Sie sind auf Seite 1von 68

TO PROVIDE MANAGERIAL SUPPORT TO THE

BHUJ CITY RESOURCE CENTRE

By
Bijoy Balappan (23015)
Karuna Sharma (23022)

Submitted to:
Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority Camp Office, Bhuj
MANAGEMENT TRAINING SEGMENT
PRM 23

Faculty Guide: Professor Debiprasad Mishra

February, 2004
INSTITUTE OF RURAL MANAGEMENT, ANAND

1
PREFACE

As a part of the Managerial Traineeship Segment (MTS) at the Gujarat State Disaster
Management Authority (GSDMA) Camp Office (Bhuj), both of us were assigned the project
titled - “To provide managerial support to the Bhuj City Resource Centre (BCRC)”. BCRC
was set up in the background of a deliberate choice by the Government to undertake a
planned development of Bhuj Town after the devastating earthquake of January 2001. It is
essentially an outreach office of the Area Development Authority. The main focus areas for
the functioning of BCRC are:
• Enhancing community participation and information dissemination with respect to
the rebuilding of Bhuj town

• Facilitating the process of grievance redressal arising out of implementation of the


Town Planning Schemes.

• Systematic identification of issues hindering the speedy implementation of town


planning and development of relocation sites

• Working out a more coherent communication strategy between the various


implementing agencies and the public.

Following were the objectives of the project as assigned by GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj:
i. To study the present functioning of BCRC and suggest improvements
ii. To assist in linking up vulnerable families with NGOs for reconstruction support
iii. To study other similar models and develop the future role for BCRC

This report is presented in the form of seven chapters. The first three chapters deal with the
first objective, the fourth chapter with the second objective and the last three chapters with
the third objective. Following is a brief outline of each chapter:

• The first chapter describes the government response with respect to the
rehabilitation process in Kachchh. It also elaborates on the different
rehabilitation strategies adopted for urban and rural areas as well as the role
of various implementing agencies set up for the same.

2
• The second chapter describes the evolution of BCRC to its present form. It
starts with a discussion on the initial idea of BCRC, and goes on to explain
how at different points of time the idea was adopted and implemented by
various agencies. Further, the status of present functioning of BCRC and its
achievements have been discussed
• In the third chapter, areas of improvement have been suggested based on our
experiences during the training period and the discussions with the staff
members.
• The fourth chapter deals with the Partial Assistance Scheme implemented by
BCRC in collaboration with Kutch Nav Nirman Abhiyan, a network of
NGOs based at Kachchh. Purpose of the scheme was to identify and link-up
families, in need for partial financial assistance for housing reconstruction,
with the above mentioned NGO.
• In the fifth chapter we have studied three ‘public-private partnerships’ in
urban development, namely the Bangalore Agenda Task Force, Citizens’
Support Cell based at Bhachau and the Janak Juth based at Vyara. The
purpose was to understand these initiatives and use the learnings for drafting
a future course of action for BCRC, as a public-private partnership working
for the development of the city of Bhuj.
• The sixth chapter deals with a Delphi Study that was conducted for the
above mentioned purpose with prominent and public-spirited citizens of
Bhuj. The aim of this study was to obtain their opinions and suggestions for
formulation of a vision for BCRC. The idea was to lend credibility to the
formulated future role of BCRC by incorporating the inputs of the citizens.
• Finally in the seventh chapter we introduce the concept of a community
foundation and propose this as a future model for BCRC in order to continue
to remain relevant even after the rehabilitation scenario. The proposed
organization structure has been discussed and the future activities which
could be taken up by BCRC have been enlisted.

3
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We would like to express our deepest gratitude to the Manager, GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj
for providing all the requisite support, which has enabled the timely completion of the Project.
We would also like to thank the staff members of Bhuj City Resource Centre, and GSDMA
Camp Office for extending their help for the completion of the Project. The guidance provided
during the course of the project by Mr Nalin Upadhyaya of Bhuj Development Council and
Mr. Ashok Munshiyani of Abhiyan has also proved invaluable in this regard.

The invaluable inputs and direction given by our Faculty Advisor Professor Debiprasad Mishra
has enabled us to give the project the current form. We would also like to thank the MTS
Coordinator Professor Shailesh Gandhi in providing us the opportunity to work on this Project
with the GSDMA Camp Office.

Sincerely
Bijoy Balappan (23015)
Karuna Sharma (23022)

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

4
Project Title : Providing managerial support to Bhuj City Resource Centre
Organisation : Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA)
Reporting Officer : Ms. Nidhi Prabha Tewari
Faculty Guide : Prof. Debiprasad Mishra
Student’s name : Bijoy Balappan, Karuna Sharma

Context: Since the devastating earthquake of Jan 2001, considerable progress has taken place
on the rehabilitation front in Bhuj. At present the Bhuj Town Planning Scheme (BTPS) is
being implemented by the Bhuj Area Development Authority (BHADA). However, poor
possession of final plots by citizens has put several questions on planning, design and
implementation part of the town planning scheme. Further, the current grievance Redressal
system for the 8 town planning schemes is getting seriously tested. Common man has to run
from Town Planning Officers to BHADA to Collectrate for being heard. Given this
background, the Bhuj City Resource Centre (BCRC) was proposed to be set up by GSDMA,
essentially as an outreach office BHADA.

Objectives:
iv. To study the present functioning of BCRC and suggest improvements
v. To assist in linking up vulnerable families with NGOs for reconstruction support
vi. To study other similar models and develop the future role for BCRC

Scope and Methodology:


Scope of the project was confined to the city of Bhuj. The following were the methodologies
adopted:
i. In-depth interviews - employees, public spirited citizens and pioneers of BCRC
ii. Census of a given list of 121 families for initial short listing followed by in-depth
interviews to assess the amount of support to be provided.
iii. Literature review of similar initiatives in “public-private partnerships”. Delphi Study -
25 experts to assess present functioning and develop a future role for BCRC

Major Findings:
i. Scope for improvement in areas of handling of grievances, office management issues
and conceptualisation of a vision for clarity regarding present and future role.
ii. In addition to the government housing assistance, vulnerable families require an amount
ranging from Rs. 15000 to Rs. 40000 to be able to complete construction.
iii. BCRC needs to move forward from the present, need-based role of a facilitating agency
to a “public-private partnership” working for development of the city.

Recommendation and Conclusion:


At present BCRC is playing a unique and meaningful role as a facilitating agency for the
rehabilitation of Bhuj. To continue to remain relevant, in future when the rehabilitation of
Bhuj is complete, BCRC needs to redefine its mission. It should expand its functioning to
include development oriented activities also. It is proposed that BCRC should function as a
community foundation which implements development-oriented projects, funded by business
houses, in collaboration with the government stakeholders.

CONTENTS

5
Preface………………………………………………………………………………...ii
Acknowledgement.......................................................................................................iv
Executive Summary.....................................................................................................v
List of Tables.............................................................................................................viii
List of Figures..............................................................................................................ix
List of Charts................................................................................................................x

Chapter 1: The Background..................................................................................1

1.1 Objectives
1.2 Scope and Methodolgy
1.3 The Earthquake
1.4 The Government Response in Urban Areas
1.5 Implementation Agencies
1.6 Urban Rehabilitation Process

Chapter 2: Relevance of BCRC..............................................................................6

2.1 Initial Idea of BCRC – Proposed by EPC


2.2 Implementation by Bhuj Development Council
2.3 Implementation by GSDMA Camp Office

Chapter 3: Areas of Improvement………………………………………………13

3.1 Handling of grievances


3.2 Policy Advocacy Framework
3.3 Office Management Issues
3.4 Human Resource Issues
3.5 Coordination Mechanisms
3.6 Role in Future - Vision

Chapter 4: Partial Assistance Scheme…………………………………………..17

4.1 Objective
4.2 Context
4.3 The Need for Support
4.4 The Partial Assistance Scheme
4.5 Possibilities Ahead

Chapter 5: Similar Models to BCRC……………………………………………32

5.1 Bangalore Agenda Task Force-BATF


5.2 Citizen’s Support Cell, Bhachau
5.3 VYARA Municipality

6
Chapter 6: The Delphi Study……………………………………………………42

6.1 Introduction to the Delphi technique


6.2 Relevance to the context
6.3 Methodology
6.4 Response of the Panel
6.5 Concluding Remarks

Chapter 7: The Community Foundation Model………………………………..51

7.1 Introduction to Community Foundation


7.2 Relevance to the city of Bhuj
7.3 Community Foundation Model for BCRC
7.4 Proposed Mode of Functioning
7.5 Proposed Organisation Structure for BCRC
7.6 Vision and Mission
7.7 Benefits of Community Foundation Model
7.8 Immediate Steps
7.9 Future Projects
7.10 Concluding Remarks

ANNEXURES

LIST OF REFERENCES

7
LIST OF TABLES Pg. No.

Table 1: Distribution of relocation sites and TP scheme in four town 4

Table 2: Functions and Interventions of BCRC 10

Table 3: Distribution of G5 category houses in the four towns of Kachchh 18

Table 4: Financial Assistance extended by the State Government 18

Table 5: Overall Status of construction in urban areas 19

8
LIST OF FIGURES Pg. No

Figure 1: Bangalore Agenda Task Force Model 36

Figure 2: Flowchart for the Delphi Method 42

Figure 3: Community Foundation Model for BCRC 53

Figure 4: Organisation Structure of BCRC 55

9
LIST OF CHARTS Pg. No.

Chart 1: Results of meetings 27

Chart 2: Amount of Support 27

Chart 3: Status of Construction 28

Chart 4: Flow of Support 28

10
CHAPTER 1
THE BACKGROUND

1.1 The Objectives

The following were the objectives of our project as assigned by the Gujarat State Disaster
Management Authority (GSDMA) Camp Office, Bhuj:
vii. To study the present functioning of BCRC and suggest improvements
viii. To assist in linking up vulnerable families with NGOs for reconstruction support
ix. To study other similar models and develop the future role for BCRC

1.2 Scope and Methodology

The scope of this project was confined to the city of Bhuj. The following were the
methodologies adopted for each of the above objectives respectively:
iv. In-depth interviews with employees, public spirited citizens and pioneers of BCRC to
know about the present status as well as get suggestions for improvements.
v. Census of a given list of 121 families for initial short listing followed by in-depth
interviews to assess the amount of support to be provided.
vi. Literature review of similar initiatives in “public-private partnerships”. A Delphi Study
with 25 experts was also conducted to assess the present functioning and develop a
future role for BCRC

1.3 The Earthquake

On 26th January 2001, Gujarat experienced a massive earthquake the worst the country faced
in the past century. This resulted in an unprecedented loss to life and assets. The destructive
fury of nature left more than 12,000 people dead, and more than a 1,00,000 homeless. 178
villages were entirely destroyed and 185 villages suffered more than 70 % damage. The four
municipal towns of Anjar, Bhuj, Rapar and Bhachau were severely ravaged with maximum
loss to life and property on account of high population density. The way of life, the way

11
Kachchh knew it, was severely disrupted. The total loss to both public and private property
was about Rs.15000 crores.1

1.4 The Government Response in Urban Areas2

Post-earthquake the Government of Gujarat launched a massive reconstruction and


rehabilitation programme to reconstruct the houses and infrastructure. In order to enable
people to reconstruct their houses, Government of Gujarat declared five rehabilitation
packages immediately for all affected areas other than the four municipal towns of Anjar,
Bhuj, Rapar and Bhachau. The nature and extent of damage in these four towns needed a
special package which would address various issues like relocation, in situ reconstruction,
town planning and infrastructure, striking a fine balance between the need and wants of the
affected urban population in Kachch. After due deliberations and careful consideration which
involved evaluating the different views of various sectors of the affected population, keeping
in view international experience and applying it to the present context, Government of
Gujarat finalized a package (termed as Package-V) for the municipal towns of Bhuj, Anjar,
Bhachau and Rapar .

The Package-V was formulated with the following objectives:


• Providing adequate opportunities for development of private housing
• To develop new areas with required infrastructure facilities.
• Provision of modern improved infrastructure facilities in the areas of Health and
Sanitation, Roads, Education, Water Supply and Power.
• Introduction of modern town planning system for overall development
• Restoration and upgradation of places of cultural and heritage importance.
• Restoration and development of community assets
• Restoration of economic livelihood by various means including setting up of training
institutes for skill upgradation/development.
• Reconstruction of settlements with the advice of qualified and experienced
Scientists, Geologists, Seismologists, Engineers and town planners.

1
GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj
2
Rehabilitation Package No.5 For earthquake affected, Government of Gujarat

12
1.5 Implementation Agencies

1.5.1 Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA)3

The GSDMA was constituted by the Government of Gujarat’s resolution dated 8th February,
2001. The Authority was created as a permanent arrangement to handle the natural calamities.
The Chairman of the body is the Chief Minister of Gujarat and has a mix of senior politicians
as well as senior bureaucrats. Important Policy Level Decisions are undertaken in the
Governing Body meetings of the authority to accelerate the pace of rehabilitation and
reconstruction work in the earthquake affected areas of the state. It is supposed to function as
an autonomous body. Its activities are non-profitable and it is duly registered as a charitable
institution under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, with the competent Authorities. The
Authority works under the aegis of the Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Division.

One of its main functions is to undertake social and economical activities for rehabilitation
and resettlement of the affected people that would include new housing, infrastructure,
economic rehabilitation, social rehabilitation and other related programmes. It is also
managing the Gujarat Earthquake Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Fund and is responsible
for disbursing the government housing grant to the earthquake affected house owners in
Kachchh.

The vision of GSDMA is – “To go beyond reconstruction and make Gujarat economically
vibrant, agriculturally and industrially competitive with improved standards of living and
with a capacity to mitigate and manage future disasters”.

1.5.2 Area Development Authorities ( ADAs)4

Creation of Area Development Authority was undertaken in view of the need for a systematic
and coordinated approach to reconstruct the four earthquake ravaged towns of Kachchh.
These authorities are supposed to continue for a temporary period of 3-5 years, for the
purpose of implementation of overall reconstruction on the basis of Town Development Plan
prepared for each town in collaboration with the private consultants.

3
www.gsdma.org
4
Rehabilitation Package No.5 For earthquake affected, Government of Gujarat

13
These authorities are responsible for overall planning, drafting and implementing
development regulations and for creation or upgradation of infrastructure. They are
empowered to levy service charges for the new services provided by them. However,
eventually the Municipal Authorities are supposed to undertake all municipal services like
water, sewerage, health and electricity.

1.5.3 Gujarat Urban Development Company (GUDC)5

The Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Project for the four towns envisaged the inclusion of
housing and urban infrastructure. Gujarat Urban Development Company (GUDC) was
designated as the implementing agency for the project which was to be carried out in two
phases. The first phase corresponded to the preparation of the draft development plan for the
four towns of Anjar, Bhuj, Bhachau and Rapar by the Town Planning Department of Gujarat
with the assistance of consultants, selected on the basis of competitive bidding in conformity
with the requirement of multilateral donor agencies. The second phase contemplated the
design and supervision, for rehabilitation and reconstruction of urban infrastructure with the
support of consultants.

1.6 Urban Rehabilitation Process

The rehabilitation process going on in the four towns of Kachchh is a combination of


relocation and in-situ construction. The following table shows the number of Town Planning
Scheme and relocation sites in each of the towns.

Table 1: Distribution of relocation sites and TP scheme in four towns

Town T P Scheme Relocation Sites


Bhuj 8 4
Anjar 4 1
Bhachau 1 2
Rapar - No developed relocation site

(Source: GSDMA Camp Office)

The relocation was necessitated due to the following factors:

• In order to reduce the population density, in the walled city areas (Gamtal), town
planning was undertaken. As result many families lost their plots in the widening and
5
Rehabilitation Package No.5 For earthquake affected, Government of Gujarat

14
laying of new roads, development of open spaces and demarcation of land for
commercial and public use.

• According to the new development control regulations6 any new construction is not
permitted beyond the first floor (i.e. G+1). As a result a large number of G-5 category
apartment holders had to move out.

Such families were offered plots at relocation sites by the government. Many families
voluntarily opted for relocation as, they were no longer interested in living in the earthquake
ravaged old city area or they were not satisfied with the final plot7 allotted to them according
to the town planning scheme.

The in-situ reconstruction, (i.e. reconstruction in the town planning schemes) has been a
slow process primarily due to the time required for undertaking the complex process of town
planning. This resulted in delay in allotment of final plots as well as building permissions
which are ‘Green Signals’ for starting construction. Moreover, construction. inside the town
planning area is a lot more difficult as the plot sizes as well the requirements of people differ.
This is the reason for NGOs not taking up construction of houses in the walled city unlike the
relocation sites where they are involved in construction of around a thousand houses.

CHAPTER 2
RELEVANCE OF BCRC

6
Enforced by BHADA since December 2001
7
Reasons being irregular plot size, entry problems, small size of plot, legal disputes etc

15
As mentioned above, town planning process was undertaken for a planned development of
Bhuj and the other three towns of Kachchh, after the devastating earthquake of Jan 2001. To
begin with, competitive bids were invited for consultancy on developing the Town Plan and
the Infrastructure Development Plan. Consequently, for the preparation of Development Plan,
Environmental Planning Collaborative (EPC) was appointed as the Town Planning
Consultant while Gherzi Eastern Limited was appointed as the Infrastructure Development
Consultant for the town of Bhuj.

2.1 Initial Idea of BCRC – Proposed by EPC

The idea of Bhuj City Resource Centre (BCRC) originated with Environmental Planning
Collaborative (EPC), consultants for the Bhuj Town Planning Scheme. BCRC was proposed
to be set up as an outreach office of the Bhuj Area Development Authority (BHADA) in the
draft development plan prepared by EPC.

It was initially supposed to be known as the Community Resource Centre and was to serve as
an interface to enrich the whole process of planning for reconstruction. It wanted to reach out
to people through CRC in order to incorporate their feedback and address their concerns in
the draft town-planning scheme as well as provide information regarding the town planning
policy and process. This was to be accomplished via the following:
• Public display areas for Town Planning Scheme maps
• Booths of NGOs – To link vulnerables with NGOs
• Booths of Banks – To provide information about housing loans
• Booths of Contractors – To provide information about seismic safe construction
material
• Building and Design Clinic – To advice on seismic safe construction and on policy
matters
In short, the Community Resource Centre was to act as a hub for the reconstruction process.

It was also proposed to facilitate the relocation process through CRC by mobilizing people in
the form of stakeholder groups on more sensible terms (e.g. neighborhood relations) than
relocation as conventional caste groups or according to random allotment of plots. The

16
proposed Building and Design Clinic (BDC) of CRC was to facilitate reconstruction of
individual as well as neighborhood settlements. The overriding purpose was to promote
‘organic’ rather than mechanical and random pattern of settlements, in order to preserve the
basic ‘character’ of the heritage city of Bhuj.

2.2 Implementation by Bhuj Development Council

The Community Resource Centre, as proposed by EPC, could not materialize because of
financial and other constraints. The idea of a Community Resource Centre was later adopted
by Bhuj Development Council (BDC)8, a people’s institution established for the development
of the city of Bhuj in 1992. On EPC’s invitation, the Bhuj Development Council had agreed
to become the apex body for the consultation process to be carried out for the Town Planning
Schemes.

EPC could not implement the idea of Community Resource Centre due to several factors,
Bhuj Development Council took the initiative and carried forward the idea in its modified.
An office was set up at their premises and it was renamed as the City Resource Centre. The
following were the different activities carried out by the City Resource Centre:
• Ward offices were established to display town planning scheme maps in order to
obtain people’s feedback regarding the same
• Several rounds of public consultations were organized with the town planning
consultants (EPC) for participatory formulation of the town plan
• Facilitation of resolution of grievances, arising out of the town planning process, was
also taken up on an informal basis.

This initiative was of a temporary nature and lasted for a period of six months, till the
finalization of the town plan in February 2003.
2.3 Implementation by GSDMA Camp Office

8
Bhuj Development Council (BDC) is The Bhuj Development Council, a local, non-political, non-profit
organization, formed by the citizens of Bhuj who want to develop their city, was established in 1992 and had
been active for a couple of years. Since then it had been dormant, but after the earthquake the members revived
the organization, and since then has been endeavoring to act as a bridge between people and the government

17
The idea in its present form was implemented by GSDMA Camp Office in the context of
implementation of the Bhuj Town Planning Scheme by BHADA. In the wake of this
implementation, a large number of grievances related to final plots came up. BHADA had no
proper mechanism to redress these grievances as having finalized the Town Plan it was not
legally binding upon it to resolve these grievances as most of these were cases of
dissatisfaction with the town plan. In this scenario the complainant had to run from Town
Planning Officers to BHADA to Collectorate for being heard and still could not get the
solution to his problem.

At this point GSDMA Camp Office in collaboration with four civil society organizations in
Bhuj took up the initiative of setting up a grievance redressal mechanism in the form of Bhuj
City Resource Centre. With the support of GSDMA Camp Office, it was possible for BCRC
to find out alternative solutions for most of the grievances in consultation with BHADA. This
was a progress over the City Resource Centre implemented by Bhuj Development Council, as
it had the backing of government agencies as well as the cooperation of a number of civil
society organisations.

Apart from grievance redressal, BCRC was to take up a number of additional activities to
facilitate the rehabilitation process, viz. information dissemination, linking up vulnerable
groups with NGOs, policy advocacy with government and providing building design support,
the details of which are given in later sections of the report.

2.3.1 The Pilot Phase

The concept of BCRC was piloted by GSDMA Camp Office, with voluntary support from
agencies like Kutch Nav Nirman Abhiyan (KNNA), BDC, EPC and Kutch Mitra from May to
August 2003. This partnership aimed at enhancing community participation and information
dissemination, facilitation of grievance redressal, systematic identification of issues hindering
the speedy implementation of town planning and formulation of a more coherent
communication strategy.

Following were the partners in this pilot arrangement each with unique strengths:

18
• Gujarat State Disaster Management Authority – Interface with government and
NGOs as well as a say in policy matters.
• Kutch Nav Nirman Abhiyan – ‘Setu’ experience, shelter reconstruction, livelihoods,
community organization
• Kutch Mitra – Information dissemination, media management, influence on public
opinion
• Environmental Planning Collaborative – Urban Planning
• Bhuj Development Council – Interface with people, policy advocacy

The pilot functioned well for a period of four months with many achievements to its credit.
GSDMA Head Office approved the formal setting up of BCRC with an administrative order
in August 2003.However BCRC was directed to modify the organisational form from a
partnership arrangement with the NGOs to a government run agency with citizens’
representation in the board.

2.3.2 BCRC- The Present Status

BCRC in its present form was set up by GSDMA Camp office in September 2003 with the
backing of BHADA and the Collectorate. In this set up the former partners are not involved
officially.

Following are the objectives of BCRC:


2.3.2.1 Short-Term Objectives
• To ensure informed choice of citizens regarding town planning scheme
• To ensure participatory implementation of town planning scheme

2.3.2.2 Long -Term Objectives


• To ensure participatory development of the city
• To promote accountability and transparency in city development

The following table outlines the stated functions of BCRC and the interventions that are
being taken up:

19
Table 2: Functions and Interventions of BCRC
FUNCTIONS INTERVENTIONS
Grievance Redressal • Collect grievances
• Analyze & sort grievances
• Coordinate with the concerned implementing agency
• Inform the complainant
• Follow up
Information Dissemination • Identify information gaps
• Develop Communication Strategy
• Generate material for dissemination
o Press releases
o Booklets/brochures
o Posters
• Disseminate
Organising stakeholder • For information dissemination, consensus building,
groups collective action in reconstruction
o Identify stakes
o Identify groups
o Organize meetings
o Provide information
o Assist in reconstruction/rehabilitation
Advocacy for policy • Identify issues
changes and improvement in • Study and analyse
systems
• Generate/Collect viable solutions
• Campaign for changes
Building Design Support • Assist in linking up with engineers for design
support
(Source: Interviews with BCRC employees)

2.3.2.3 Achievements
The following are the achievements of BCRC in all the above mentioned spheres of
activities:

20
• Grievance Redressal
o Around 250 cases have been solved successfully in TP Area
o Around 100 cases have been solved successfully in the Relocation Sites
o BCRC has been instrumental in organizing Hearing Sessions with the BHADA
for grievances in the TP schemes
 Out of the 1334 registered grievances, 636 were eventually heard by
BHADA. In each case either a solution was provided or the absence of
a solution was conveyed directly to the complainant. In case of
disputes between two or more than two parties, all the stakeholders
were called and a mutually acceptable solution was proposed.

• Information Dissemination
o For the purpose of information dissemination BCRC makes available to
people, literature on various issues.
o As part of its efforts in information Dissemination, BCRC launched a monthly
newsletter “Swajan” in December 2003
o For educating the people on Earthquake Resistant Construction and
Development Control Regulations

• Policy Advocacy
o Organization of TP Hearings has been a significant achievement of BCRC in
terms of policy advocacy as it was not legally binding on BHADA to make
any such effort
o BCRC has been promoting a temporary settlement site, namely the Gujrat
Industrial Development Company (GIDC) Site as the fourth relocation site in
Bhuj
o BCRC was behind the issuing of ‘Sanads’ or possession letters at the
relocation sites because of which many families could take up housing loans
from the banks with the sanad as the collateral.

• Building and Design Clinic

21
o Engaged in linking up needy people with “The Association of Civil Engineers
and Architects of Bhuj”
 For preparation of Building Plans at affordable rates and postponed
payment. The fee of the engineers is deducted from the government
housing assistance to be received and the clients do not have to make
upfront payment in cash.
 Till date 12 families have been linked up in such a manner

• Linking up vulnerables families with NGOs/Banks


o As a result of BCRC’s efforts a number of NGOs, namely G&J, Caritas,
Rotary, BAPS and Efficor, came forward to take up construction of houses for
the needy.
o Through the Partial Assistance Scheme being implemented in collaboration
with the KNNA, BCRC aims at benefiting around 180 families
o BCRC is also engaged in facilitating access to Housing Loans (7.5%) through
the financial institutions.
 GRUH Finance: Total Applications: 797
• Loan Sanctioned: 89
 Syndicate Bank: Total Applications: 25
• Loans Sanctioned: 4

22
CHAPTER 3
SCOPE FOR IMPROVEMENT

As organization is at a nascent stage the systems have not been properly established. This
chapter outlines the areas for improvement in present functioning of BCRC and deals with
suggestions for the same.

3.1 Handling of Grievances

At present all the grievances coming to BCRC are dealt with on a case to case basis. The
grievance is registered and then followed up with BHADA for its resolution. Following are a
few suggestions for improvement in handling of grievances.

3.1.1 Prioritization

Based on the urgency required in resolution or vulnerability (senior citizen, physically


challenged, widows etc) of the complainants or any other pre-decided criteria, the incoming
grievances could be assigned priorities and followed up with BHADA in that order. This
would be a more customer centric approach and would enhance the quality of service
delivered.

3.1.2 Categorization

Most of the grievances that come to BCRC are those arising out of implementation of the
town plan. General nature of these grievances can be sorted out and the solution to common
problems can be proactively communicated to the people. This would ease the burden of all
the parties involved, viz. the complainants, BHADA and BCRC.

3.1.3 Follow up

23
After the complainants have received the solution to their grievance through BCRC, the
former should follow-up with the complainant on whether the solution has been implemented
by the relevant agency or not. In case the solution has not been implemented BCRC could
follow up with the agency involved to pace up the process.

3.1.4 System for outreach

At present BCRC does not have an established mechanism for proactively reaching out to the
public to find out their concerns. The same could be established in the form of falia or cluster
or society level committees which regularly meet with BCRC for a dialogue. BCRC on its
part could use these committees for information dissemination also. These committees could
become a medium for dialogue between the government agencies and the people with
bilateral exchange of concerns, suggestions and information. BCRC can utilize the media also
for a two way dialogue with the citizens.

3.2 Policy Advocacy Framework

A framework for policy advocacy should be established. This in operational terms translates
into, assigning roles and responsibilities for:
• Identification of issues requiring policy level changes (through proactive outreach,
media, opinion leaders etc)
• Finding out how can these changes be effected
• Pursuing the relevant agencies for effecting the same

3.3 Office Management Issues


Following are certain office management issues that need to be addressed.

3.3.1 Information and Data Management

A lot of data and information is generated as a result of functions like, grievance redressal,
linking up vulnerable groups with NGOs, linking up the needy with engineers or with bank.
All this data and information if recorded and handled properly can contribute to the efficiency
of the organization. A computerized system can be developed for this purpose or a proper

24
filing system can be put in place or it could be combination of both. The choice of the type of
system should be exercised keeping in mind the cost and then capacity of the staff.

3.3.2 Division of responsibilities and / or working hours

As the resolution of grievances requires follow-up with BHADA and field visits, for the sake
of convenience the working hours should be divided into slots for registration of complaints
and follow up on them. Alternatively the responsibility of registering the grievances and
following up on them could be divided. In the latter case increased coordination would be
required between the employees playing the two roles and thus a mechanism would be
required for the same.

3.4 Human Resource Issues


Certain issues related to HR that need to be addressed are as follows.

3.4.1 Role clarity

There is a lack of division of roles and responsibilities amongst the employees which leads to
confusion and possibly shirking. The roles and responsibilities need to be defined properly
for better employee motivation.

3.4.2 Accountability

A system for holding people accountable for their performance needs to be established. This
could be in the form of a reporting system. Each employee should be required to submit
reports on the work done at regular intervals, based on which the performance of the
employee should be assessed and a feedback given. A system of incentives and disincentives
should also be built in to reward performance and penalize non-performance.

3.5 Coordination Mechanism

25
Daily staff meeting should be held for better coordination amongst the employees. Regular
meetings should also be held between the board and the staff for a dialogue, based on which
the future course of action should be decided and past performance should be reviewed.

3.6 Role in Future – Vision

Though BCRC has the stated long term goal of contributing to the participatory development
of the city, there is no path outlined which can take it to its goal. At present all the activities
of BCRC are related to the rehabilitation process and thus are short term in nature. In a few
years time when the rehabilitation scenario fades away there is a danger of BCRC becoming
irrelevant. To avoid it, there is need for charting out a vision in clear and comprehensive
terms and redefining the mission of BCRC.

26
CHAPTER 4
PARTIAL ASSISTANCE SCHEME
4.1 Objective

To assist in identification and linkage of families, in need for partial financial assistance for
housing reconstruction, with NGO support programme.

4.2 Context

The following is the context in which the partial assistance scheme was taken up by Bhuj
City Resource Centre (BCRC) in the city of Bhuj.

4.2.1 Rural Reconstruction - Nearing end

At the end of almost three years since earthquake, rural rehabilitation is coming to an end. A
total of 86821 houses, almost 80 %9 of a total of 107105 houses which were completely
destroyed, have been rebuilt. Another 18527 houses, around 17 %, are under various stages
of construction.

4.2.2 Urban Reconstruction

The reconstruction of the 4 towns of Bhuj, Bhachau, Anjar and Rapar is a comprehensive
effort with safety, multi-hazard structures, efficient planning, excellent infrastructure and
scope for future expansion. The urban rehabilitation includes developing 5000 hectares of
new urban area, building over 200 kilometers of urban roads and laying an equal length of
water supply and sewerage line. It also involves relocating over 5000 households and
regulating the reconstruction of over 25000 collapsed buildings. Urban reconstruction of this
magnitude under such circumstances has no precedence in the country. The Gujarat State
Disaster Management Authority (GSDMA) is coordinating the entire urban rehabilitation.

9
All earthquake related data has been obtained from documents available with GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj

27
The following table gives an overview of the number of houses totally collapsed (G-5
category) in the four towns of Kachchh

Table 3: Distribution of G5 category houses in the four towns of Kachchh


Town Area Population Number of G5
( Sq. km) (thousands) Category Houses
Bhuj 56 125 6496
Anjar 48.39 51 1771
Bhachau 27.14 18.5 5818
Rapar 7.93 16.5 1506
(Source: GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj)

4.2.2.1

Owner Driven Housing Reconstruction

As in the case of rural reconstruction, the focus in urban areas also has been on owner driven
reconstruction. The government has the role of providing financial assistance in the form of
grants, technical guidance, material specifications and technical supervision for constructing
earthquake resistant buildings. The following table carries the details regarding financial
assistance in the form of grants extended by the State Government for housing reconstruction.
The first installment (40 percent of total amount) has already been released in January 2002
while the second (40 percent of total amount) and third (20 percent of total amount)
installments would be released at lintel level and on completion of construction respectively.

Table 4: Financial Assistance extended by the State Government

Damage Category Housing Assistance


G5 Rs.3000 per Sq.m up to a maximum of Rs. 1.5 lakhs
G4 Upto Rs. 45,000
G3 Upto Rs. 30,000
G2 Upto Rs. 15,000
G1 Upto Rs. 8,000
Hut fully collapsed Rs. 7,000
(Source: GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj)

In case of G5 category houses, the financial assistance was disbursed at the rate of Rs. 3000
per square metre of the built up area of the house damaged. The amount was subject to a cap
of Rs. 1.5 Lakhs. In case of G1 to G4 categories, the owner was entitled to assistance, equal

28
to the assessed monetary loss he/she suffered due to damage to his/her house, subject to a
ceiling in each category. For the purposes of damage assessment and survey in the four
municipal towns of Bhuj, Anjar, Bhachau and Rapar, houses with cracks of ½ inch width
were considered as G1 category, while those with damage up to 10% and 25% were
considered as G2 category and G3 category respectively. The ones damaged above 25% were
considered as G4 and those totally collapsed or to be pulled down were considered as G5.10

In addition to the assistance in the form of grants provided for reconstruction, the
government also facilitated access to housing loans from National Housing Board (NHB) and
Housing and Urban Development Corporation (HUDCO), at a rate of interest (8%)
considerably lower than the market rates.

4.2.2.2 Status of Urban Housing Reconstruction

The process of housing reconstruction needs to be paced up both at the newly developed
Relocation sites and also inside the Town Planning Areas (In Situ reconstruction). This delay
has been primarily on account of the town planning process being undertaken in the four
towns and also the lack of NGO support in urban areas for housing reconstruction. As can be
seen from the following table, only about 15% of the fully collapsed houses have been
completed, with about 18 % are under various stages of construction11 in the urban areas.
This is in stark contrast to the rural areas, where the NGOs could intervene with standard
packages for housing reconstruction immediately after the earthquake.

Table 5: Overall Status of construction in urban areas


Town No. of G5 Houses Under
Houses Completed construction
Bhuj 6496 600 1200
Anjar 1171 167 200
Bhachau 5818 644 955
Rapar 1506 897 275
Total 14991 2380 2630
(Source: GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj)

10
Package V released by Government of Gujarat for the four towns of Kachchh
11
Data from GSDMA Camp Office, Bhuj

29
4.3 The Need for Support

As outlined in the earlier section, the private housing reconstruction in the urban areas has
not picked up as of yet. Apart from the delay caused due to the town planning process, most
of the people have not been able to construct their houses because of financial constraints.
There are a considerable number of people in these four towns who require small amounts of
financial assistance to start the construction.

4.3.1 Target Beneficiaries

The set of people which require financial support to construct their houses can be
categorized as follows:

4.3.1.1 People who have spent the first installment

These are the people who have spent the first installment (40% of the total Housing
Assistance) of the government assistance12 for various purposes outlined below and thus
presently do not have enough money to reach till the lintel level, where they can get the
second installment to continue construction.

• The first installment was released in the beginning of 2002; however as the
Development Plan and the town planning was under process, building construction
permissions were not being given. Inside the town planning area, building
permissions were initiated only after the finalization of the town planning schemes in
the month of Jan-Feb 2003. Though this was not the case in the relocation sites, there
too the construction of houses picked up only around Jan 2002 when the
development of relocation sites along with the necessary infrastructure required for
housing reconstruction picked up. Thus in the intervening period of 2 years in case of
TP areas and 1 year in case of relocation sites, the people ended up spending the first
installment of government assistance on their hands on various consumptive and
contingency purposes.
• There is another category of people who had opted for relocation and had to spend a
major portion of their first installment on purchase of plot at the relocation sites.
Most of these were the apartment holders who owned the house but not the land

12
Government financial assistance is given in three installments of 40, 40 and 20 %.

30
therefore they were required to buy the land at the relocation sites, unlike land
owners who were given the plots on relocation sites in exchange for their original
plots in the walled city.
• In case of land owners with original plots of low monetary value (in comparison
to the relocation site plot), a considerable chunk of the first installment was spent on
the purchase of plot.

• There are instances where, first installment has been spent in doing construction,
which does not follow Development Control Regulations and earthquake resistant
norms, these houses are required to be pulled down or retrofitted. The number of such
cases is about 300 in Bhuj, and another 600 in the other three towns.13

4.3.1.2 People with less original built up area

In certain cases, where the original built up area was less, the assistance provided by the
government is not enough for doing earthquake resistance construction

4.3.1.3 People who have not received any government compensation

• Tenants who have been living in Bhuj for relatively long periods, and whose rented
houses were collapsed in the earthquake.
• Tenants who have been living in Bhuj for relatively long periods, but whose rented
houses were not fully collapsed in the earthquake, however they moved out of the
rented houses after the earthquake and now are living in temporary shelters. These
people cannot go back to their old rented houses14 and cannot afford higher rents.

4.3.1.4 People who were living in squatter settlements

People who were living in squatter settlements for years and now have been affected because
of development of roads or implementation of Development Plan in Bhuj. Such people given
a choice and the resources would like to become legal land holders and lead a decent and
secure life. At this stage about 500 such families have expressed keenness to secure legal land
titles in Bhuj.

13
Preliminary surveys have been done by the respective Area Development Authorities on the same.
14
As most of these tenants were paying very low rents, landlords are not willing to take them back

31
4.3.1.5 Others needing some support

Inside the town planning areas, there are instances where, people, who were living in joint
families and because of poor initiative to update and record transfer of properties over
generations, are now in a situation where a family comprising 4-5 separate units has been
given a single final plot and a single housing compensation, so they are not able to rebuild
those 4-5 houses. Further, with the strict enforcement of the Development Regulations they
are not allowed to have 100% built up on their plot.

4.3.2 Socio-Economic Profile of people requiring support

Most of these families are engaged in informal economic activities such as petty shops,
street vending, manual labour work, cattle rearing, artisans, etc. Most of these families have
low and irregular incomes, they do not have an income proof for their earnings further their
asset holding also is minimal. As a result of which these people become practically
ineligible for availing a loan from the banks which demand income proofs and collaterals.
Many of these people are senior citizens or widows with very little social support.

4.3.3 Form of Support Required

The following forms of support are required by the above mentioned classes of people to
complete construction of their houses:

• Unlike rural reconstruction, where NGOs intervened, with standard packages, to


construct the whole house for the beneficiary free of cost, the support that is required
in the urban areas is largely for assisting people to reach up to the lintel level and
thus access second installment of housing assistance.
• Subsidized housing loans being provided through the Nationalized Banks are not
accessible to a large no of people who do not have sufficient income proofs, required
by the nationalized banks. The need is for soft loans at flexible conditions for
those capable of repayment and grants for those who are economically weaker.
• Some people, especially senior citizens and widows, require support for finding an
engineer and a contractor willing to construct at lower rates.

32
4.4 The Partial Assistance Scheme

As discussed above the process of reconstruction needs to be paced up in the urban areas. It is
nearing three years since the earthquake and pressure is mounting on the government to speed
up the reconstruction process. Government on its part is also seeking the participation of
NGOs, focused on the rural areas till late, in expediting this process in the urban areas.

Kachchh Nav Nirman Abhiyan (KNNA) has been actively involved in the reconstruction and
rehabilitation process in Kachchh since the very beginning. In line with its series of efforts
directed towards reconstruction and rehabilitation process in Kachchh, KNNA undertook an
intervention in Bhuj which entailed extending partial assistance to earthquake affected
households for house construction. The assistance was meant to be partial only and
beneficiary contribution was insisted upon to build in their stake in the asset created. The
funds for this purpose were provided by HDFC and Care Today in the form of grants. The
contribution of HDFC was Rs. 36, 00,000 and that of Care Today was Rs. 9, 00,000.

Bhuj City Resource Centre (BCRC) was approached by KNNA to work in collaboration for
the implementation of this scheme. As trainees working with BCRC, our role was to
coordinate the whole process starting from conducting a survey for selection of beneficiaries
to shortlisting them and finally getting the agreements of associations signed between the
organization and the beneficiaries.

4.4.1 Scope of the scheme

The geographical scope of the scheme was limited to Bhuj and the target beneficiaries were
G5 category families in need for assistance to build their house.

4.4.2 Methodology
The following is a description of the methodology adopted for the implementation of the
Partial Assistance Scheme.

33
4.4.2.1 Initial Census Survey

The starting point was a list of 121 families who had approached the Collectorate, GSDMA
Camp office, BHADA and BCRC in past, for assistance in house construction. A database of
general information about these families already existed with BCRC but it was not uniform
across families. Also for selection purposes information was required on some additional
parameters. Therefore it was decided to carry out a census survey of these 121 families to
assess their eligibility for the scheme on a preliminary basis. A questionnaire was
administered to assess the capability of the household to financially contribute towards house
construction. In order to derive this information, the questionnaires enquired into the monthly
income and expenditure of the household, the amount of government housing grant due to the
household (i.e. second and third installments) and the intended built-up area for the house.

4.4.2.2 Criteria for selection of Beneficiaries

Following were the criteria for selection of beneficiary families in this scheme:
• The family should belong to G-5 category.
• The family should be owner of the house at the time of earthquake and thus should be
entitled to the government housing assistance.
• The household should own one and only one plot, either in the town planning area or the
relocation sites.
• The household should not be covered under the housing scheme of any other NGO.
• There should exist, ‘felt need’ on part of the household for a permanent and self-owned
dwelling and given the means, there should be willingness to undertake the construction.
• The financial condition of the household should be such, so as to permit house
reconstruction with partial financial assistance.
• Having met the above criteria those households were given priority whose head is a
widow or a senior person (more than 55 years of age).

4.4.2.3 Preliminary Selection

34
After analyzing the information generated from the survey, keeping in mind the above
criteria for selection, 64 families out of the initial 121 were selected as beneficiaries
(Annexure I). The number 64 was arrived at as initially the scheme was supposed to benefit
46 families, who were to receive Rs. 45, 000 each as grants from the HDFC funds and
another 18 families, who were to receive Rs. 50, 000 each as grants from Care Today funds.

4.4.2.4 Final Selection - Face-to face Interviews

From the survey and the preliminary short listing it was observed that the beneficiary
families required different amount of assistance, to be able to construct their house. At this
point a decision was taken to change the present approach of disbursing a fixed amount to all
and take a flexible approach. The new approach was to interview individual families (64) and
assesses the amount of financial support they would require, in addition, to the government
assistance to be received (in the form of second and third installments) and their own
resources. As a result of this approach, more families could be benefited by the scheme.

4.4.2.5 Form of Support extended

In addition to the financial assistance it was decided to extend support for linking up families
with engineers and contractors willing to construct at lower rates. This support was for
families, usually headed by senior citizens or widows, who expressed their inability in doing
the above task themselves.

4.4.2.6 Assumptions

For the purpose of beneficiary identification, it was assumed that every household is capable
of mobilizing some amount of financial support, on credit or otherwise, from amongst their
kith and kin or acquaintances. For construction of the house this source of finance also was
taken into consideration, in addition to the government grant, partial assistance to be
extended under the scheme and the beneficiaries own means. The contributions of beneficiary
families were insisted upon for building in their stakes in the asset.

4.4.2.7 Limitations

35
It is a general tendency among people to be secretive about their household finances. When
they are enquired about their income and savings, the inclination is towards understating the
facts by varying degrees. This phenomenon has become more prominent in the post
earthquake scenario in Kachchh and is being considered as a limitation in accurately
assessing the financial status of a household.

4.4.3 Roles and Responsibilities - BCRC & KNNA

For the purpose of implementation of the scheme, a coordination meeting was held between
BCRC and KNNA and a division of roles and responsibilities was arrived at. Following were
the responsibilities of BCRC:
• Identification of prospective beneficiaries
• Carrying out a census survey to generate required information with respect to these
prospective beneficiaries
• Verification of documents
• Physical inspection of the plots to check whether ready for construction or in case of
construction in progress to check the level reached.
• To assess the amount of support required
• Facilitating linkage with engineers and contractors willing to work at reduced or zero
profit
• To monitor the construction of houses once the assistance is disbursed

For the purpose of implementation of the scheme, KNNA had the following responsibilities
in this initiative:
• To assess the amount of support required
• To provide design support in those cases which require special designing (in case
of senior citizens or handicaps )
• Facilitating linkage with engineers and contractors willing to work at reduced or
zero profit
• To monitor the construction of houses once the assistance is disbursed
• To disburse the assistance according to the agreement signed with beneficiaries.

36
4.4.4 Result of the Interviews
The results are up to the time we were associated with the scheme, i.e. till the 2nd of January,
2003.
• At the end of the first round of interviews, 38 families were promised assistance
as shown in chart 1 and agreement of association was signed with each. Also 7
families were found to be capable of doing construction on their own or with the
loan they had taken, and hence were rejected.
Chart 1: Results of meetings

40 38
35
30
25
20
15 13
10 7 8
5
5
0
Assisted Rejected Second Yet to Asked to
Stage come come
again

• 38 families were promised assistance the amount of which ranged from Rs.15000
to Rs.40000,as shown in chart 2, at an average of Rs. 25000 per family. The total
amount committed was Rs.925000. With this average, 124 more families can be
supported by the scheme.
Chart 2: Amount of Support

12
10 10
10

8 7
6
6
4
4

2 1

0
Rs.15000 Rs. 20000 Rs. 25000 Rs. 30000 Rs. 35000 Rs. 40000

• In the interviews 8 families expressed need for building design support, 7 of


whom were linked-up with an engineer willing to work free of cost. In the

37
interviews 16 families asked for support in linking up with a contractor some of
whom were directed to contractors willing to construct at reduced profits.
• Out of the 38 families, 8 families had not made the building plans. Also as shown
in Chart 3, 8 other families had already started construction but were finding it
difficult to continue due to financial constraints.
Chart 3: Status of Construction

Construction in
progress Plan not made
6 9

Plan Sanctioned Plan in process


15 8

• The financial assistance was to be provided at four different stages (viz. to reach
lintel, after lintel, near completion, as and when required) of construction,
depending upon the requirement and financial capacity of the beneficiary, which is
shown in chart 4. The promised assistance to each beneficiary was further meant
to be disbursed in installments. The assistance was not to be given directly to the
beneficiary as cash but was supposed to be in the form of payments or transfer of
material to the contractor. The exact flow and mode of disbursing support differed
in each case.
Chart 4: Flow of support

25
20
20

15

10 8
7
5 3

0
To reach After Lintel Near As and when
Lintel Completion required
38
• 10 percent of the total funds available were kept aside as contingency fund to be
utilized in case some of the selected beneficiaries faced problems and required
more assistance than promised.

4.4.5 Case Studies


The following are two case studies to better illustrate the profile of the target families and
the manner in which the partial assistance scheme benefited them.

4.4.5.1 Gor Vimal Motiram


• Age: 45 years
• Family Members: 4
• Earning Members: 1
• Occupation: Peon (Rs. 1200)
• Construction Status : Construction stalled at plinth level since last 4 months
• First Installment (40 percent): Rs. 32000
• Subsequent Installments (60 percent): Rs. 48000
• Total Cost of Construction: Rs. 180000
• Comments: Construction on his site has been stopped since the last 4 months due
to financial constraints. His health is also not too good and has already suffered
two heart attacks. He is presently living in a room of the school in which he
works. He has around 15,000 left from his first installment, but has saved it due to
health considerations. According to him, he would be able to mobilize around Rs.
50000 from amongst his relatives and acquaintances.
• Beneficiary Contribution: He has been asked to contribute Rs. 15000 by his own
means in addition to the government grant.
• Proposed Assistance: Rs. 40,000 (5,000 for cement and steel; then later 35,000
after lintel level)

39
4.4.5.2 Khatubai Bhachu
• Age: 55 years
• Family Members: 1
• Earning Members: 1
• Occupation: Domestic Help (Rs. 500)
• Construction Status : Building plan not made
• First Installment (40 percent): Rs.18220
• Subsequent Installments (60 percent): Rs. 27330
• Total Cost of Construction: Rs. 80000
• Comments: She was living with her brother (Hasan Bhachu) at a temporary
settlement site of Bhuj. Her brother passed away 3 months back and since then she
is not in a sound state of mind. She works as a domestic help for the families of
her community who in turn take care of her basic needs. She has no savings of her
own. However her brother was prudent enough to deposit the money received as
first installment in the bank.
• Beneficiary Contribution: She has not been asked to contribute any sum towards
house construction keeping in mind her weak financial conditions.
• Proposed Assistance: Rs. 25000 as and when required. She has also been offered
the services of an engineer free of cost and has been linked up with a contractor
willing to construct at reduced profits.

4.5 Possibilities Ahead

At present more than 70 percent of the G-5 category houses in the four towns of Kachchh
remain to be constructed. There is need for intervention in this direction by GOs or NGOs on
the lines of the partial assistance scheme that is being implemented in Bhuj at present. Soft
loan with flexible conditions can also serve the purpose in case of many of the families
requiring financial assistance. Considering the small amounts (Rs. 15000 to Rs. 45000) that
are required to enable the people to complete the house construction, the government should
explore options of linking up such vulnerable groups with banks offering soft loans with
flexible conditions.

40
In case of Bhuj the mechanism put in place for implementing the KNNA backed Partial
Assistance Scheme could be used as a model for channelizing funds available for housing
assistance in future. The NGOs with available funds could work in collaboration with the
BCRC making use of the resources available with it. Such a mechanism would enable a more
effective, identification of target beneficiaries and the subsequent disbursement of assistance.

41
CHAPTER 5
SIMILAR MODELS TO BCRC

5.1 Bangalore Agenda Task Force-BATF

The Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF) is a unique experiment in public private
partnerships in urban governance, where a new model of engagement has been tried, and has
been successful in demonstrating the need for more public private partnerships for urban
development issues. It is a joint initiative of the public and private sectors and primarily aims
at enhancing the quality of life of the people of Bangalore by upgrading the infrastructure of
the city and improving the service delivery of government agencies.

5.1.1 Context

Bangalore, the capital of Karnataka has emerged from being called a ‘Pensioners Paradise’ to
becoming one of Asia’s fastest growing cities and is also viewed as the ‘Silicon Valley’ of
India. This transformation, from a quiet city known for its cool climate to a fast paced
cosmopolitan city with a booming IT industry, has been explosive. The rapid urbanization,
population growth and growth of the urban economy have placed an enormous strain on the
city’s infrastructure which has led to problems such as garbage, traffic congestion,
deteriorating roads, pollution, and strain on civic supplies like water, drainage and electricity.

The search for a sustainable solution to the above mentioned problems led to the constitution
of the Bangalore Agenda Task Force (BATF). It also aimed at showcasing Bangalore as the
gate way to class one cities of the country and to strengthen its position as an engine for
Karnataka’s robust growth. It was formally established in the year 1999 by Government
Order No. UDD 400 MNY 99 dated November 26 1999.

The vision of the government was that Bangalore should be the best city in India by 2004.
This simple vision encompasses a variety of sectors from upgraded infrastructure, transparent
citizen centric enhanced municipal services and delivery standards, aimed at improving the
business environment for a healthy and robust urban economy.

42
5.1.2 The Citizens Poll –‘Voice of the Citizens’

A broad vision and mandate for the task force had been outlined in the beginning. Since the
organization was a first of its kind, for the purpose of formulation of its agenda, plans and
strategies it was decided to make use of the citizens’ poll. The first in a series of citizens’
polls was undertaken by a professional opinion group and citizens were asked to prioritize
what they thought were the issues that Bangalore needs to tackle. The issues were across
variety of sectors such as infrastructure, cleanliness, traffic, public transportation and service
delivery across Government agencies. These polls were also devised to be conducted at
regular intervals of time, as public accountability mechanisms, to gauge the success of the
projects undertaken and to formulate new projects based on the citizens’ feedback.

5.1.3 The Bangalore Agenda

The results of the citizens’ poll were analyzed and the top ten issues facing the citizens of
Bangalore were taken as indicators of the areas in which the task force needed to work. In
addition, the government stakeholders (i.e. government agencies) themselves had their own
set of priorities in fields such as innovative financing, redefining systems and procedures and
revenue augmentation, which were interwoven in to the Bangalore Agenda. Thus a
framework for the Bangalore Agenda was formed in which short term and long term
programmes were formed in order to address the issues identified, in addition to or along with
the existing programmes and ongoing obligations of the government stakeholders.

These projects were then set into a public agenda, which was announced in the first
Bangalore Forward Summit. The stakeholders and the BATF, as a first step towards
accountability and transparency, unveiled the Bangalore Agenda in a series of presentations
made at a public forum, which were attended by the Chief Minister, various dignitaries,
representatives from the government, representatives from the private sector, media and
citizens of Bangalore.

5.1.4 Methodology

Having defined the areas in which the BATF would work, the members of the task force then
defined strategies for the implementation of these projects. It evolved multiple strategies for

43
different projects ranging from providing intellectual inputs to carrying out pilot projects to
hands-on implementation. The BATF worked in partnership with the stakeholders, forming
core teams for projects to provide focus. In addition BATF also adopted a strategy of policy
advocacy with the government where required. Adequate care was also taken to ensure that
BATF worked for facilitation of the stakeholders’ goals, not replication or replacement of the
services offered by them.

5.1.5 Funding

The government order for constitution of BATF specified that the activities of the
organization would be funded by the Bangalore Municipal Corporation. However, the
members of the task force made a conscious decision to find internal funding for the projects
for increased autonomy. This led to the creation of ‘Adhaar’ Trust which was set up by the
private donations from Rohini and Nandan Nilekani. The trust was to fund strategic
initiatives and projects as decided by the members from time to time. Also during the first
Bangalore Summit, a value of Rs 32 crore (US $ 6.4 million) had been committed by various
private sector groups or individuals for projects for the development of Bangalore. The
donations were either specific or generic, aiming at different sectors of development.

5.1.6 Structure

The BATF Team operates at two structural levels - the members and a projects team.
Members act as the think tank of BATF while project teams acts as the Research and
Development and implementation wings.

Members: The government mandate nominated 15 members to the BATF from different
walks of life. These members were to provide strategic inputs in their area of expertise in
order to formulate programmes which best addressed the development priorities of the
Bangalore Forward Agenda.

Project Teams: The project teams consist of a core unit of dedicated professionals. Basically
there exist two units in the project teams, one dealing with accounting reforms and the other
dealing with wider set of development issues, which report to a core team of the BATF who

44
are responsible for conceptualisation of the project and coordination with the relevant
stakeholders.

Stakeholders: The Bangalore Agenda Task Force works in close coordination with the city
stakeholders to provide a holistic thrust to the Bangalore Agenda. There were seven civic
stakeholder identified at the framing of Bangalore Agenda, representing almost all of the
areas of direct interaction of government with the citizen and also the main areas of concern
for the citizens. Following are the seven stakeholders:
• Bangalore Mahanagara Palike
• Bangalore Development Authority
• Bangalore Police
• Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation
• Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board
• Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
• Bangalore Electricity Supply Company

5.1.7 The BATF Model15

The BATF is visualized as a common forum where the aspirations of the citizens merged
interactively and responsively with the projects of the stakeholders and inputs from the
private sector in terms of intellectual and financial capital as well as best practices for
increased efficiency. The forum is also a platform for the city stakeholders to interact with
each other thus solidifying the partnership. The forum seeks to provide upgraded
infrastructure and enhanced civic amenities and service delivery through
• Public Private Partnership
• Common forum for interaction
• Greater involvement of the citizens and corporate bodies
• Greater transparency and accountability

15
www.batf.org

45
Figure 1: BATF Model

CITIZENS

BATF

CORPORATES/ STAKEHOLDERS/
PROFESSIONALS GOVERNMENT

5.1.8 Learnings

Following are some of the important learnings that came out of this study of the Bangalore
Agenda Task Force
• ‘Public Private Partnership’ is a unique experiment for urban governance and is a
constant process of learning and upgrading - Each City has unique characteristics
which need to be adapted to and a relevant plan drawn up
• ‘Public Private Partnership’ can be a tool for institutionalizing sustainable change.
• Corporate and citizens’ involvement can play an important role in urban governance
through their contribution in the form of financial resources, professional expertise
and volunteer capacities.
• Political will has a crucial role to play in the success of such an initiative.
• Most city problems and issues are inter-stakeholder in nature. A shared vision can
contribute towards increased coordination amongst the stakeholders which in turn
translates into better service delivery to the citizens.
• Government systems do not easily allow for innovation or pilots, these need to be
incubated outside as ‘pilots’ within the Task Force and then brought into the ‘system’
through its stipulated mechanisms

46
5.2 Citizen’s Support Cell, Bhachau

Citizen’s Support Cell was set-up by UNNATI, a voluntary non-profit organisation set up in
1990 working on the issues of basic rights and livelihoods at the grassroots, in January 2003.
In the post earthquake scenario in Kachchh, UNNATI played a coordinating role and helped
in reaching relief material and services to the affected areas. It also played an active role in
the participatory town planning of Bhachau.

5.2.1 Context

UNNATI was involved in relief and rehabilitation process in the town of Bhachau since April
2001. During the course of their interventions at Bhachau, they had come to note that there
was growing confusion among the citizens regarding legal and procedural issues with respect
to town planning, building permission processes, issues related to compensation, etc. The
multiplicity of agencies in the post earthquake scenario and the lack of a platform or forum to
elicit people’s participation in the development process aggravated the situation.

At this point, UNNATI actively started working both for sensitizing the administration
towards the concerns of citizens on issues related to town planning and enhacing the
awareness of the citizens’ on the same. As a part of the above process it organized workshops,
public consultations, Mahiti Melas involving governmental agencies like GSDMA, GUDC,
and Bhachau Area Development Authority (BhADA), in order to bridge the gap between
citizens and authorities.

From these exercises the idea of formalizing and legitimizing the entire process, by
establishing an organization that works in coordination with the government, emerged.
Consequently, the Citizen Support Cell was setup in January 2003 with a promise of
cooperation from the governmental agencies like GSDMA and BhADA while the financial
and human resource support was provided by UNNATI.

47
5.2.2 Present Activities

The Citizen Support Cell presently works in the following three areas:
• Grievance Redressal: It registers compensation and town planning related
grievances of the citizens. The grievances are further analysed and categorized and
presented to the relevant authorities (for TP related problems – BhADA; for
compensation related problems – Mamlatdar) and the complainants are informed of
the solution or the lack of it with reasons, in around a week’s time.
• Information Dissemination: It is a resource center for the people to access
information on seismic safe construction, building construction process, building
bylaws, development plans, town planning schemes, infrastructure development
facilities, housing compensation and various government documents and maps.
• Policy Advocacy: It lobbies with the authorities (Collector, BhADA, GUDC, and
GSDMA) for matters requiring policy changes.

5.2.3 Achievements

The Citizen Support Cell is meant to be a forum for representing people’s concerns in a better
and emphatic manner. It enhances the bargaining power of common man in presenting his
case before the administration. It also enjoys credibility with the administration which
smoothens the process of functioning in general. Some notable achievements of this initiative
are the following:
• BhADA has allowed for the regularization of squatter settlements as a result of the
strong advocacy of CSC on the same. As a result of this, around 2000 people living
in squatter settlements have come forward to gain ownership of the land on which
they have been living for a long time. This step will add to the asset base of the
urban poor of Bhachau who were previously treated as “encroachers”.
• CSC was instrumental in pointing out certain fundamental flaws in the draft TP
scheme and getting them rectified.
• CSC has collaborated with Eklavya Foundation for getting the services of their
engineers and architects at a lower fee than what was prevailing previously at the
beginning of the reconstruction process.

48
• CRC persuaded BhADA to do away with the requirement of a structural engineer
for the design of a load bearing structure as it was technically unnecessary and
added to the cost.
• They also facilitated the relocation of a group of shopkeepers who were being
displaced due to the construction of a road in TP scheme.

5.2.4 Insights

The CSC staff on the basis of their experience shared the following insights with regard to an
organization like theirs:
• The role of such a forum should not be merely restricted to facilitation of the
grievance redressal process which is need based, but should be expanded to include
development issues of the city. E.g Technology Park being setup by CSC in
collaboration with BhADA and the Municipality to provide information on the three
natural disasters namely earthquake, cyclone and drought affecting the district of
Kachchh.
• For such organizations it is important to be out of the purview of government
control in terms of finances or administration to function freely
• For policy advocacy, the organization needs to have a sense of ground realities and a
strong information base to better present its case with the authorities.
• The government should make special efforts to recognize such initiatives to
encourage better performance
• Community level meetings are more effective tool for feeling the pulse of the
people and finding out issues concerning them in comparison to individual case
hearings.

49
5.3 VYARA Municipality – Human Unity towards Good Urban Governance

Vyara is a town situated in the green forest of Satpuda, at a distance of about 65 kms from
Surat. The town got the status of a Nagar Panchayat in 1963 and of a Municipality in 1986.
Today the Municipality is functioning as a C-Class Municipality. It has also been designated
as an Area Development Authority under the Gujarat Town Planning and Urban Development
Act, 1976.

5.3.1 Context

Although Vyara became a Class C Municipality in 1986, its governance was as good or as
poor as in the case of other municipalities. 16It was a backward place with almost no public
amenities. However there existed a unique, informal people’s institution known as Janak
Juth, established in 1959 which has contributed to the development of the city by its
activities. Its members are from all facets of life – from political parties, municipal
administration, from the elected wing (as independents), from various management
committees, from school and hospital boards, from amongst thousands of non-resident
“Vyarians” including political bigwigs and also the middle and poorer classes of Vyara.

5.3.2 The Intiative


The members of Janak Juth are elected as ‘independents’ and they form the majority group in
the municipality. These councilors represent the ideals of Janak Juth and therefore, the
aspirations of the people. The plurality of their roles and responsibilities, both in public
institutions and in the municipal administration has led to some consequences for the good of
Vyara. They have succeeded in registering various Trusts that build and manage all public
institutions in Vyara, including those related to health, education and recreation, in
partnership with the municipality.

5.3.3 Learnings
16
Award Winning Best Practices of Gujarat ULBs, City Managers’ Association Gujarat

50
Following are the lessons that can be learnt from the initiative of Janak Juth towards better
urban governance:
• Based on learning from Vyara, strong people’s institutions can emerge else where for
partnering with urban local bodies (ULB) for clean and productive governance of the
concerned towns and cities. Such partnerships can also form cornerstones for
institutional reforms leading to unity for good urban governance.
• Such a people’s institution driven by the spirit of volunteerism can facilitate the
formation of a mass of potential leader’s community at the community level.
• Respect for citizens say in decision making process can help in sustainable urban
governance.
• A progressive community and leadership can be directed towards concrete gains and
amenities for the citizens.

CHAPTER 6

51
THE DELPHI STUDY

6.1 Introduction To Delphi Technique

Delphi study is a method for generating ideas and facilitating consensus among individuals
who have special knowledge to share. Unlike survey research, which insists on a random
sample that represents all parts of the population, a Delphi study carefully selects individuals
who have knowledge necessary to analyze a specific problem. It is often used as a research
method for assessing future, complex or ambiguous subjects and is based on the techniques
of iterative group interviewing.17 The group of respondents is typically composed of experts
who are capable of clarifying issues descriptively and / or normatively. The quality of the
respondents is essential for the quality of the results.

Delphi is particularly appropriate when decision-making is required in a political or


emotional environment, or when the decisions affect strong factions with opposing
preferences. The method entails that a panel of experts individually answers a number of
questions. Their responses to a series of questionnaires are anonymous, and they are provided
with a summary of opinions before answering the next questionnaire. If the panelists wish so
they can modify their responses in view of the summary. These modified opinions are
summarized and distributed out to the panel. The procedure is repeated several times, in the
hope that the panel will either reach a common standpoint or that one can obtain a clear
picture of the basis for different opinions. By such a process it is believed that the group will
converge toward the "best" response through this consensus process.18

A major advantage of the Delphi study is that it avoids problems commonly encountered in
face-to-face groups meetings. These problems include the influence of key persons on the
responses of other panel members as well as the geographical constraints and costs of
bringing together a group of experts. The anonymity of answers allows Delphi participants to
express their personal views freely. The method is particularly useful for a subject with strong
differences of opinion or high levels of uncertainty. The reliability of the Delphi method

17
http://www.nistep.go.jp/achiev/ftx/eng/mat077e/html/mat077he.html
18
http://sustainablerangelands.cnr.colostate.edu/Meeting%20notes/other%20meeting%20info/Collaborative_Del
phi_Handout.rtf

52
depends largely on the selection of panel members, the size of the group and the number of
rounds.
Figure 2: Flowchart For The Delphi Method19

START

PROBLEM
PROBLEMDEFINITION
DEFINITION

SELECT PANEL MEMBERS


MEMBERS BASED
BASED ON
ON THE
EXPERTISE REQUIRED
EXPERTISE REQUIRED

PREPARE DISTRIBUTE
PREPARE AND DISTRIBUTE
QUESTIONNAIRES
QUESTIONNAIRES

ANALYZE QUESTIONNAIRE
QUESTIONNAIRE
RESPONSES
RESPONSES

HAS A CONSENSUS
BEEN REACHED?
YES
YE

NO

PROVIDE
PROVIDE REQUESTED INFORMATION AND
REQUESTED INFORMATION
TABULATED RESPONSES
TABULATED RESPONSES

DEVELOP FINAL REPORT


DEVELOP

6.2 Relevance To The Context

19
http://oregonstate.edu/~gordons/research/processes/delphi.htm

53
The objective of undertaking a Delphi study was to obtain the opinions and suggestions of
citizens of Bhuj for the purpose of formulation of a vision or a future role for BCRC. For
lending credibility to the vision or future role that was to be developed, it was considered
important to obtain the inputs of citizens.

Delphi study was all the more relevant in light of the fact that it was practically a difficult
task to get these experts on one platform and at the same time, for a group discussion on
future role for BCRC as they were prominent citizens of Bhuj with many demands on their
time.

6.3 Methodology

For the above mentioned purpose, a detailed questionnaire (Annexure – II) was administered
to a panel of 25 ‘experts’. The experts comprising the panel were accomplished and public-
spirited citizens of the city from various spheres of life like education, administration, law,
media. NGOs, opinion leaders, etc. The list of panelists was arrived at through snowball
sampling.

In designing the questionnaire it was the assumed that the panelists being concerned citizens
of Bhuj would be aware of the affairs of the city and thus would be aware of the functioning
of BCRC. Further it was assumed that the level of awareness of the panelists would be
sufficient to the extent of enabling them to give useful inputs regarding the present status of
BCRC and its role in future.

The questionnaire was designed to obtain suggestions and opinions of panelists on the
following aspects:
• Relevance of BCRC both in the short term and the long term context
• Suggestions for improvement in the present functioning
• Effectiveness in present organizational set-up
• The desired organizational form
• Falia samitis as a system for outreach
• Things to do for city’s development

54
• Future Activities

It was important to obtain consensus on certain aspects like relevance of BCRC, the desirable
organizational form and the kind of activities BCRC should take up in the future and for this
purpose two rounds of Delphi study were conducted. On other aspects it was intended to
generate as many ideas as possible from the panel. The material prepared for carrying out this
study is attached as Annexure

6.4 Response of the Panel

Presented in this section are some of the responses with respect to each of the above
mentioned aspects, followed by comments summarizing the responses.

6.4.1 Relevance of BCRC

Panel Response
• “The need for BCRC arose primarily to fill the gap between, the capability or
attitudes of the core governmental organizations or offices to do the job of
reconstruction of Bhuj with a people friendly approach and the required capabilities or
attitudes for such a task. The need shall remain as long as the gap exists”
• “In this era of shortsightedness of public and politicians, there is a need for an
organisation that should construct the future of Bhuj”
• “The BCRC would help the city to stand together and think about its development –
Should become City’s Voice”
• “BCRC is required to contribute towards the sensible development of the city by
providing a forum to public-spirited citizens”

Comments
Panel members appreciated the role, of a facilitating agency, that BCRC is playing at present.
As per the panel, in the aftermath of earthquake a new administrative set-up involving a
number of agencies has come into existence for the purpose of reconstruction and
rehabilitation. Common man is unfamiliar with the new administrative machinery but he is
forced to interact with this ‘stranger’, to fulfill the demands that are made on him or to

55
resolve the problems that come his way as an unintended consequence of ‘line-of-business
activities’ of the new set-up. Here BCRC plays a meaningful role by facilitating the process
of interaction.

Further the panel members say that in the long run, after the rehabilitation process is
complete, BCRC can continue to remain relevant by redefining its mission to include
developmental concerns as well. According to them BCRC can work for the developing the
city and for this it should elicit the participation of citizens. BCRC through falia samitis
could provide a forum to public-spirited citizens to work for the development of the city. It
should become a stage for these active citizens and potential leaders to prove their mettle to
their respective communities. Ultimately it could actually become an alternative channel for
micro-level leadership to emerge.

6.4.2 Suggestions for improvement

Panel Response
• “For Grievance Redressal and Information Dissemination – The city should be
divided into wards which in turn should be subdivided into falias/societies”
• “General nature of grievances should be sorted out and the solutions should be
communicated through media”
• “The process can be enhanced by frequent public meetings and incorporating the
feedback obtained”
• “Follow up with the complainants on regular basis for establishing credibility”
• “In case of linking up vulnerable with NGOs, the final outcome should be definite and
measurable”

Comments
Most of the panelist gave suggestions for improving the handling of grievances. An important
suggestion was to establish a system for proactively reaching out to the people for finding out
their grievances or the issues that concern them. Such a system could be in the form of ward
wise committees or the falia or cluster wise committees. It was suggested that regular
meetings of such committees could be held for the purpose of finding out grievances of the
people.

56
Information dissemination could be made more effective through such committees and also
these committee meetings could be a source for finding out issues requiring policy changes.
Going a step further the administrative machinery could also interact with the people through
such committees. It was also suggested to make use of media and public meetings to
complement such an outreach system

6.4.3 Effectiveness in present form

Panel Response
• “The effectiveness of BCRC is not limited by the administrative control of GSDMA.
For many activities, it has to depend on responses from BHADA, while in others
effectiveness rests with the organization”
• “BCRC cannot be effective until it is under complete control of government agency”.
• “It should be made autonomous and independent with people’s active participation.
However it should not become a fault-finding agency but an agency to link the need
and the implementation”
• “The responsibility of making BCRC effective lies primarily with the advisory board.
The board should have representation from the state to add to its legitimacy, but its
constitution should be such so as to prevent unnecessary interventions”
• “Effectiveness would naturally depend on the extent to which the management can
free itself from the rigid ways so prevalent in govt. agencies”

Comments
Though the powers to resolve grievances lies ultimately with the BHADA and BCRC only
attempts to find solutions on complainant’s behalf, the panel members did not feel that this
can adversely affect the effectiveness of BCRC. According to them the effectiveness for
BCRC would lie in the way it gets things done with the relevant government agencies or the
NGOs, the way it follows-up with each complainant and the efforts it makes to reach out to
the people through different channels. This all implies that the employees of BCRC should be
a highly competent lot. An active advisory board would also be a crucial requirement for
increased effectiveness. Of course for all these requirements to be fulfilled the primary

57
requirement is that GSDMA, which has the administrative control over BCRC, should
support BCRC in its efforts and give it freedom to try out new things.

6.4.4 The Desired Form – Consensus for “Partnerships”

Panel Response
• “Complete government agency would be duplication of administrative machinery,
while a complete non-governmental setup would be fruitless as it would become
adversarial. Partnership can possibly work well provided the government
administrator gives due weight to the authority and suggestions of the partners”
• “An interfacing or bridging organisation cannot be monopolized by a single party.
Knowledge of issues faced by all the stakeholders must be there in BCRC which
requires representation of each”
• “Partnership would bring certain unique strengths to BCRC from both sides.
Government participation would add to its legitimacy while involvement of CSOs
would increase its credibility with citizens”
• “Even for a partnership, one agency has to take the lead to begin with”

Comments
According to the panel members the ideal organizational form for BCRC would be a
partnership between the government agencies and the CSOs. Such an arrangement would be
able to incorporate strengths of both the parties and in this case the performance of BCRC
would not be dependent on just one organization. For a bridging organization like BCRC it is
appropriate that the two parties, i.e. the state and the civil society, own the organization
equally, with each one cooperating with and making demands on the other.

6.4.5 Falia Samitis for Outreach – Consensus

Panel Response
• “Falia Samitis could be a forum for a dialogue between the public and administration,
which could enable the latter to make its functioning participatory”
• “Wherever falia culture/environment is there, it will be helpful to BCRC to reach out
to the masses..”

58
• “As the earthquake has damaged the wide areas of Bhuj town, a few falia samitis are
left to function. It is very difficult to identify, organize, aggregate and obtain uniform
opinion of falia samitis.”
• “In my opinion, falia samitis are not an effective tool now, after three years of EQ.
They may have been a useful tool soon after the EQ or within a year of it. In my
opinion falia samitis may not help BCRC to reach out to the masses”.
• “Some resourceful people are very shy to come out on their own. Falia Samitis can
be a simple and easy tool for them to show their understanding and work for the
community”

Comments
Traditionally Bhuj was known as the city of falias or clusters. It has had a very strong falia
culture with families in falias living (not necessarily of the same caste) as a close-knit
community. At the time of earthquake, relief and rehabilitation activities were channelised
through the falia system quite successfully, in a few instances. Thus a question was posed to
the panel on whether the falia samiti system can be an effective outreach system for BCRC
also or not. The response was in the affirmative. But a few panelists expressed reservations
in this regard. The reason was that after earthquake neighbours have moved away from each
other and the new settlement pattern in the old city is no longer on falia or cluster lines while
in the outside city falia culture does not exist as mostly people live in apartments and
colonies. The suggestion to overcome this obstacle was to organize people into societies or
committees from the scratch, and it was suggested that BCRC could be instrumental in
organizing such committees.

6.4.6 Things to be done for city’s development

The panel was asked to generate a list of things that they feel are important for city’s
development. Some of the suggestions are following:

• Setting up of a functional and eco-friendly solid waste management system


• Sulabh Shauchalays to be constructed at various locations
• Earmarking suitable places in different areas for hawkers and cabins and prohibiting
them in other places and public roads

59
• Creation of Green Spaces in the city -To prevent encroachment of these lands, they
should be attached with some ‘meaning’, either economic or sentimental.
• Tree plantations along the newly constructed roads
• Revival of Hamirsar Water system
• Water Harvesting Structures to be setup in all public buildings

6.4.7 Future Activities for BCRC

The panel was asked to suggest some of the activities that BCRC could take up in future for
the development of the city. Following was the response:
• Organizing young people for city’s cause through volunteer youth clubs in schools
and colleges
• Information Communication and Education campaigns to instill civic sense in people
• Conflict resolution – According to a panelist BCRC could take up resolution of
conflicts on a city level. An example was given of a chowk named Bhid Chabootra
which has been designated as an open space in the TP Scheme, but which presently
has been illegally occupied by grain merchants of the city who wield a lot of influence
with the authorities.
• Take up an initiative for revival of heritage buildings and organize heritage walks
• Organize seminars on specific topics E.g. ‘Economic Opportunities in Kuchch’
• BCRC could provide impetus funds at falia levels which could allow people to take-
up development projects of community level

6.5 Concluding Remarks

On a concluding note, the panel agrees on the need for BCRC in the present context to act as
a bridge between the public and the implementing agencies. In the future according to the
panelists, BCRC should redefine it mission to include development oriented activities as well
and for this purpose it should elicit citizen’s active participation as volunteers and as board
members as well. BCRC should also establish a system of proactive outreach to increase
effectiveness. The panel was of the opinion that it would an improvement over the present
status if BCRC functions as a partnership between the state and the civil society.

60
CHAPTER 7
THE COMMUNITY FOUNDATION MODEL

In this section, we shall look at the concept of a community foundation and then talk about its
relevance in the context of the city of Bhuj. We shall then go over to discuss a ‘partnership’
model for BCRC, its proposed organization structure and future activities that it could take
up.

7.1 Introduction to Community Foundation

Community foundation is a type of a community philanthropy organization which was first


found in the United States at the beginning of last century. Today it finds place in
communities situated in the US, Canada, Europe and has been catching up all across the
world. The following is the definition of a community foundation:

“A community foundation20 is a philanthropic organization, organized and operated primarily


as a permanent collection of endowed funds, the earnings of which are used to meet critical
needs and improve the quality of life in a geographically defined community. A community
foundation is tax-exempt, incorporated, not-for-profit, organizationally autonomous, and
cannot be controlled directly or indirectly by government at any level, corporations,
associations and their members, or individuals.”

In other words, it is an organization in which individual citizens and local institutions


contribute money or goods, along with their time and skills, to promote the well-being of
others and the betterment of the community in which they live and work. It has the following
key features:
• Independent not-for-profit organization21: It is essentially independent from control
or influence of other organizations, government or donors and makes decisions
autonomously via a board of citizens broadly reflective of the community it serves.

20
http://www.acfindia.org/about_community.htm
21
www.efc.be/projects/philanthropy/

61
• Grant making institution: It uses flow-through grants and interests from
investments to make grants and operate programmes which respond to community
needs and help in improving life and environment in community.
• Defined geographic area: Such an organization focuses its activities in a defined
geographic area which could range from small-scale rural areas, to middle sized cities
and to whole regions or states.
• Representative and independent governing body: It has a governing body,
composed of volunteers, usually independently appointed, which strives to be
representative of the community it serves
• Permanent and unrestricted endowment: It is primarily structured as a permanent
collection of funds that carry out the diverse charitable purposes specified by the
governing body and donors, and has a long-term goal to increase the assets held as
permanent unrestricted endowment.
• Catalyst in the community: It helps in catalyzing positive change by creating
bridges in the community and also by responding to the needs, challenges and
opportunities in the community.

7.2 Relevance to the city of Bhuj

Bhuj is traditionally known as the ‘city of falias or clusters’ with people living in close knit
communities at the falia level. These communities are not across caste lines but on more
sensible lines of ‘neighbourhood communities’. These people have survived the devastating
earthquake and are presently involved in getting their lives back to normal. There are a large
number of people who have the desire of contributing towards the resurrection of the city and
its people.

The government, NGOs and the business communities have been the drivers of rehabilitation
process. In the aftermath of earthquake, Government has been open towards working in
collaboration with other agencies for pacing up the rehabilitation process.
Given this scenario there is a need for an agency that brings all the above stakeholders on a
common platform for the rehabilitation and the subsequent development of Bhuj. This
intervention could be in the form of a community foundation which could be a natural

62
progression for BCRC, keeping in mind the fact that its long term objective is participatory
development of the city.

7.3 Community Foundation Model for BCRC

Community foundation model proves to be a significant tool in involving citizens into


creating a positive change in communities they live in. Also, community foundations are key
institutions to cooperate with other players and stakeholders involved in their communities in
various forms, i.e. from private, public and not-for-profit sectors. On the basis of this, the
following is a proposed model for BCRC.

Figure 3: Community Foundation Model for BCRC

Individuals

NPO Business

Government

As can be seen from the above model there are four stakeholders whose contributions to the
organization could be as outlined in the following section.

7.3.1 Individuals
• Individuals can contribute as donors
• Individuals can contribute their volunteer capacities for the activities of BCRC. In case
of Bhuj, youth and senior citizen can be organized in the form of volunteer clubs. Already
a senior citizens’ volunteer club, namely the Second Innings, exists in Bhuj

63
• Prominent and public spirited citizens of Bhuj can serve as members in the advisory
board.

7.3.2 Non-Profit Sector


• NPOs can use BCRC to channelize its funds to the target groups through the various
projects of the latter. For instance, KNNA worked in collaboration with BCRC for the
partial assistance scheme for those G-5 category families who have not been able to
construct a house of their own
• They can supplement the resources of BCRC and provide professional expertise
available with them for implementation of the projects

7.3.3 Government
• Government is a valuable partner in this arrangement basically to complement or add to
limited resources available with BCRC.
• It could be an important source of funds
• Government can play a crucial role by providing a conducive policy environment for
BCRC

7.3.4 Business
• As a part of their corporate social responsibility, business houses could contribute to
BCRC in terms of funds and professional expertise (consultancy) for the projects
o The incentive for any business to do so would be the socially responsible image
that it would acquire which would in turn add to its competitiveness and help in
the accumulation of positive social capital.

7.4 Proposed Mode of Functioning

On the lines of Bangalore Agenda Taskforce (BATF), BCRC as a community foundation


could also function in project mode. Projects would be in addition to the activities it is
undertaking at present. Similar to BATF it could formulate projects in partnership with the
government stakeholders or agencies for upgrading the infrastructure facilities and improving
their service delivery. Projects for city’s development could also be formulated in partnership
with the NGOs.

64
7.5 Proposed Organization Structure for BCRC

The following is the proposed organization structure for BCRC:

Figure 4: Organization Structure of BCRC

Advisory Board

BCRC Staff

Routine Functions Projects Team

Grievance Redressal

Building and Design


Clinic

Linking up vulnerables

As can be seen from the figure above, the advisory board would be the driver of the
organization. The board members would be representatives of the government, civil society
organizations and the citizens. Board would be responsible for the identification of
development issues and corresponding formulation of projects in collaboration with relevant
stakeholders. The staff would come under the span of control of the board and thus would be
accountable to it. Staff would be divided into two units, one dedicated to the routine activities
being carried out by BCRC at present and the other working for the implementation of the
projects in collaboration with the relevant stakeholders.
7.6 Vision and Mission

Following could be the vision and mission for BCRC working in the form of a community
foundation:

Vision – “To be a people’s institution through which all citizens of Bhuj have the opportunity
to enhance the quality of their lives and the lives of others.”

65
Mission - “To be a philanthropic leader, catalyst and resource in enabling Bhuj to become a
model community.”

7.7 Benefits of CF Model


The following are the benefits of the proposed Community Foundation Model for the city of
Bhuj:
• It would support growth of social capital in the community by allowing wide
spectrum of citizens to actively participate in development
• It helps in bridging those with time, ideas and volunteer capacities and those who
share same interest and have resources
• It creates a sense of co-ownership by empowering people to turn ideas into reality
• It strengthens civil society by re-introducing democratic values and civic participation

7.8 Immediate Steps

At this point of time, following are the steps that BCRC needs to take, in case it decides in
favour of adopting the community foundation model:
• First of all a Board meeting should be convened to decide on the future course of
action in terms of, reconstitution of the board, reformulation of objectives etc
• A proactive system of outreach in the form of falias samitis and societies should be
established to improve the effectiveness of its present and future functions.
• A pool of volunteers which would contribute in the implementation of projects should
be created. It could be in the form of youth clubs in schools & colleges and clubs of
senior citizens.
• A Citizen’s Poll should be conducted to find out the concerns of the citizens with
respect to the city. The pool of volunteer could be deployed for this purpose. Based on
the issues thus identified and prioritized, the board could formulate projects in
consultation with the relevant government stakeholders and funding could be
organized for the same.
• To start with BCRC should take up projects that are able to bring the whole city
together. For e.g,

66
o A ‘Clean and Green Bhuj’ Drive
o Restoration of the 400 years old vegetable market building to which has a lot
of sentimental value for the people

7.9 Future Projects

Based on the Delphi study, following could be the projects that should be taken up by BCRC
in future:
• Solid Waste Management System
• Demarcation & fencing of water bodies
• Demarcation of Green Spaces in the city
• Hamirsar Lake Front Development
• Restoration of heritage buildings -Tourism potential
• Rebuilding Vijayaji Library
• Water Harvesting Structures
• “Tree Plantations” on both sides of new roads
• Sulabh Shauchalays at various places
• Organising Seminars on specific issues
• Vet clinics for stray animals
• Creation of a fund for disbursing loans
o Lower income group households(G5) for housing reconstruction

7.10 Concluding Remarks

At present BCRC is playing a unique and meaningful role as a facilitating agency for the
rehabilitation of Bhuj. To continue to remain relevant, in future when the rehabilitation of
Bhuj is complete, BCRC needs to redefine its mission. It should expand its functioning to
include development oriented activities also. It is proposed that BCRC should function as a
community foundation which implements development-oriented projects, funded by business
houses, in collaboration with the government stakeholders.

67
LIST OF REFERENCES

1. “Vyara Municipality – Human Unity Towards Better Urban Governance” City

Managers’ Association of Gujarat, 2002, pp. 57-59

2. “Package V”, Government of Gujarat, 2001

3. “Appraisal of Relocation Plan to Understand the Socio-Economic Changes” Bhuj

Area Development Council, 2003, pp. 3-8

4. www.gsdma.org

5. www.batf.org

6. www.nistep.go.jp/achiev/ftx/eng/mat077e/html/mat077he.html

7. www.sustainablerangelands.cnr.colostate.edu/Meeting%20notes/other%20meeting%2

0info/Collaborative_Delphi_Handout.rtf

8. www.oregonstate.edu/~gordons/research/processes/delphi.htm

9. www.acfindia.org/about_community.htm

10. www.efc.be/projects/philanthropy

68