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INTRODUCTION.

Throughout history, the humans have been following new ways to they can live better such as the bridges construction to cross difficult areas near rivers, the houses construction to live in permanent and safe places or roads construction to connect a place with others. But the same time, they have discovered new problems and new answers to resolve them. So, the people needed to study the structures behavior and to create a career which is in charge of the design and the construction of these structures. Structure refers to a system of connected parts used to support a load and is important for knowning the structural behavior. In this work you can find many important concepts about hydraulic Structures, design and the importance of studying structures.

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES.

A structure refers to a system of connected parts used to support a load. A hydraulic structure is a structure submerged or partially submerged in any body of water, which disrupts the natural flow of water. They can be used to divert, disrupt or completely stop the flow. An example of a hydraulic structure would be a dam, which slows the normal flow rate of river in order to power turbines. A hydraulic structure can be built in rivers, a sea, or any body of water where there is a need for a change in the natural flow of water. The design process is both creative and technical and requires a fundamental knowledge of material properties and the laws of mechanics which govern material. The loadings are determined from codes and local specifications, and the forces in the members and their displacements are found using the theory of structural analysis.

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I.

HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING.

Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage. One feature of these systems is the extensive use of gravity as the motive force to cause the movement of the fluids. This area of civil engineering is intimately related to the design of bridges, dams, channels, canals, and levees, and to both sanitary and environmental engineering. Hydraulic engineering is the application of fluid mechanics principles to problems dealing with the collection, storage, control, transport, regulation, measurement, and use of water. Before beginning a hydraulic engineering project, one must figure out how much water is involved. The hydraulic engineer is concerned with the transport of sediment by the river, the interaction of the water with its alluvial boundary, and the occurrence of scour and deposition. "The hydraulic engineer actually develops conceptual designs for the various features which interact with water such a spillways and outlet works for dams, culverts for highways, canals and related structures for irrigation projects, and cooling-water facilities for thermal power plants."

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II.

APLICATIONS OF HYDRAULIC.

Common topics of design for hydraulic engineers include hydraulic structures such as dams, levees, water distribution networks, water collection networks, sewage collection networks, storm water management, sediment transport, and various other topics related to transportation engineering and geotechnical engineering. Equations developed from the principles of fluid dynamics and fluid mechanics are widely utilized by other engineering disciplines such as mechanical, aeronautical and even traffic engineers. Related branches include hydrology and rheology while related applications include hydraulic modeling, flood mapping, catchment flood management plans, shoreline management plans, estuarine strategies, coastal protection, and flood alleviation.

III.

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES.

A hydraulic structure is a structure submerged or partially submerged in any body of water, which disrupts the natural flow of water. They can be used to divert, disrupt or completely stop the flow. An example of a hydraulic structure would be a dam, which slows the normal flow rate of river in order to power turbines.A hydraulic structure can be built in rivers, a sea, or any body of water where there is a need for a change in the natural flow of water.

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IV.

HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES.

The combination of structural elements and the materials from which they are composed is referred to as a structural system. Each system is constructed of one or more of four basic types of structures. Channels: In engineering channel is called a construction for the transport of fluids, usually used for water-and that, unlike pipes, is open to the

atmosphere. They are also used artificial means of navigation. The description of the hydraulic behavior of the channels is a fundamental part of hydraulics and design belongs to the field of hydraulic

engineering, a specialty civil engineering.


Natural channels:
Se denomina canal natural a las depresiones naturales en la corteza terrestre, algunos tienen poca profundidad y otros son ms profundos, segn se encuentren en la montaa o en la planicie. Algunos canales permiten la navegacin, generalmente sin necesidad de dragado.

Natural channel is called the natural depressions in the earth's crust, some are shallow, others are more profound, as found in the mountains or the plains. Some allow navigation channels, usually without need for dredging.
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Irrigation Canals:
stos son vas construidas para conducir el agua hacia las zonas que requieren complementar el agua precipitada naturalmente sobre el terreno.

These

are roads

built to

bring

water to

areas that the

require water to ground.

supplement natural

precipitation on

Navigation channels.
Un canal de navegacin es una va de agua hecha por el hombre que normalmente conecta lagos, ros u ocanos

A navigation

channel is

way

of man-made water that

normally connects lakes, rivers or oceans

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Dam: (Represa) A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees (also known as dikes) are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity. A dam can also be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations.

o Types of dams: Dams can be formed by human agency, natural causes, or even by the intervention of wildlife such as beavers. Man-made dams are typically classified according to their size (height), intended purpose or structure.

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Weir: ( Vertedero) A weir is a small overflow dam used to alter the flow

characteristics of a river or stream. In most cases weirs take the form of a barrier across the river that causes water to pool behind the structure (not unlike a dam), but allows water to flow over the top. Weirs are commonly used to alter the flow regime of the river, prevent flooding, measure discharge and to help render a river navigable.

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Fish Lader: A fish ladder, also known as a fishway, fish pass or fish steps, is a structure on or around artificial barriers (such as dams and locks) to facilitate diadromous fishes' natural migration. Most fishways

enable fish to pass around the barriers by swimming and leaping up a series of relatively low steps (hence the term ladder) into the waters on the other side. The velocity of water falling over the steps has to be great enough to attract the fish to the ladder, but it cannot be so great that it washes fish back downstream or exhausts them to the point of inability to continue their journey upriver.

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Lock: (Esclusa) A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways. The distinguishing feature of a lock is a fixed chamber in which the water level can be varied; whereas in a caisson lock, a boat lift, or on a canal inclined plane, it is the chamber itself (usually then called a caisson) that rises and falls. Locks are used to make a river more easily navigable, or to allow a canal to take a reasonably direct line across land that is not level.

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CONCLUSIONS
Civil Engineering is a professional career which studies the structures design the structures construction and the structures maintenance. Archimedes, Castigliano, Mohr and Naver s works help the Civil Engineerings development. Civil Engineering has many careers but one of the most important is Structural Engineering. The Civil Engineering has lots of fields of work such as: tunnels, buildings, bridges and roads. A civil Engineer must know many topics such as the structures behavior, bridges dimension, roads measuring techniques, soils capacity and structures forces. Today, a structural engineer is the best well paid in Peru.

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