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Was haben alle Kulturen gemeinsam? Diese Frage versuchen Universalienforscher zu beantworten. Sie stellen Listen auf, in denen Dutzende Gemeinsamkeiten verzeichnet sind und streiten dann ber die Details. Wir dokumentieren im folgenden einige bekannte Universalienlisten. (Quelle: Christoph Antweiler, Was ist den Menschen gemeinsam, WBG)
George Peter Murdocks Universalienliste von 1945 (mit Kommentaren von Christoph Antweiler) (S = sehr spezifisch, HS = Bezug zur biologischen Definition des Homo sapiens, hist. = historisch nicht universal; vgl. # x = berschneidungen mit anderen Universalien) Murdocks Bezeichnung und alphabetische Ordnung
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. Age grading Athletic sports Bodily adornment Calendar Cleanliness training Community organization Cooking Cooperative labor Cosmology Courtship Dancing Decorative art Divination Division of labor Dream interpretation Education Eschatology Ethics Ethnobotany Etiquette Faith healing Family Feasting Fire making Folklore Food taboos Funeral rites Games Gestures Gift giving Government Greetings Hair styles Hospitality Housing Hygiene Incest taboos Inheritance rules Joking Kingroups Kinship nomenclature Language Law Luck superstitions

Kommen tar

Deutsche Entsprechung
Altersgruppendifferenzierung Sport Krperschmuck Kalender, Zeitrechnung Sauberkeitserziehung Gemeinschaftliche Organisation Kochen Kooperative Arbeit Kosmologie Liebeswerben Tanzen Bildende Kunst Wahrsagerei Arbeitsteilung Traumdeutung Erziehung Eschatologie Ethik Ethnobotanik, emische Botanik Etikette Wunderheilglaube Familie Feiern, Feste Feuergebrauch Bruche Nahrungstabus Beerdigungsrituale Spiele Gesten Geschenke Politische Fhrung Begrungsformen, Grusitten Haartrachten Gastfreundschaft Behausungen Hygiene Inzesttabus Erbschaftsregeln Witze, Spe Verwandtschaftsgruppierungen Verwandtschaftstermini Sprache Gesetze (bzw. Normen und Gesetze) Glcksvorstellungen

S, hist. HS vgl. # 14 hist. HS S hist. S vgl. # 8 S HS S A

S HS hist.

hist. HS HS hist.

HS Meidung HS



45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73.

Magic Marriage Mealtimes Medicine Modesty concerning natural functions Mourning Music Mythology Numerals Obstetrics Penal sanctions Personal names Population policy Postnatal care Pregnancy usages Property rights Propitiation of supernatural beings Puberty customs Religious ritual Residence rules Sexual restrictions Soul concepts Status differentiation Surgery Tool making Trade Visiting Weaning Weather control

hist. vgl. #40, 41 Hist.

Magie Heirat Essenszeiten Medizin Schamgefhl Trauern Musik Mythologie Zahlwrter, numerische Ordnung Geburtshilfe Sanktionen bei Fehlverhalten Eigennamen Fruchtbarkeitsbegrenzung/steuerung Geburtsnachsorge Schwangerschaftssitten Besitzrechte Glaube an bzw. Besnftigung bernatrlicher Wesen Puberttssitten Religse Rituale Wohnfolgeordnung Sexuelle Einschrnkungen Seelenvorstellungen Standesunterschiede Chirurgie Werkzeugherstellung Handel Besuche machen Entwhnung, Abstillen Wetterbeeinflussung

HS? hist. hist. vgl. # 58



A HS S HS S HS hist.

Charles Hocketts Universalienkatalog von 1973 universal in ethnograph . Gegenwart

X X X X X X X almost X X X X X X X widespread X X X X widespread often X X

Hocketts Liste
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. Primary tools Derived tools Clothing (or harness) Grooming (of body and hair) Prepared shelter Toilet training Fire keeping Fire making Cooking Scheduled mealtimes Food preferences and prejudices Language Personal names Kinship terminologies based (at most) on the criteria listed on p. 200 Counting with number words Favored numbers Some way of keeping track of the passage of time Sociality and social structure Sex and age relevant in social structure Age Grading Rites of passage Physical strength relevant in social structure accumulated information and other factors relevant in social structure Leadership

Teil der human historical baseline

X X X X X X X widesp. widespread ? X X ? ? widespread ? ? X X X ? X X X X X X ? X X

geteilt mit einigen Tieren

X X ?

rare X


25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48.

49. 50. 51. 52. 53.

54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79.

Male dominance males as chief hunters, fem. as chief gatherers Collective decision making Consultation in collective decision making (dependent on language and its derivatives) Informal vs. formal consultation Moderator as type of leader Band (or its derivatives) distinct from family functional social groupings (i.e. clans) not dependent on constant or frequent physical proximity Loose groupings of bands into tribes war Intimate property vs. nonproperty Loose property Inheritance rules Social maternity = physiological maternity Social paternity = physiological paternity Marriage Prohibition of mother-son incest Further incest prohibitions, yielding exogamous groups Tertiary sexual characteristics devised and exploited A single dominant dyad in the household One member of dominant dyad male (if not both) One member of dominant dyad adult (if not both) Dyadic conflicts Transactions in more remote (and larger) social groupings derived analogically, by similarity or contrast, from those inn intimate (small) social groupings Personality apart from social role Personality and social role influence each other Masking of personality (or personal identity) in crucial public occasions Ascribed vs. achieved status State parameters (degrees of uncertainty, freedom of choice, urgency, pleasantness, anxiety (and seriosity), that characterize or govern the actors in a dyad Quandary (Verlegenheit) Boredom Sleep Dreaming Ritual Play Games Joking Adventure Affection Submissiveness Hostility World view Systematic talking about world view World view involving entities not directly observed or observable Curiosity about ones own nature (not every individual, but some in every society) Doing something positive about death Knowledge of relationship of sickness and death Cherish the elderly Care of the ill or injured A soul theory Sporadic cannibalism Culture heroes creativity Pride of craftsmenship Creative arts of various sorts, always including literature

widespread X X X X X X

X X X X X X X X widespread widespread X X ? X usually X X X ? ? ? probably X


widespread X X X X usually almost X X widespread widespread widespread X X X X X widespread X X X X X X X X X X widespread X X X X rare X X X X widespread X widespread widespread widespread X almost u. X

X ? (how defined?) X

X X ? ? X X X X X X X X ? ? X X X X probably X ? X widespread X ? ? ? X probably X

probably X ? X X(?) ? X ? ? X X X

X ?


Donald Browns Universalienliste (1995)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. Change through time Use metaphors Regulate sex Have a system of status and roles Share cognitive organization Regulate the expression of affect Control disruptive behaviors Dream Mark time Use space Record numbers Conceive of success and failure Have standards by which beauty and ugliness are measured Are ethnocentric Choose pragmatically Have followers of leaders who are apathetic, regimented, "mature," and autarkic Believe in the supernatural Have a range of temperaments Categorize color Empathize Dominate Foster inequality Hold similar attitudes toward: supernatural occurrences, fear, hope, love, hate, good, bad, beautiful, ugly, murder, theft, lying, and rape Experience ambivalence (due to competing tendencies in human nature) Use symmetry Use polite expressions Dance Sing Tell tales Create literary art Create verse that uses beats and lines Symbolize Recognize signs Marry Create and use tools Groom each other Solve problems using trial and error, insight, and reasoning Establish rules and leaders to govern the allocation of important resources Lose their tempers Trade and transport goods Conduct activities by dyads and groups Supervise Lead Adjust joint activities to personalities Regulate individual action by the group Kill for retribution Establish morals Set expectations of responsibility Create a sense of duty and indebtedness Experience male sexual jealousy Develop similar cognitive functions Consider some aspects of sexuality private Convey erotic, reproductive, and gender meanings using objects, actions, symbols, signals, and sayings Hold a conception of reproduction Practice abortion Think about social relations between other individuals: triangular awareness Establish etiquette Need novelty Experience approach-avoid ambivalence Express surprise Name objects Are curious Raise their tonal frequency when talking to children (especially mothers) Express emotion with their faces Smile Communicate contempt with the same facial expression Interpret rather than merely observe human behavior


68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90. 91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116. 117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124. 125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132. 133. 134. 135.

Transform and elaborate the human body lmpose order on the universe Reciprocate (in both positive and negative [tit-for-tat] ways) Give gifts Establish identity Understand concepts of the same and opposite Establish cause Categorize shapes Relate cues to consequences in avoidance learning Create a religion that holds serious moral "oughts" grounded in conceptions of the way the world is Associate music with ritual Perceive pitch and musical contour Are consciously aware of memory, emotions, experience of acting on the world, and making decisions Experience being in control as opposed to under control Consult in collective decision making Follow rules about inheritance Equate social and physiological maternity Display personality apart from social role Recognize ascribed versus achieved status Get bored Feel hostility, altruism, pride, shame, sorrow, and need Prohibit murder and untruth (under certain circumstances) Offer restitution Suffer from greater male violence and homicide than female Believe in spiritual entities such as the soul Experience dissatisfaction with individual culture Deny unwelcome facts Prefer faces that are average in their dimensions Give hair symbolic value Use language with a universal underlying structure Overestimate the objectivity of our thought Provide for the poor and unfortunate Demand truth in certain conditions Are unable to transcend guilt Need to explain the world Sacrifice one's self for one's group Consume substances to partake of their properties Expect women to care for children more than men do Recognize a male need for achievement Think men and women are different in more than only procreative ways Intend Promise Experience inner states Anthropomorphize Employ capital punishment Rape (and disapprove of it) Wish to allure Feel pride, shame, amusement, and shock Forego present pleasure for a deferred good Evidence negative effects on the personalities of children who have been rejected by their parents Use same basic color categories Identify the same geometric forms Confront the issue of the haves versus the have -nots Consider the relationship of nature to culture Acquire as children linguistic features in similar order Think rationally Consider morally right and wrong methods of satisfying needs Form a personality structure that integrates needs (id), values (superego), and executive- response processes (ego) Establish psychological self-defense mechanisms Attach meaning to what is essentially meaningless Play games of skill and chance Include homosexuals Have juvenile delinquents Hold male activities that exclude females Express loyalty Include people who attempt to cure the ill Deceive themselves Associate poetry with ritual


136. 137. 138. 139.

Predict Use red, white, and black to symbolize the same things Use words whose meanings are transparent and opaque Employ 13 semantic primes in language: I, you, someone, something, world, this, want, not want, think of, way, imagine, be apart of, become 140. Form personalities based on solidarity versus conflict and dominance versus submission

Wulf Schiefenhvels Inventar transkultureller Universalien von 1999

kursiv = Zustze von Schiefenhvel zur Murdock-Liste 1. 2. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Abstillen Aggressivitt, Aggressionskontrolle Altersklassen Arbeitsteilung Athletischer Sport Behausung Bescheidenheit in Bezug auf natrliche Funktionen Beschrnkungen der Sexualitt, z.B. Werbung um Partner, Eifersucht, genitale Scham, kein Coitus coram publico, Inzesttabus Bestrafung von Fehlverhalten Besuche Bevlkerungssteuerung Dekorative Kunst Eigennamen Eigentumsrechte Empathie Erziehung Essenszeiten Ethik Etikette Familie Fasten Feste, Festtage Feuermachen Flche aus dem sakralen und sexuellen Bereich Folklore Gastlichkeit Geben von Geschenken Geburtshilfe Gemeinschaftliche Arbeit Geschlechtstypische Rollen Gesten, Mimik, Grusitten Handel Heirat, Ehe als Einheit der Reproduktion und Produktion durch Normen geschtzt Hygiene Kochen, beziehungsweise Garen Krperschmuck Kontrastierende Konzeptualisierung/ binre Unterscheidungen: schwarz-wei, mnnlich-weiblich, Natur-Kultur

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35.

36. 37. 38. 39.

Konzept des Glck-Habens Kosmologie Liebeswerben Medizin; Betreuung von Kranken, Medikamente, chirurgische Manahmen; siehe auch Religion 40. Musik, Tanz 41. Nahrungstabus 42. Naturwissenschaft: z.B. Ethnobotanik, Ethnozoologie, Ethnomedizin


43. Normen und Gesetze 44. Organisation der Gemeinschaft 45. Postpartale Frsorge, aktive Sozialisation der Kinder, Sauberkeitserziehung 46. Puberttsriten 47. Regierung 48. Religion: Aberglauben, Besnftigung auermenschlicher Wesen, Eschatologie, Magie, Mythologie, religise Riten, religise Therapie, Wahrsagung, Wetterzauber 49. Residenzregeln 50. Schamverhalten bezglich der Krperausscheidungen 51. Schwangerschaftsgebruche 52. Seelenkonzept 53. Spiele 54. Sprache 55. Statusdifferenzierung, Ranghierarchien 56. Trauerriten nach dem Tode einer nahestehenden Person, Bestattungsriten 57. Traumdeutung 58. Unterscheidung zwischen eigener und fremder Gruppe: Frisuren, Kleidung, Schmuck, Dialekt, willkrliche Krpervernderungen usw. 59. Vererbungsregeln fr materielle Gter 60. Verwandtschaftsgruppen 61. Vewandtschaftsbezeichnungen 62. Weberei 63. Werkzeugherstellung 64. Witz 65. Zhlen 66. Zeitrechnung, Kalender

(Quelle: Christoph Antweiler: Was ist den Menschen gemeinsam? 22009)

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