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KUSHAL, 091064 A2 BATCH, ECE

THE ECM PRE AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT


AIM:
To implement and check ECM pre-amplifier circuit.

REQUIRED APPARATUS AND COMPONENTS: To prepare the Copper track on the PCB
PCB Board of appropriate size to mount the circuit. PCB cutter PCB driller FeCl3 Solution Sand Paper

To mount (Solder) the components on the PCB


Soldering paste Soldering Wire Soldering Machine

Extra Apparatus
DMM Ribbon Wire Sharp cutter Power Supply 6-30 Volts

Components Required
Transistor BC 549 -- 2 ECM Mic Three 1k, Two 10k and One 22k Resistor Two 220F, Two 10F and One 100F capacitor

KUSHAL, 091064 A2 BATCH, ECE

THEORY:
ECM: Electret - An electrical property which describes the capability to retain electrical charges. Condenser - Another term used for a capacitor: two plates separated by a fixed distance
capable of storing an electric charge.

Microphone - Receiver that converts sound energy to electrical energy. PRINCIPLE OF WORKING:
An electret condenser microphone (ECM) consists of a very light diaphragm (moving plate) and back plate (stationary or static plate) and has a permanent charge implanted in an electret material to provide polarizing voltage. The principle of operation is that sound waves impinging on the diaphragm cause the capacitance between it and the back plate to change synchronously, this in turn induces an AC voltage on the back plate.

Circuit Diagram of Pre AMP Circuit:

PRINCIPLE OF WORKING:
The electret condenser microphone (ECM) contains a very sensitive microphone element and an internal FET preamp, a power supply in the range 2 to 10 volts DC is therefore necessary. Although the schematic is drawn showing a three terminal ECM, two terminal ECM may be used.

KUSHAL, 091064 A2 BATCH, ECE

The 1k resistor limits the current to the mic. This resistor should be increased to 2k2 if a supply voltage above 12 Volts DC is used and is not needed if the mic inserted is dynamic. The first stage amplifier built around Q1 is run at a very low collector current. This factor contributes to a very high overall signal to noise ratio and low overall noise output. The emitter resistor of Q1 is decoupled by the 100F realizing a maximum gain for this stage. The noise response of the amplifier measured across the 10k load is shown below:

The second phase, built around Q2 is coupled directly, this minimizes the effect of phase shift(introduced by capacitive and inductive coupling method) and achieve a flat output response from 20Hz to over 100Khz. Frequency response measured across 10 k resistor is shown on the next page:

KUSHAL, 091064 A2 BATCH, ECE

The emitter voltage of Q2 is also fed back to the base of Q1 via resistive coupling. This also ensures bias stabilization against temperature effects. Q2 operates in emitter follower mode, the voltage gain of this stage is less than unity, however, the overall voltage gain of the preamplifier is about 100X or 20dB as shown in the bode plot above.

Precautions:
1: Do the drilling properly. 2: Iron should be kept in contact with the joint for 2-3 seconds. 3: Put the components at correct place. 4: Clean component lead and copper pad before soldering.