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What is CBFM? People first and sustainable forestry will follow sums up the concept of CBFM.

The Government believes that by addressing the needs of local communities, they themselves will join hands to protect and manage the very source of their livelihood. CBFM goals include promoting: Sustainable management of forest resources Social justice and improved well-being of local communities Strong partnership among local communities and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. What is the scope of CBFM? CBFM applies to all areas classified as forest lands, including allowable zones within protected areas not covered by prior vested rights. The program integrates and unifies all people-oriented forestry activities of the Integrated Social Forestry program, Community Forestry Program, Coastal Environment Program, and Recognition of Ancestral Domains. What are the features of CBFM? Security of Tenure. The Community-Based Forest Management Agreement (CBFMA) entitles forest communities to use and develop the forestland and resources for duration of 25 years. Social Equity. Social justice is a basic principle underlying CBFM in granting forest communities and comprehensive rights to use and develop forest resources. DENR and LGU Partnership. DENR and LGUs provide technical assistance to CBFM participants to help them attain sustainable forest management. Investment Capital and Market Linkage. CBFM helps participants access investment capital, identify markets, and build marketing capabilities. Who can participate in CBFM? The principal participants of the program are local communities including indigenous people represented by their Peoples Organization (POs) and traditional tribal councils whose members are: Actually tilling portions of the area to be awarded, or Traditionally using the resource for all or substantial portion of their livelihood, or Residing in or adjacent to the areas to be awarded. What are the roles of DENR & LGUs? A strong DENR-LGU partnership is vital to the success of CBFM. DENR and LGUs, in active collaboration with other sectors, are working together to help strengthen local forest communities in managing forest resources. The DENR-LGU partnership in CBFM has resulted in substantial LGU financial support for forestland use planning, community organizing, technical training, and IEC. DENR and the LGU: Identify potential CBFM sites, plan forest land uses with communities, and endorse and issue CBFMAs Organize and prepare CBFM communities for a CBFMA Provide technical assistance and skills training for CBFM communities Monitor progress and environmental impact of CBFM activities What are the roles of POs? Join DENR and the LGU in making a forest land use plan and prepare a Community Resources Management Framework (CRMF) including the POs Mission and Objectives Represent the interest of their forest communities Protect and maintain forest land entrusted to their stewardship

INTEGRATED FOREST MANAGEMENT Industrial Forest Plantation refers to any tract of forestland planted to tree crops primarily to supply the raw material requirements of existing or proposed wood processing and energy generating plants, and related industries. It has its early beginning in 1975 as Industrial Tree Plantation (ITP) with the promulgation of PD 705 otherwise known as the Revised Forestry Reform Code. The implementing guidelines for which were provided in Ministry Administrative Order No. 04, series of 1980. The areas available then were the open, denuded and inadequacy stocked residual natural forest areas within the concession. It was renamed as Industrial Forest Management (IFM) since its coverage has been expanded to allow the planting of non-timber products like bamboo, rattan and rubber. Likewise, the activities under the program was expanded to include not just the industrial plantation development and related activities but also the management and protection of the natural forest. (Embodied under DAO No. 42, series of 1992 and DAO No. 4, series of 1997. Recently, under DAO 99-53 which superseded and repealed DAO Nos. 91-42, 94-60, and 97-04, Industrial Forest Management Agreement was again renamed as Integrated Forest Management Agreement (IFMA). An IFMA is a production sharing contract entered into by and between the DENR and a qualified applicant wherein the DENR grants to the latter the exclusive right to develop, manage, protect and utilize a specified area of forestland and forest resources therein for a period of 25 years and may be renewed for another 25-year period, consistent with the principle of sustainable development and in accordance with an approved Comprehensive Development and Management Plan (CDMP), and under which both parties share in its produce. As of 31 December 2001, 185 IFMAs were issued with an aggregate area of 612,728 hectares, out of which, a total of 124,368 hectares have been planted. What are the objectives of an IFMA? 1. Attain a balanced, productive, and effectively functioning forest ecosystem thru the sustainable management of forests and the rehabilitation of degraded forestlands; 2. Ensure continuous supply of wood and non-wood products by encouraging all sectors to engage in the development of Industrial Forest Plantations; 3. Improve the economic well-being of upland people and communities dependent on forest resources by ensuring equitable access to forest resources. What are the areas available for IFMA? 1. Open and denuded lands, brushlands, degraded residual natural forest; 2. Areas covered by cancelled/expired Forest Land Grazing Agreement or pasture permits or leases; 3. Government reforestation projects or portions thereof found to be more suitable as IFP; 4. Production residual natural forest that may be best included in the aforementioned area; and 5. Areas under cancelled and expired TLAs; provided, areas under existing TLAs may be allowed for conversion to IFMA. What are the sizes of the areas allowed for IFMA? 1. Minimum of 500 hectares and the maximum size may depend upon the capability of the applicant to develop and manage to productive condition, but not to exceed 40,000. 2. For TLA conversion into IFMA, the size of the IFMA area may extend up to the size of the TLA area at the time of conversion. Who are qualified to apply for an IFMA? 1. Filipino citizen of legal age; or, 2. Partnership, cooperative or corporation whether public or private, duly registered under Philippine laws; 3. TLA holders who have signified their intention to convert their TLA prior to the expiry of the TLA, provided that the TLA holder has showed satisfactory performance and have complied with the terms and conditions of the TLA and pertinent rules and regulations.

What are the application requirements? 1. Application fee in the amount of P0.50/ha. and survey fee of P50.00/ha., plus actual transport cost of the survey team from the official station to the site in consonance with the provisions of DAO No. 93-18. 2. For corporation, partnership, association or cooperative: a. Certified copy of Certificate of Registration with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and/or the Cooperative Development Authority (CDA); b. Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws and a list of present officers and stockholders, duly certified by the Board Secretary. c. Audited financial statements for two (2) preceding years, if the applicant was already in existence; and d. A Resolution authorizing any of the officers to file the application in behalf of the corporation, partnership, association or cooperative duly certified by the Board Secretary. What is the procedure in the processing of IFMA applications? 1. In the Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) except in the case of TLA conversion into IFMA, the CENRO shall accept and process IFMA application on a first-come-first-serve basis; verifies if area is included in the approved IFMA site and the availability thereof per the Registry. Conducts field inspection and thereafter, prepares the IFMA in the prescribed form and shall endorse the application documents to the PENRO with his recommendation for approval; otherwise, same shall be returned to the applicant with his comments. 2. In the Provincial Environment and Natural Resources (PENRO) shall within five (5) working days from receipt thereof evaluate/review the documents and if found in order, shall endorse the same to the RED concerned with his recommendations for approval, otherwise, same shall be returned with his comments to the CENRO concerned for further action. 3. At the Regional Environment and Natural Resources Office (RENRO) the RED shall evaluate/review the application documents within five (5) working days from receipt thereof. If in order, shall forward the IFMA, together with all application documents and his recommendations for approval to the Secretary; thru the FMB director; otherwise, same shall be returned by the RED with his comments to the CENRO concerned for further action. 4. At the Forest Management Bureau (FMB), the FMB Director shall within five (5) working days evaluate and review the application documents. If all are found in order, shall recommend to the Secretary the approval of the IFMA; otherwise same shall be returned by the FMB Director with his comments to the concerned RED, copy furnished the Secretary. 5. At the Office of the Secretary (OSEC), the Secretary may approve or disapprove the IFMA afterwhich the notice of approval shall be sent to the applicant, copy furnished the FMB, RENRO, PENRO, CENRO and LGUs concerned. When is an Initial Environment Examination (IEE) required? An IEE is required after the IFMA has been awarded in order to identify the environmental impacts that have to be addressed in the development of IFP. What are included in the IEE checklist to be prepared? 1. Brief description of the project and its process of operations; 2. Description of the environmental setting and receiving environment including primary and secondary impact areas; 3. Description of the environmental and socio-economic impacts of the project; 4. Matrix of the mitigation/enhancement measures; 5. Consultation and discussion with upland communities and indigenous peoples within the IFMA area about the socio-economic, political and cultural impacts of the project; 6. Documentation of the consultative process undertaken and agreements that shall be followed; 7. Discussion on gender issues with significant impact on women, including their roles/participation in project implementation; and 8. Accountability statements of the proponents and preparers.

What are the responsibilities of the IFMA holders? The IFMA holder shall have the following responsibilities: 1. Conduct delineation and marking on the ground of the perimeter boundaries of the IFMA including timber inventory at 5% intensity. 2. Submit Comprehensive Development and Management Plan (CDMP) within one (1) year from the date of approval of the IFMA and an Initial Environment Examination (IEE). 3. Submit to the FMB within one (1) year from date of award of the IFMA and every five (5) years thereafter, up-to-date aerial photos or landsat imageries including interpretation map covering the entire IFMA area which can be waived if there is no natural forest and the area regardless of vegetative cover is less than 5,000 hectares. 4. Implement the mitigation/enhancement measures in the IEE and comply with ECC conditions. 5. Plant timber species but not excluding rubber, durian, rattan and bamboo. 6. Limit planting of agricultural crops to 10% of the IFMA area. 7. If included in the CDMP, convert the degraded residual natural forest into productive state, either thru a) enrichment planting, Timber Stand Improvement and assisted natural regeneration; b) establishing plantations if rattan or other suitable non-timber species; and/or c) clearing of natural vegetative and establishing IFP. 8. Manage and protect production residual forest and if authorized in the approved CDMP harvest and utilize naturally grown trees on a sustainable basis. 9. No timber harvesting within old growth on protection forest such as those areas with more than 50% slope and 20 meters on both sides of rivers and streams. 10. Reforest open/denuded lands found within areas classified as protection forestlands and within 20 meters strips from both sides of river banks. 11. Protect and conserve unique, rare and endangered flora and fauna. 12. Construct permanent structure and roads within the IFMA area only in accordance with the approved CDMP and Operations Plan (OP)/ 13. Employ as many experienced registered forester as may be required. 14. Submit Annual Accomplishment Reports. What are the responsibilities of the DENR? The DENR shall have the following responsibilities: 1. Ensure that all prescribed requirements are strictly complied with; 2. Make available to IFMA holder all information it possesses on the area; 3. Assist the IFMA holder and host communities in the development and execution of mutually beneficial agreements. 4. Not after or modify the boundaries or legal status of any IFMA area, once established, settle boundary conflicts; 5. Promote and/or approve joint venture, financing and/or securitization schemes. Is the IFMA holder entitled to receive compensation? Yes. The government shall compensate the IFMA holder for the fair market value of permanent improvements introduced, such as plantation forest crops remaining in the area upon: 1. expiration of the IFMA 2. termination of the IFMA when public interest demands; or 3. reduction of the IFMA area for right-of-way or when public interest demands And if the government retracts, for reasons other than cause, IFMA holders rights to carry out harvest in residual natural forest, in accordance with the approved CDMP. What are the incentives for the IFMA holder? 1. May interplant secondary crops between trees within areas designated for IFP. 2. All trees and other crops established pursuant to the IFMA belong to the IFMA holder who shall have the right to harvest, sell and utilize such trees and crops. 3. Allow the IFMA holder without restriction to export logs, lumber and forest products derived from IFMA area; provided that logs harvested from naturally growing trees (not planted) in the IFMA area and the lumber manufactured from such logs will not be exported.

4. All plantation products derived from an IFMA area shall be exempted from forest charges; provided, that logs from trees growing naturally (not planted) and other forest products naturally growing in an IFMA as well as logs from trees planted in compliance with TLA reforestation obligations of TLAs shall be subject to forest charges stipulated in RA 7161. 5. Entitlement to all relevant incentives provided for under the Omnibus Investment Code and to all applicable incentives enumerated under Section 36 of PD 705, as amended. 6. Transfer developed plantations that are at least three (3) years old to a cooperative upon fair compensation or payment thereof by the cooperative itself or through a financing institution or to open up public investment. 7. Use stable plantation crops that are at least three (3) years old as collateral or security for loans offered by the government development banks, financial institutions, or government-owned and controlled corporations. 8. IFMA holders who has satisfactorily complied with the terms and conditions of the IFMA may be allowed an additional area to be existing IFMA area or a new IFMA but not to exceed 40,000 hectares. What offices will be contacted for technical assistance? 1. Community Environment and Natural resources Office (CENRO); 2. Provincial Environment and Natural Resource Office (PENRO); 3. DENR Regional Environment and Natural Resource Office (RENRO); and 4. Forest Management Bureau (FMB), Diliman, Quezon City SOCIALIZED INDUSTRIAL FOREST MANAGEMENT AGREEMENT (SIFMA) The urgency of establishing forest plantation in the Philippines is well documented and undeniable in view of the increasing need for wood and other forest products and the need to protect the fragile forest ecosystem. This has been felt not only by the government but also by the different sectors of the society. Over a 25-year, the country envisions to establish 3 million hectares of forest plantation in order to augment the wood supply from the sustainably managed residual forest. This is an enormous task needing a huge amount of money which could hardly be undertaken by the government alone. Thus, the participation of the private is being encouraged. A prerequisite for a successful plantation program is to put the plantation under proper management as soon as possible. In this regard, the countrys forestry master plan has recognized the significance of involving the local communities, families, and individuals in the establishment management of tree plantations. It is this context that the Socialized Industrial Forest Management Agreement (SIFMA) was launched by virtue of Department Administrative Order (DAO) No. 24, Series of 1996, the detailed of which are discussed in this Primer. What Is Socialized Industrial Forest Management Agreement (SIFMA)? It is an agreement entered into by and between a natural or juridical person and the DENR wherein the latter grants to the former the right to develop, utilize and manage a small tract of forestland consistent with the principle of Sustainable development. What Are The Objectives Of SIFM Program? 1. To increase supply of wood and other forest products; 2. To accelerate reforestation and rehabilitation of the countrys open and denuded forest lands and effective protection of existing natural forest. 3. To conserve soil and water biodiversity and enhance environmental condition in general; 4. To generate additional sources of income and livelihood and help in the economic upliftment of the people in the upland; and 5. To have more equitable access to forest resources development. What Are The Areas Available For SIFMA? Grasslands, brushlands and open and denuded forestlands under the jurisdiction of the DENR, including government reforestation projects that are not otherwise classified under the National Integrated

Protected Areas System (NIPAS) nor subject of Certificate of Ancestral Land Claim (CALC), vested rights, licenses, permits or management agreements. Who Are Qualified To Apply For SIFMA? 1. Individual/single family units who are Filipino citizens, of legal age and preferably residents of the municipality where the area is located. 2. Cooperatives and associations whose members are Filipino citizens residing in the province where the SIFMA site is located. How Is The Management Of The Area Awarded To Qualified Applicants? It is awarded to qualified applicant on a first-come, first-serve basis. It shall be issued in the name of the applicant, provided that in case of married individuals, it shall be issued in the name of both spouses. What Are The Application Requirements? 1. A filing fee in the amount of: P500.00 for applications covering 1 to 5 ha. P1,000.00 for applications for areas over 5 ha. to 10 ha. P5,000.00 for applications for areas over 10 ha. to 100 ha. P7,500.00 for applications for areas over 100 ha. to 300 ha. P10,000.00 for applications for areas over 300 ha. to 500 ha. Filing fees may be adjusted upon review. 2. Sketch map of the area 3. For individuals/family units 3.1 Community Tax Certificate 3.2 Certification from the Barangay Captain and Municipality/City Mayor that the applicant is a resident of the area where the site is located. 3.3 If a government employee, authorization from the head of the department or agency where the applicant is employed. 4. For cooperatives/associations 4.1 Certified true copy of the Certificate of Registration with the Cooperative Development Authority (CDA) or Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). 4.2 List of duly elected officers and members and their addresses, duly certified by the board Secretary. 4.3 Resolution/minutes of meeting, duly certified by the Board Secretary, indicating the cooperative or associations interest in participating in the program. What Is The Procedure In Processing Issuance Of SIFMA Applications? 1. In the CENRO 1.1 Application is accepted and processed on a first-come, first-served basis. 1.2 Qualification of the applicants and the completeness of the documents are checked. 1.3 Applied area is verified if available and within the approved areas for SIFMA. 1.4 Validation is conducted with regard to the actual condition of the area. 1.5 Application is forwarded to the PENRO. 2. In the PENRO 2.1 Application is reviewed and evaluated. 2.2 SIFMA is prepared in the prescribed format and approved if area cover 1 to 10 hectares. For bigger areas, application is forwarded to the RED. 3. In the Office of the RED 3.1 Application documents are checked and evaluated. 3.2 Application is approved; otherwise, a notice denying the application shall be issued. What Are The Incentives To The SIFMA Holders? 1. All planted trees belong to the SIFMA holder who shall have the right to harvest, sell and utilize such trees and crops, except those retained for environment purposes;

2. Export of logs, lumber and other forest products harvested from the SIFMA shall be allowed by the DENR in accordance with the government allocation system; 3. All plantation products derived from the SIFMA area shall be exempted from payment of the forest charges; 4. Participants in this program who are actual occupants shall be given priority in the event rules, regulations or laws in the future shall allow a more permanent tenurial arrangement; 5. No restrictions on the use of the SIFMA and the improvements in the SIFMA area, as collateral for obtaining loans for the improvement of the SIFMA area, provided, that there is prior approval of the issuing authority of the SIFMA; and 6. Technical assistance should SIFMA holders wish to confederate into a larger organization. What Is The Actual Rental To Be Paid By The SIFMA Holder For The Use Of The Land? Annual rental is paid under the following schedules: 1st to 5th year of SIFMA no rental 6th to 10th year 300 per ha. 11th year & thereafter 500 per ha. What Offices Will Be Contacted For Technical Assistance? 1. Community Environment and Natural Resources Office (CENRO) 2. Provincial Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO) 3. DENR Regional Environment and Natural Resources Office (RENRO) 4. Forest Management Bureau, Diliman, Q.C. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) VOCs are organic compounds that can be isolated from the water phase of a sample by purging the water sample with inert gas, such as helium, and, subsequently, analyzed by gas chromatography. Many VOCs are human-made chemicals that are used and produced in the manufacture of paints, adhesives, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, and refrigerants. They often are compounds of fuels, solvents, hydraulic fluids, paint thinners, and dry-cleaning agents commonly used in urban settings. VOC contamination of drinking water supplies is a human-health concern because many are toxic and are known or suspected human carcinogens. - U.S. Geological Survey, 2005 Sulfur oxides (SOx) - A general term used to describe the oxides of sulfur - pungent, colorless gases formed primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. Sulfur oxides, which are considered major air pollutants, may damage the respiratory tract as well as vegetation. Particulate Matter (PM) are tiny subdivisions of solid matter suspended in a gas or liquid. In contrast, aerosol refers to particles and/or liquid droplets and the gas together. Sources of particulate matter can be man made or natural. Air pollution and water pollution can take the form of solid particulate matter, or be dissolved. Salt is an example of a dissolved contaminant in water, while sand is generally a solid particulate. PM10 refers to particles with a diameter of ten microns (one-millionth of a meter) or less. One thousand particles of this size could fit into the period at the end of this sentence. PM10, also referred to as "coarse particulate", comes from a wide variety of stationary, mobile, and natural sources. For example, power production, cement manufacturing, combustion sources, fireplaces, diesel trucks, and forest fires are all sources of particulate emissions. Particulate Matter 2.5 - refers to tiny particles or droplets in the air that are two and one half microns or less in width. Like inches, meters and miles, a micron is a unit of measurement for distance. There are about 25,000 microns in an inch. The widths of the larger particles in the PM2.5 size range would be about thirty times smaller than that of a human hair. The smaller particles are so small that several thousand of them could fit on the period at the end of this sentence.

Total Suspended Particulates Tiny airborne particles or aerosols that are less than 100 micrometers are collectively referred to as total suspended particulate matter (TSP). These particles constantly enter the atmosphere from many sources. Human sources include: Motor vehicle use. Combustion products from space heating. Industrial processes. Power generation. Natural sources include: Soil. Bacteria and viruses. Fungi, molds and yeast. Pollen. Salt particles from evaporating sea water. Normal Cubic Meter (NCM) - volume of dry gas which occupies a cubic meter measured at 25C at an absolute pressure equivalent to 760 mm Hg. An air shed is a part of the atmosphere that behaves in a coherent way with respect to the dispersion of atmospheric emissions. The Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999(RA 8749) and its Implementing Rules and Regulations (DAO 2000-81) define the air shed as areas with similar climate, weather, meteorology and topography which affect the interchange and diffusion of pollutants in the atmosphere". SEC. 3.2 Definition a. Public forest is the mass of lands of the public domain which has not been subject to the present system of classification for the determination of which lands are needed for forest purposes and which are not. b. Permanent forest or forest reserves refers to those lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes. c. Alienable or disposable lands refers to those lands of the public domain which have been the subject of the present system of classification and declared as not needed for forest purposes. d. Forest land includes the public forest, the permanent forest or forest reserves, and forest reservations. e. Grazing land refers to that portion of the public domain which has been set aside, in view of the suitability of its topography and vegetation, for the raising of livestock. f. Mineral lands refers to those lands of the public domain which have been classified as such by the Secretary of Natural Resources3 in accordance with prescribed and approved criteria, guidelines and procedure. g. Forest reservations refer to forest lands which have been reserved by the President of the Philippines for any specific purpose or purposes. h. National park4 refers to a forest land reservation essentially of primitive or wilderness character which has been withdrawn from settlement or occupancy and set aside as such exclusively to preserve the scenery, the natural and historic objects and the wild animals or plants therein, and to provide enjoyment of these features in such a manner as will leave them unimpaired for future generations.

i. Game refuge or bird sanctuary refers to a forest land designated for the protection of game animals, birds and fish and closed to hunting and fishing in order that the excess population may flow and restock surrounding areas. j. Marine park refers to any public offshore area delimited as habitat of rare and unique species of marine flora and fauna. k. Seashore park refers to any public shore area delimited for outdoor recreation, sports fishing, water skiing and related healthful activities. l. Watershed reservation is a forest land reservation established to protect or improve the conditions of the water yield thereof or reduce sedimentation. m. Watershed is a land area drained by a stream or fixed body of water and its tributaries having a common outlet for surface runoff. n. Critical watershed is a drainage area of a river system supporting existing and proposed hydroelectric power, irrigation works or domestic water facilities needing immediate protection or rehabilitation. o. Mangrove is a term applied to the type of forest occurring on tidal flat along the sea coast, extending along stream where the water is brackish. p. Kaingin refers to a portion of the forest land which is subjected to shifting and/or permanent slash-and-burn cultivation. q. Forest product means timber, pulpwood, firewood, bark, tree top, resin, gum, wood, oil, honey, beeswax, nipa, rattan, or other forest growth such as grass, shrub, and flowering plant, the associated water, fish, game, scenic, historical, recreational and geologic resources in forest lands. r. Dipterocarp forest is a forest dominated by trees of the dipterocarp species, such as red lauan, tanguile, tiaong, white lauan, almon, bagtikan, and mayapis of the Philippine mahogany group, apitong and the yakals. s. Pine forest is a forest type predominantly of pine trees. t. Industrial tree plantation refers to any forest land extensively planted to tree crops primarily to supply raw material requirements of existing or proposed wood processing

plants and related industries. u. Tree farm refers to any small forest land or tract of land purposely planted to tree crops. v. Agro-forestry is a sustainable management for land which increases overall production, combines agriculture crops, tree crops and forest plants and/or animals simultaneously or sequentially, and applies management practices which are compatible with the cultural patterns of the local population. w. Multiple-use is the harmonized utilization of the land, soil, water, wildlife, recreation value, grass and timber of forest lands. x. Selective logging is the systematic removal of the mature, over-mature and defective trees in such manner as to leave adequate number and volume of healthy residual trees of the desired species necessary to assure a future crop of timber, and forest cover for the protection and conservation of soil, water and wildlife. y. Seed tree system is a silvicultural system characterized by partial clearcutting leaving seed-trees to regenerate the area. z. Healthy residual refers to a sound or slightly injured tree of the commercial species left after logging. aa. Sustained-yield management implies continuous or periodic production of forest products in a working unit for the purpose of achieving at the earliest practicable time an approximate balance between growth and harvest or use. This is generally applied to the commercial timber resources and is also applicable to the water, grass, wildlife, and other renewable resources of the forest. bb. Processing plant is any mechanical setup, device, machine or combination of machines used for the conversion of logs and other forest raw materials into lumber, veneer, plywood, fiberboard, blockboard, paper board, pulp, paper or other finished wood products. cc. Lease is a privilege granted by the State to a person to occupy and possess, in consideration of specified rental, any forest land of the public domain in order to undertake any authorized activity therein. dd. License is a privilege granted by the State to a person to utilize forest resources within any forest land, without any right of occupation and possession over the same, to the exclusion of others, or establish and operate a wood-processing plant, or conduct any activity involving the utilization of any forest resources. ee. License agreement is a privilege granted by the State to a person to utilize forest resources within any forest land with the right of possession and occupation thereof to the exclusion of others, except the government, but with the corresponding obligation to develop, protect and rehabilitate the same in accordance with the terms and conditions set forth in said agreement. ff. Permit is short-term privilege or authority granted by the State to a person to utilize any limited forest resources or undertake a limited activity within any forest land without any right of occupation and possession therein.

gg. Annual allowable cut is the volume of materials, whether of wood or other forest products, that is authorized to be cut yearly from a forest. hh. Cutting cycle is the number of years between two major harvests in the same working unit and/or region. ii. Forest ecosystem refers to the living and non-living components of a forest and their interaction. jj. Silviculture is the establishment, development, reproduction and care of forest trees. kk. Rationalization is the organization of a business or industry using management principles, systems and procedures to attain stability, efficiency and profitability of operation. ll. Forest officer means any official or employee of the Bureau who has been appointed or delegated by law or by competent authority to execute, implement or enforce the provisions of this Code, other related laws, as well as their implementing regulations. mm. Private right means or refers to titled rights of ownership under existing laws, and in the case of national minority to rights of possession existing at the time a license is granted under this Code, which possession may include places of abode and worship, burial grounds, and old clearings, but exclude productive forest inclusive of logged-over areas, commercial forests and established plantations of forest trees and trees of economic values. nn. Person includes natural as well as juridical person. Afforestation is the process of planting trees, saplings or seeds on non-forest land. In other words, afforestation is the term used for the process of creating a forest on land where there is no forest or where no forest has existed for a long time. Afforestation is a controversial issue because while many ancient woodlands of mixed trees are being lost, the new plantations consist almost exclusively of conifers. It is claimed that such plantations acidify the soil and conflict with the interests of biodiversity (they replace more ancient and ecologically valuable species and do not sustain wildlife a. Air pollutant means any matter found in the atmosphere other than oxygen, nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and the inert gases in their natural or normal concentrations, that is detrimental to health or the environment, which includes, but not limited to smoke, dust, soot, cinders, fly ash, solid particles of any kind, gases, fumes, chemical mists, steam and radioactive substances; b. Air pollution means any alteration of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the atmospheric air, or any discharge thereto of any liquid, gaseous or solid substances that will or is likely to create or to render the air resources of the country harmful, detrimental, or injurious to public health, safety or welfare or which will adversely affect their utilization for domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, recreational, or other legitimate purposes; c. Ambient air quality guideline values means the concentration of air over specified periods classified as short-term and long-term which are intended to serve as goals or objectives for the protection of health and/or public welfare. These values shall be used for air quality management purposes such as determining time trends, evaluating stages of deterioration or enhancement

of the air quality, and in general, used as basis for taking positive action in preventing, controlling, or abating air pollution; d. Ambient air quality means the general amount of pollution present in a broad area; and refers to the atmospheres average purity as distinguished from discharge measurements taken at the source of pollution; e. Certificate of Conformity refers to a certificate issued by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources to a vehicle manufacturer/assembler or importer certifying that a particular new vehicle or vehicle type meets the requirements provided under this Act and its rules and regulations; f. Department means the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; g. Eco-profile means the geographic-based instrument for planners and decision makers which present an evaluation of the environment quality and carrying capacity of an area. It is the result of the integration of primary data and information on natural resources and antropogenic activities on the land which were evaluated by various environmental risk assessment and forecasting methodologies that enable the Department to anticipate the type of development control necessary in the planning area. h. Emission means any air contaminant, pollutant, gas stream or unwanted sound from a known source which is passed into the atmosphere; i. Greenhouse gases means those gases that can potentially or can reasonably be expected to induce global warming, which include carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, chloroflourocarbons, and the like; j. Hazardous substances means those substances which present either: 1) shortterm acute hazards such as acute toxicity by ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption, corrosivity or other skin or eye contact hazard or the risk of fire explosion; or 2) longterm toxicity upon repeated exposure, carcinogecity (which in some cases result in acute exposure but with a long latent period), resistance to detoxification process such as biodegradation, the potential to pollute underground or surface waters; k. Infectious waste means that portion of medical waste that could transmit an infectious disease; l. Medical waste means the materials generated as a result of patient diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of human beings or animals; m. Mobile source means any vehicle propelled by or through combustion of carbonbased or other fuel, constructed and operated principally for the conveyance of persons

or the transportation of property goods; n. Motor vehicle means any vehicle propelled by a gasoline or diesel engine or by any means other than human or animal power, constructed and operated principally for the conveyance of persons or the transportation of property or goods in a public highway or street open to public use; o. Municipal waste means the waste materials generated from communities within a specific locality; p. New vehicle means a vehicle constructed entirely from new parts that has never been sold or registered with the DOTC or with the appropriate agency or authority, and operated on the highways of the Philippines, any foreign state or country; q. Octane rating or the Anti-Knock Index (AKI) means the rating of the antiknock characteristics of a grade or type of automotive gasoline as determined by dividing by two (2) the sum of the Research Octane Number (RON), plus the Motor Octane Number (MON); the octane requirement, with respect to automotive gasoline for use in a motor vehicle or a class thereof, whether imported, manufactured, or assembled by a manufacturer, shall refer to the minimum octane rating of such automotive gasoline which such manufacturer recommends for the efficient operation of such motor vehicle, or a substantial portion of such class, without knocking; r. Ozone Depleting Substances (ODS) means those substances that significantly deplete or otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner that is likely to result in adverse effects of human health and the environment such as, but not limited to, chloroflourocarbons, halons and the like; s. Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) means the organic compounds that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. These compounds resist photolytic, chemical and biological degradation, which shall include but not be limited to dioxin, furan, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides, such as aldrin, dieldrin, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, lindane, toxaphere and chlordane; t. Poisonous and toxic fumes means any emissions and fumes which are beyond internationally accepted standards, including but not limited to the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline values; u. Pollution control device means any device or apparatus used to prevent, control or abate the pollution of air caused by emissions from identified pollution sources at levels within the air pollution control standards established by the Department; v. Pollution control technology means the pollution control devices, production process, fuel combustion processes or other means that effectively prevent or reduce emissions or effluent; w. Standard of performance means a standard for emissions of air pollutant which reflects the degree of emission limitation achievable through the application of the best system of emission reduction, taking into account the cost of achieving such reduction and any non-air quality health and environmental impact and energy requirement which the Department determines, and adequately demonstrates; and x. Stationary source means any building or immobile structure, facility, or installation which emits or may emit any air pollutant.