows a three-phase
star connected voltage regulator, which is a combination of three
4.3. Three-phase bus modeling single-phase voltage regulators connected between phase and
neutral. Fig. 8 shows the object-oriented representation of the
Three-phase buses have been considered as an object, which voltage regulator with important attributes.
is a composition of three single-phase bus objects. The three
single-phase bus objects correspond to the three individual phase 4.6. Two-phase component modeling
buses existing in the real world. Three specialized classes, three-
phase root node (TPRNode), three-phase fork node (TPFNode) Unbalanced distribution systems not only have three-phase
and three-phase terminal node (TPTNode), have been derived components but also have two-phase and single-phase compo-
from the base class three-phase bus (TPBus). TPRNode repre- nents, where the connected phases (a–b, b–c, c–a for two-phase
sents the substation bus. TPFNode represents the special bus, and a, b, c for single-phase) need to be taken into considera-
where the laterals are emanating from the main feeder and tion. Two-phase objects have been modeled as a composition
TPTNode represents the special bus, where the feeder sections of two single-phase objects. In order to represent the connected
terminate. phases, an additional attribute is included in the single-phase
4.4. Three-phase feeder modeling
4.7. Unbalanced distribution system modeling
Each three-phase feeder has been modeled as an object of
class TPFeeder, which is an aggregation of three-phase branch The unbalanced distribution system has been modeled as
objects of class TPBranch. TPBranch is an abstract class repre- an object of class unbalanced distribution system (UBDist-
senting any element connected between two three-phase buses. Sys), which is an aggregation of all three-phase feeders, two-
Two classes TPLine and TPTransformer have been derived from phase feeders, single-phase feeders, three-phase, two-phase and
the class TPBranch to model the transmission line and three- single-phase buses, etc. Fig. 9 shows the class diagram of a three-
phase transformer. The class TPTransformer is the base class phase unbalanced distribution system containing only important
for different kinds of three-phase transformers such as YGYG classes used. As shown in Fig. 9, three-phase unbalanced objects
connected and YGD connected, etc. Switches can also be mod-
eled as a specialized class of the base class TPBranch with zero

4.5. Three-phase voltage regulator modeling

Voltage regulators are connected along the distribution feed-

ers in order to regulate the voltages at the consumer premises.
Usually single-phase voltage regulators are connected between
phase and neutral; and three-phase voltage regulators are either
star connected or open delta connected. In this paper, only star
connected voltage regulators are considered. The object of the
class SPVoltageRegulator represents the single-phase voltage Fig. 7. Three-phase star connected voltage regulator.
974 M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979

Fig. 8. Class diagram of voltage regulator corresponding to Fig. 7.

have been created by aggregating three single-phase objects. performed through message passing. Association relationship
Two-phase objects have been created by aggregating two single- between the objects, which represent the physical or concep-
phase objects. These single-phase objects need not have identical tual connection, is useful to navigate from one object to another
values for their attributes, thus replicating the unbalanced con- object. All the objects, such as load, shunt and branch have mem-
dition. The impedances and admittances of the three-phase and ory address of the bus objects to which they are connected. The
two-phase transmission lines, cables are matrices consisting of association supports the representation of the complete physical
self and mutual impedances between phases. The impedance and system in the software. “Polymorphism” plays a major role to
admittance matrices are computed locally using the attributes implement the behavior of different kinds of branch and load
of single-phase objects. Communication between the objects is objects.

Fig. 9. Class diagram of unbalanced distribution system.

M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979 975

5. Unbalanced distribution system analysis The current through the branch ‘j’ near the receiving end bus
(j) is equal to the current near the sending end bus (j − 1), if
5.1. Load flow analysis of unbalanced distribution system the line charging admittances are neglected. If the line charg-
ing admittances are not negligible, then the current through the
The proposed object-oriented modeling has been applied branch ‘j’ near the sending end bus (j − 1) can be written as
to develop unbalanced load flow and short circuit analysis given in Eq. (3).
programs for radial distribution system in C++ [29]. Back-
k 1 abc abc k−1 k−1 k
ward/forward sweep method has been used to perform unbal- abc
[Ibr,j ] = [Yline,j ]{[Vj−1 ] + [Vjabc ] } + [Ibr,j+1
anced load flow analysis. Branch currents are updated during 2
the backward sweep and bus voltages are updated during the k
− [Ijabc ] (3)
forward sweep.
abc ] is the line charging admittance matrix of line ‘j’.
where [Yline,j
5.1.1. Backward/forward sweep method
In this section, the backward/forward sweep algorithm for Forward sweep
the unbalanced operation of distribution system with radial con-
figuration, assuming three-phase branches in a feeder (shown in 3. Calculate the nodal voltages
Fig. 10), is presented. Neglecting the line charging admittances
Considering the series branch ‘j’ connected between the buses k k k
‘j − 1’ and ‘j’: [Vjabc ] = [Vj−1
] − [Zline,j
abc abc
][Ibr,j ] (4)

Including the line charging admittances.

Backward sweep
k k
[Vjabc ] = [Vj−1
] − [Zline,j
1. Calculate the net nodal current injection vector using Eq. (1).  
abc k 1 abc abc k
k k k k × [Ibr,j ] − [Yline,j ][Vj−1 ] (5)
[Ijabc ] = [Is,j
] − ([IL,j
] + [Ish,j
] ) (1) 2
abc ] is the series impedance matrix of line ‘j’.
where [Zline,j
where k is the iteration number, [Ijabc ] the net current injec- 4. Check for convergence. Find the difference between the volt-
abc ] the injected current vector by
tion vector at bus ‘j’, [Is,j age magnitudes of three phases of all the buses computed in
abc ] the load current vector at two successive iterations. If the absolute value of the voltage
any source ‘s’ at bus ‘j’, [IL,j
k difference at all the buses are less than certain tolerance value,
abc ] is the current vector of the shunt device
bus ‘j’ and [Ish,j then terminate the process. Otherwise continue the backward
connected at bus ‘j’. and forward sweeping.
2. Calculate the branch current in all feeders using Eq. (2).
k k k 5.1.2. Sequence diagram for unbalanced load flow analysis
[Ibr,j ] = [Ibr,j+1
] − [Ijabc ] (2) In object-oriented implementation, a task is performed by
k the collaboration of objects with one another by sending mes-
abc ] is the current in the j + 1th branch or current
where [Ibr,j+1 sages. Messages are modeled in UML sequence diagrams that
leaving the jth bus. models the sequential logic; which in effect is the time ordering

Fig. 10. Series branches of three-phase distribution system.

976 M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979

Fig. 11. Sequence diagram for unbalanced load flow analysis.

of messages between objects [1,8]. The interaction between the phases of the “tpbus” object is computed locally at the three
distribution system objects (only three-phase objects are con- single-phase “bus” objects. Here, the code developed for
sidered for illustration) is shown in the sequence diagram of the computation of net current injection in the single-phase
the load flow module in Fig. 11. The objects “ubd”, “tpfeeder”, representation is completely reused.
“tpbranch”, “tpbus” and “bus” are instantiated by the classes 7. Once the backward sweep in all the feeders are completed,
UBDistSys, TPFeeder, TPBranch, TPBus and Bus, respectively. the “ubd” starts the forward sweep by invoking the method
The object unbalanced distribution system (“ubd”) reads the “doForwardCalculation ( )” of “tpfeeder”.
data and establishes the association relationship between its 8. “tpfeeder” invokes the “updateVoltage ( )” method of
objects. The execution of the load flow analysis module is briefly “tpbranch”.
described by the following 11 steps. Each step is indicated in 9. “tpbranch” calculates the voltage of its receiving end bus
Fig. 11 by the numerals. using KVL.
10. The method “setVoltage ( )” of object “tpbus” invokes the
1. “ubd” object reads the system data when “readData ( )” “setVoltage ( )” method of three “bus” objects to update the
method is invoked. individual phase voltages.
2. Associations between the objects are established by “estab- 11. Then, the object “ubd” checks for convergence. If the con-
lishLinks ( )” method of “ubd”. vergence criterion is not satisfied then “ubd” invokes the
3. The object “ubd” starts the load flow analysis by invoking “doBackwardCalculation ( )” and “doForwardCalcualtion
a method of object “tpfeeder” called “doBackwardCalcula- ( )” methods of object “tpfeeder” repeatedly.
tion ( )”.
4. In order to complete this task “tpfeeder” object invokes the 5.2. Short circuit analysis of unbalanced distribution
“findCurrent ( )” method of “tpbranch” object. system
5. “tpbranch” object computes the current flowing through it
using KCL after acquiring the information of net current The computation of short circuit currents for unbalanced
injected into its receiving end three-phase bus (“tpbus”). faults can be performed using symmetrical components. How-
6. The object “tpbus” is a composition of three single-phase ever, this method is not suitable for a system, which is inherently
“bus” objects. So, the net current injected into the individual unbalanced, such as a system with unequal mutual coupling
M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979 977

and unbalanced loads. Another technique called “phase frame is shown in Fig. 12. The execution of equivalent impedance cal-
method” is used to analyze faults in unbalanced three-phase dis- culation is briefly described by the following eight steps. Each
tribution feeders [30]. This section presents the object-oriented step is indicated in Fig. 12 by the numerals.
implementation of phase frame short circuit analysis.
Computation of the equivalent impedance between the fault 1. “ubd” object reads the system data when “readData ( )”
point and the source of fault current is the crucial part in the method is invoked.
short circuit analysis. The equivalent impedance includes the (i) 2. Associations between the objects are established by “estab-
total line impedance from the fault bus back to the substation, lishLinks ( )” method of “ubd”.
(ii) substation transformer impedance and (iii) system equivalent 3. “ubd” reads the fault bus number.
impedance as determined at the high voltage bus of the substa- 4. The object “ubd” obtains the feeder number along which the
tion. This calculation involves tracing the path connecting the fault bus is located, by invoking “getOwnFeeder ( )” method.
fault point and the substation. This path may consist of several 5. “ubd” sends a message to the particular feeder to find the
feeders, which are the aggregation of branches such as transmis- total impedance between the given “tpbus” and its starting
sion lines, transformers and switches. In traditional methods, if node.
the data structure used to store the branch data does not cap- 6. “tpfeeder” invokes the “getBranchImpedance ( )” method of
ture the radial topology of the distribution network, then it will all its branches and calculates the total impedance.
be inflexible to find the path connecting the fault point and the 7. “tpfeeder” gives its starting node address as a response to the
substation. But, in object-oriented methodology, the association “getStartingNode ( )” message.
relationship between the objects, which reflects the real world 8. If the given “tpbus” is the root node then “ubd” stops the
physical connection of the branches, makes the task simpler. process. Otherwise it again invokes the “getOwnFeeder ( )”
The sequence diagram for the equivalent impedance calculation method of “tpbus”.

Fig. 12. Sequence diagram for equivalent impedance calculation.

978 M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979

Table 7
Fault current for different faults at bus 671 of IEEE 13-Node radial system
Fault type Phases involved Fault current (p.u.)

Phase A Phase B Phase C

3 Phase ABC 24.88 25.67 24.61

3Ph-ground ABCG 24.65 25.78 24.73
LL AB 21.83 21.83 0
LL BC 0 21.59 21.59
LL CA 21.68 0 21.68
LLG ABG 21.89 26.19 0
LLG BCG 0 22.342 25.51
LLG CAG 25.74 0 22.19
LG AG 22.77 0 0
LG BG 0 22.78 0
LG CG 0 0 22.82
Fig. 13. IEEE 13-Node radial system.

Once the equivalent impedance of the path connecting the

be observed from Table 6 that the unbalance in the loading and
fault point and the substation is computed, “ubd” calculates the
unequal mutual coupling between the phases of transmission
fault current for a particular type of fault using the associated
lines make the bus voltages unbalanced.
mathematical relationship [30]. Sequence diagram representa-
Balanced and unbalanced fault analyses have been performed
tion gives better understanding of the time sequence of the
on the IEEE 13-Node system. The data of the substation trans-
method calls and collaboration of the objects involved in a par-
former serving the feeder is assumed to be 5000 kVA, 115 kV-
ticular task of the system.
/4.16 kV-GrY and Z = 1.0 + j8.0%. Three-phase short circuit
MVA on the 115 kV bus of the substation is 1800 MVA at an
5.3. Results and discussion angle of 85◦ . The fault resistance is assumed to be 2 . Fault is
created at node 671 (shown in Fig. 13). The short circuit cur-
The developed programs have been tested using IEEE 13- rents obtained at three phases for various faults are tabulated in
Node, IEEE 34-Node and IEEE 123-Node distribution systems Table 7.
[15]. In this section, IEEE 13-Node system has been chosen
for illustration. IEEE 13-Node system has all three-phase, two-
phase and single-phase lines. Fig. 13 is the single line diagram 6. Conclusion
of 4.16 kV IEEE 13-Node radial system.
Unbalanced distribution load flow analysis has been per- A flexible object-oriented model has been proposed for
formed on this system using the developed object-oriented pro- unbalanced distribution system. The extensibility of the object-
gram and the results have been verified with Ref. [15]. Voltage oriented methodology has been exploited for obtaining the
magnitude and phase angle of all the buses for three phases are unbalanced three-phase distribution system model from a single-
tabulated in Table 6. The notations TP, DP and SP stand for three- phase model. This enhances the code reusability and reduces the
phase, two/double-phase and single-phase, respectively. It can development time.

Table 6
Bus voltage magnitude and phase angle of IEEE 13-Node radial system
Bus no. Bus class Voltage

Phase A Phase B Phase C

Magnitude (p.u.) Angle (Degree) Magnitude (p.u.) Angle (Degree) Magnitude (p.u.) Angle (Degree)

650 TP 1.000 0.00 1.000 −120.00 1.000 120.00

632 TP 1.021 −2.47 1.042 −121.73 1.017 117.81
671 TP 0.989 −5.26 1.054 −122.36 0.977 115.99
684 DP (AC) 0.988 −5.28 – – 0.975 115.89
645 DP (BC) – – 1.033 −121.91 1.015 117.85
633 TP 1.018 −2.54 1.041 −121.79 1.014 117.79
692 TP 0.989 −5.26 1.054 −122.36 0.977 115.99
646 DP (BC) – – 1.031 −121.98 1.013 117.89
634 TP 0.994 −3.21 1.022 −122.24 0.996 117.32
611 SP (C) – – – – 0.973 115.75
675 TP 0.983 −5.51 1.056 −122.52 0.975 116.02
652 SP (A) 0.981 −5.21 – – – –
680 TP 0.989 −5.26 1.054 −122.36 0.977 115.98
M.P. Selvan, K.S. Swarup / Electric Power Systems Research 76 (2006) 968–979 979

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