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Explore Tinh1989 / 79 Download Amount or percentage by which a unit or plant may be turned down from its maximum. Typically 50% is theminimum. (The plants are designed to run at /or close to maximum). U ULLAGE The volume of space in a container unoccupied by contents. Hence ullaging, a method of gauging thecontents of a tank by measuring the height of the liquid surface from the top of the tank. See dipping. UNSATURATED. A term applied to organic compounds in which some carbon atoms are held together by double or triplebonds, so that these compounds are under favourable conditions, capable of combining with other elementsor compounds. UPPER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT The richest mixture that will explode. A lesser air/hydrocarbon ratio will not ignite. UPSTREAM Towards the start of the process e.g. crude storage, feed pumps, pre-treatment etc.In the business sense, exploration and crude production from wells. V V50 A viscosity index (at 50 o C) which enables linear viscosity blending calculations. VACUUM

A space entirely devoid of matter (called specifically absolute vacuum); a space, such as the interior of aclosed vessel, exhausted to some degree by a steam ejector set or other artificial means. (Any vacuum lessthan absolute is a partial vacuum). VACUUM DISTILLATION Distillation of a liquid under reduced pressure, aimed at keeping the temperature level so low as to preventappreciable cracking. For example used to distill vacuum gas oil and waxy distillate feedstock from longresidue, leaving the short residue as remainder, also used for manufacture of bitumen. VALENCE The combining power of an element, as exhibited by the number of atomic weights of hydrogen with whichone atomic weight of the element will combine. Certain atoms are capable of combining with others indifferent proportions; they are said to have a number of valences or are multi valent.

VALVE Apparatus used to control the flow or supply of gases, liquids or fluidised solids. VALVE TRAYS Fractionating trays consisting of a plate with holes for vapour passage, characterised by the presence of valves over these holes. These valves are aimed at preventing liquid passage (if liquid pressure shouldbecome too high) while allowing flexibility in vapour passage (depending on pressure of the vapour). Theflow is meant to be of the single type, and downcomers are generally provided. VAPOUR Gaseous substance which can be at least partly condensed by cooling or compression. VAPOUR DENSITY The weight per unit volume of gas e.g. grams per litre or pounds per cubmic foot. VAPOUR LINE

The pipe through which vapours are led from a column to a condenser. VAPOUR LOCK A condition which arises when a gas or vapour is present in the fuel line or fuel pump in sufficient volume tointerfere with or prevent the flow of fuel to the carburettor of an engine. VAPOUR PHASE The term describing a substance in the gaseous state, under conditions in which it is capable of beingliquefied either by pressure or cooling or a combination of both. VAPOUR PRESSURE (AT GIVEN TEMPERATURE) The pressure exerted by the vapours released from any material, at a given temperature, when enclosed ina vapour-tight container. The lower pressure at which a liquid, contained in a closed vessel at the giventemperature, can remain in the liquid state without evaporation. Lowering the vessel pressure below thevapour pressure results in evaporation of part or all of the liquid. A compound or fraction with a high vapour pressure requires a high pressure to be kept as a liquid, thus it is volatile. VAPORISATION The conversion of a liquid to its vapour, such as the changing of water into steam. VENTURI METER A specially designed tube for measuring the rates of flow of gases or liquids, having a constriction or throatwith convergent upstream and divergent downstream walls, the angles of which are such that streamline or almost streamline flow through the tube is achieved. The rate of flow is measured by the pressure dropacross the throat. VENTURI TUBE A tube, inserted in a line, whose internal surface consists of two truncated cones connected at the smallends by a short cylinder (the throat). As the velocity of flow of the fluid increases in the throat, the pressuredecreases. The tube is used to measure the quantity of fluid flowing or, by jointing a branch tube at thethroat, to produce suction. VISCOSIMETER Instrument for measuring viscosities.a) Absolute viscosity is determined by a capillary type instrument. The time required for a sample to flowthrough a known length of glass capillary is registered. Results are often given in centistokes or Centipoise.b) In the petroleum industry the viscosity is generally determined in standardised instruments consisting of acontainer with a hole or jet in the bottom. Various types are used, viz in the UK, the Redwood 1 andRedwood 11, in the USA the Saybolt Universal and Saybolt Furol and on the European continent the Engler viscosimeter. Results with the Redwood and Saybolt viscosimeters are expressed in seconds, those with theEngler in Engler degrees. VISCOSITY

The dynamic viscosity of a liquid is a measure of its resistance to flow. It is defined as the force per unitsurface required to shear a layer of unit thickness at unit velocity. The kinetic viscosity is equal to thedynamic viscosity divided by the density of the liquid. If no distinction is made the dynamic viscosity isusually meant. VISCOSITY INDEX A method of indicating the viscosity/temperature of an oil. Oils are generally classed as high, medium andlow viscosity index oils (HVI, MVI, LVI). VOLATILE Term applied to materials which have a sufficiently high vapour pressure at normal temperature to evaporatereadily at normal atmospheric pressure and temperature. It implies a high degree of volatility. W WASH OILS petroleum fractions employed for the absorption of the relatively heavy and easily liquefiable components of a mixture of gases (to reduce gas stream density). WASH WATER Water injected into a process either for scrubbing a recycle gas or for corrosion protection in critical parts of the unit. WASTE HEAT BOILER Equipment used for generation of steam etc. from excess heat in stack gases.

WATER BOTTOM Water accumulated at (or sometimes added to) the base of the oil in a storage tank. In cases where the tankbottom is very uneven, the water level assists in the accurate measurement of the oil content of the tank. WATER SOFTENING Process of removing free ions from water - see deionised water. WAXY DISTILLATE A fractional cut about equal to the middle section of long residue. Hydrocracker Feedstock. WEAR The attrition or rubbing away of the surface of a material as a result of mechanical action. WEATHERING The often undesired process of slow evaporation of volatile fractions from a petroleum fraction duringstorage. It is promoted by breathing. WEIGHTED AVERAGE BED TEMPERATURE (WABT)

The sum of the individual bed temperature weighted for the amount of catalyst in each bed, divided by thetotal catalyst weight.The WABT is often 'normalised', to take account of changes in feed type or reaction severity, to allow directcomparison on the same base. WEIR A wall or partition for maintaining a level of liquid, used in fractionator trays and kettle reboilers. WET GAS petroleum gas containing such quantities of the lower members of the paraffin hydrocarbon series (propane,butane etc.) that the recovery of liquid products from that gas may be economical. A gas containing arelatively high proportion of hydrocarbons which are recoverable as liquids. WHESSOE Tank gauging systems used in oil movements. WHITE OIL Generic name applied to highly refined, colourless hydrocarbon oils. WHITE PRODUCTS Light petroleum products such as gasoline, white spirit and kerosene. WHITE SPIRITS C. They are used in paints and dry cleaning. Not an NZRC product. Fractions intermediate betweengasoline and kerosene with a boiling range of approximately 150-200 WIDE RANGE DISTILLATE A distillate with a wide boiling range. As a combination of gasoline and kerosene fractions it is used for aircraft powered by gas turbines. WORK SAFE AUDIT A method of assessing any job for unnecessary risk. Can be done by another or by oneself. X XRAY Otherwise known as Rontgen rays. One of the highly penetrating radiations similar to Gamma rays; they donot come from the nucleus of the atom, but from the surrounding electrons. They are produced by electronbombardment. Applications; analysis (fluorescent x-ray spectroscopy); non-destructive testing, e.g. tubewalls in furnace. XYLENE C 6 H 4 (CH)

2 An aromatic hydrocarbon of which there are three isomers (ortho, meta and para). An important constituentof gasoline. Y YARD PIPE (YP) Any of the pipes within the Tank Farm used for rundown, transfer, shipping etc. As distinct from the pipeswithin the unit battery limits. The yard pipes are numbered. YIELD The amount of a desired product or products obtained in a given process, expressed as a percentage of thefeedstock. There are many yields, each of which should be specifically defined when used, e.g. Saleableyield is the volume % of feedstock turned into saleable product. Z NOTHING FOUND FOR Z.

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