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Timerelated
Symbol t t u,v a Quantity time time constant velocity acceleration angular velocity angular acceleration frequency rotational frequency Unit Symbol s s ms1 ms2 Unit name second second meter per second meter per second per second radian per second
Prefix tera giga mega kilo hecto deca deci centi milli micro nano pico femto atto
Symbol T G M k h da d c m m n p f a
a f n
106 103 10 10
2
Mechanical
Symbol m F G (W) J M (T) W (E) P p Quantity mass force weight moment of inertia torque work (energy) power pressure modulus of elasticity stress density rate of flow any constant factor Unit Symbol kg N N kgm2 kgm J W Pa Pa Pa kgm3 m3s1 Unit name kilogram Newton Newton kilogram meter squared kilogram meter Joule Watt Pascal Pascal Pascal kilogram per cubic meter cubic meter per second
10
1
1018
Unit Name meter square meter cubic meter radian degree steradian
E s r dx k, k1, etc.
m3 rad
a, b, g, etc.
solid angle
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Protective Enclosures
IP AND NEMA
Protective Enclosures  Nonhazardous Areas IP Protection IP Protection is a European system of classification which is widely accepted internationally, and indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of solid objects, dust, liquids and personal contact. The first numeral indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of solid objects (including parts of the body) and dust. The second numeral indicates the degree of protection against the ingress of water.
2 3 4
5 6
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www.emersonct.com 8008932321 NEMA and UL Standards The North American Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) enclosure standards designate by means of a type number the environmental conditions for which an enclosure is suitable. A particular enclosure may have more than one type number. The table below summarizes the type designations of NEMA 250; the designators specified by UL50 and UL508 are substantially the same, with differences of detail only in the description; for further information, reference should be made to the standard specification. Comparison of NEMA Type Numbers to IEC Classification Designations Not to be used to convert IEC Classifications Designations to NEMA Numbers
NEMA Enclosure Type Number 1 2 3 3R 3S 4 and 4X 5 6 and 6P 12 and 12K 13 IEC Enclosure Classification Designation IP10 IP11 IP54 IP14 IP54 IP56 IP52 IP 67 IP 52
IP54
3R
4 4X
12
13
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Electrical Formulae
Electrical Quantities
Quantity Electromotive force Potential difference Current Magnetic flux Frequency Flux linkage Resistance Inductance Capacitance Impedance Reactance Symbol E, e* V, v* I, i* f R L C Z X P Q S j w n Unit Name Unit Symbol Volt Volt Ampere Weber Hertz Weberturns Ohm Henry Farad Ohm Ohm Watt Voltampere reactive Voltampere Radians per second Revolutions per second Revolutions per minute Efficiency Number of pairs of poles h p V V A Weber Hz W H F W W W VAr, var VA , deg. rads1 s1 ,rev s1 min1, rpm
AC ThreePhase (Assuming Balanced Symmetrical Waveform) All quantities r.m.s values: Vl = Linetoline voltage Vp = Phase voltage (linetoneutral) Il = line current (wye) Ip = Phase current (delta) In a WYE connected circuit, Vp = Vl + E3, Vl =E3Vp, Il = Ip In a DELTA connected circuit: Ip = Il + E3, Il =E3 Ip Vl = Vp Total of apparent power in VA = E3 Vl Il Active power in watts,W = E3 Vl Il cos j Reactive power in VAr = E3 Vl Il sin j Power factor (pf) = cos j = Active power / Apparent power = W / VAr ThreePhase Induction Motors All quantities rms values: kWmech = horsepower x 0.746 kWelec = E3 Vl Il cos j at rated speed and load where Vl = supply voltage Il = rated full load current cos j = rated full load power factor Efficiency, h = (kWmech + kWelec) x 100 per cent Phase current Ip = Il for wye connection Ip = Il + E3 for delta connection Loads (phase values) Resistance R, measured in Ohms (no energy storage) Inductive reactance, XL = wL = 2p L Ohms (stores energy) Where = frequency (Hz), L = Inductance (H) Capacitative reactance, XC = 1/(wC) = 1/(2pC) Where = frequency (Hz), C = Capacitance (F) Impedance Impedance is the algebraic sum of the separate load values thus: Z = E(R2 + XL2) or E(R2 + XC2) If R, XL and XC are present in series in the same circuit then XL and XC may be summated, treating XC as negative, thus Z = E(R2 + (XL  XC)2)
Power,dc,or active Power, reactive Power, total or apparent Power factor angle Angular velocity Rotational velocity
* Capital and small letters designate rms and instantaneous value respectively.
AC SinglePhase All quantities r.m.s. values: V=I Z Total or apparent power in VA = Vl = I2Z = V2+ Z Active power in watts, W =Vl cos j Reactive power in VAr = Vl sin j
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Electrical Formulae
Ohms Law Amperes = or Volts Ohms or Ohms = Volts Amperes
Mechanical Variables
Material Densities Materials Aluminum Brass Bronze Copper Hard Wood Soft Wood Plastic Glass Titanium Paper Polyvinyl chloride Rubber Silicone Rubber, without filler Cast Iron, gray Steel lb/in3 0.096 0.299 0.295 0.322 0.029 0.018 0.04 0.0790.090 0.163 0.0250.043 0.0470.050 0.0330.036 0.043 0.274 0.28 gm/cm3 2.66 8.3 8.17 8.91 0.8 0.48 1.11 2.22.5 4.51 0.71.2 1.31.4 0.920.99 1.2 7.6 7.75
Power in DC Circuits Horsepower = Volts x Amperes 746 Volts x Amperes 1,000 Volts x Amperes x Hours 1,000
KilowattsHours = Power in AC Circuits KilovoltAmperes (KVA): kVA (1) = kVA (3) = Kilowatts (Kw) kW (1) =
kW (3) = Volts x Amperes x Power Factor x 1.73 1,000 Power Factor = Kilowatts Kilovolts x Amperes
Friction Coefficients Materials Steel on Steel (greased) Plastic on Steel Copper on Steel Brass on Steel Aluminum on Steel Steel on Steel Mechanism Ball Bushings Linear Bearings Dovetail Slides Gibb Ways
Ffr=WL ~0.15 ~0.150.25 ~0.30 ~0.35 ~0.45 ~0.58 <0.001 <0.001 ~0.2++ ~0.5++
Motor Amps = Motor Amps = Motor Amps = Power Factor = Kilowatt Hours =
Mechanism Efficiencies Acme screw with brass nut Acme screw with plastic nut Ballscrew Chain and Sprocket Preloaded Ballscrew Spur or Bevel gears Timing Belts Worm Gears Helical Gear (1 reduction)
Power (Watts) = E x I x 3 x PF
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Mechanical Formulae
Term d F g Description Diameter Force Acceleration due to gravity Total inertia Load inertia Motor inertia Mass Motor torque Accelerating torque Load torque Rotational frequency  input  output Change of rotational frequency Pitch Motor power Accelerating power Load power absorbed Radius Distance Acceleration time Acceleration period Linear velocity Change of linear velocity Traction capacity Energy Efficiency Coefficient of friction Unit m N ms2 kgm2 kgm2 kgm2 kg Nm Nm Nm rpm* rpm* rpm* rpm* m kW kW kW m m s s m/min* m/min* M3s1
Linear Motion
J
JL JM
m M Ma ML n n1 n2 in p P Pa PL r s t it v iv V W h m
Fig. A Consider a body mass m acted upon by a single force F, Fig A. The body accelerates in the direction in which the force is acting, at a rate given by: A = F+m After a time t has elapsed, the body has achieved a velocity v, where: v = u + at (u is the initial velocity, before the force F was applied. If the body was initially at rest, u is zero) The distance, s, travelled by the body during time t is s = ut + at2+2 Distance and velocity are related by the following equation, derived from the two previous ones: v2 u2 = 2as The work done by the force in accelerating the body is the product of force and distance: W = Fs The kinetic energy of the body, ie the energy which it possesses by virtue of its motion, is the product of its mass and the square of its velocity: Ek = mv2 +2 Furthermore, since energy is conserved, the work done by the force is equal to the change in the bodys kinetic energy (neglecting losses): W = m(v2 u2) +2 Power is the rate at which work is done, therefore it is the product of force and velocity: P = Fv
J ( Joule)

Note: For practical convenience, some of the units in the formulae following are not S1 units; for example, rotational frequency is commonly measured in revolutions per minute, although the S1 unit is revolutions per second. In these Servo Formulae, the terms used are as tabulated above.Those which are in nonS1 units are marked *.
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M=Fr 8008932321 r
Angle and angular velocity are related by the following equation: 2 2  o = 2 The work done in accelerating the body is the product of torque and angle of rotation: Angle and angular velocity are related by the following Angle and angular velocity are related by the following W = M equation: equation: 2 o = 2 2  o2 = 2 2body is the product of its moment The kinetic energy of the The work done in accelerating the body is the The work done in accelerating the body is the product of of inertia and the square of its angular velocity: product of torque and angle of rotation: torque and angle of rotation: = J2 2 Ek W W = M Since energy is conserved, the= M done is equal to the work The kinetic energy of the body is the product The kinetic energy of the(neglecting losses): of its moment change in kinetic energy body is the product of its moment of inertia and the square of its angular velocity: velocity: of inertia and the square of its angular 2 2 W = J(2  o) 2 Ek = Ek = J2 2 Power is the product of torque J 2angular velocity, i.e. the and Since which work is being done: Sinceatenergy is conserved, the work done is equal to the rate energy is conserved, the work done is equal to the change in kinetic energy (neglecting losses): change in kinetic energy (neglecting losses): P = M 2 W = J(22  o2) 2 = J( o) 2 W Relationship between linear and angular motion Power is the product of torque and angular velocity, i.e. the Power is the product of torque and angular velocity, i.e. the rate at which work mass m moving Consider a body of is being done: in a circle of radius r with rate at which work is being done: an angular velocity , Fig A.13.= M P P = M When the body has rotated through an angle , it has covered Relationship between linear and circle, where: Relationship between linear and angular motion a distance s along circumference of theangular motion Consider a body of mass m moving in a circle of radius with Consider a body of mass m moving in a circle of radius rr with m an angular velocity , Fig A.13. v an angular velocity , Fig A.13.
s When the body has rotated through an angle , it has covered has When the body rotated through an angle , it has covered r a distance s along circumference of the circle, where: a distance s along circumference of the circle, where: Fig A.13 m m Relationship v v between linear and s s angular motion r r Fig A.13 Fig A.13 Relationship Relationship Similarly, the tangential velocity or peripheral speed v, being the between linear and between linear and quotient of distance and time, is given by: angular motion angular motion
A force acting perpendicular to a pivoted lever, Fig A.11, causes r Fig A.11 Fig A.11 a turning effect or torque at the fulcrum.The torque is the The concept The concept product of the force and the radius at which it is applied. M of torque of torque M = Fr A force acting perpendicular to a pivoted lever, Fig A.11, causes force acting perpendicular to a pivoted lever, Fig A.11, causes A a turning effect or torque at the fulcrum.The torque is the a turning effect or torque at the fulcrum.The torque is the product of the force and the radius at which it is applied. product of the force and the radius at which it is applied. M = Fr M = Fr A torque is applied to a body a pivoted lever, rotate, as in A force acting perpendicular to a pivoted lever, Fig A.11, causes If aforce acting perpendicular to which is free to Fig A.11, causes a turning effect or torque at the a way which is analogous a turning effect or torque at the fulcrum.The torque is the Fig A.12, an acceleration results infulcrum.The torque is the to product of the linear motion above. Indeed is applied. product of the force and the radius at which it is applied. the example of force and the radius at whichaitsimilarity will be M of noticed between the equations= Frmotion. M = Fr If a body is applied to a of rotating is free to a property Anytorquewhich is capablebody which is free to rotate, as in If a torque is applied to a body which possesses rotate, as in Fig A.12, Moment of Inertia which way to resist acceleration known asan acceleration results in a way which is analogous to Fig A.12, an acceleration results in a tendswhich is analogous to the example of as does the above. a body linear motion. in the same of linear motion above. Indeed a similarity will be the examplewaylinear motion mass of Indeed ainsimilarity will be noticed between the equations of motion. The moment of the equations of motion. noticed betweeninertia is related not only to the mass of the body,bodyalso to is capable of rotating possesses a property Any but which the distribution of that mass with respect Any body which is capable of rotating possesses a property to radius. Moment of Inertia which tends to resist acceleration known as known as Moment of Inertia which tends to resist acceleration in the same of as does a solid cylinder of radius r is motion. The momentwayinertia of the mass of a body in linear given by: in the same way as does the mass of a body in linear motion. The moment of inertia is related not only to the mass of the The moment of inertia is related 2not only to the mass of the J = mr 2 body, but also to the distribution of that mass with respect respect body, but also to the distribution of that mass with cylinder, of By comparison, the moment of inertia of a hollow to radius. radius. to and outer radii respectively, is as follows: inner The moment of inertia of a solid cylinder of radius r is given by: a The moment of inertia of = solid cylinder of radius r is given by: 2 J m(ro  r 2) 2 i = 2 JJ = mr2 2 It can be seen that, for a given mr 2 radius, the moment of outer By comparison, the moment greater than hollow solid By comparison, the cylinder is of inertia of athat of acylinder, of inertia of a hollow moment of inertia of a hollow cylinder, of inner and the radii respectively, is as follows: inner and outersame mass. In Fig A.12, a body having a cylinder ofouter radii respectively, is as follows: 2 = upon r ii 2 moment of inertia J is actedm(ro2  r 22) a torque M. Its angular JJ = m(ro  by) 2 acceleration is: that, for a given outer radius, the moment of It can be seen It can be seen that, for a given outer radius, the moment of = M/J inertia of a hollow cylinder is greater than that of a solid inertia of a hollow cylinder is greater than that of a solid Fig having cylinder of the same mass. In Fig A.12, a body having a cylinder of the same mass. In Fig A.12, a body A.12 a The M. Its angular moment of inertia is acted upon by a torque Action of moment of inertia JJ is acted upon by a torque M. Its angular torque on a body acceleration is: acceleration is: = M/J J = M/J Fig A.12 Fig A.12 After a time t has elapsed, the angular velocity, (rate of The Action of The Action of change of angle) is given by: torque on a body torque on a body J = o + t (wo is the initial angular velocity, before the torque M was M applied. time t has elapsed, the angular velocity, (rate of If the has elapsed, the angular velocity, (rate of body was initially at rest, o is zero) After a After a time t
v = s/t = r/t Angular velocity w is the quotient of angle and time; Similarly, the tangential velocity or peripheral speed v, being the Similarly, the tangential velocity=or peripheral speed v, being the w /t quotient of distance and time, is given by: quotient of distance and time, is given by: Therefore v = s/t = r/t v =vs/t = r/t = wr Angular for acceleration: Angular velocity w is the quotient of angle and time; Similarly, velocity w is the quotient of angle and time; Therefore Therefore = /t w = /t a =wv/t = wr/t =w v = wr v = wr
change of g, through which The angle, angle) is given by: change of angle) is given by: the body rotates in time t is: t = o +t2 = oo++ t/2 =t (wo is the initial angular velocity, before the torque M was (wo is the initial angular velocity, before the torque M was For the body was initially at rest, o is zero) applied. If the body was initially at rest, o is zero) applied. Iffurther information, documentation and The angle, g, through which the body rotates in time t is: The angle, g, through which the body rotates in time t is: = o + t2/2 = ott + t2/2
local support go of inertia is given by The moment to www.controltechniques.com The moment of inertia is given by
= mr2 JJ = mr2
a = r a = v/t = wr/t = v/t = agiven by wr/t The moment of inertia is =w J = w2 = mr Therefore Therefore a = r a = r
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Effect of Speed on HP: HP = K1 (RPM)3 Horsepower varies as the 3rd power of power of speed.
T = K2 (RPM)2 Torque varies as the 2nd power of speed Flow = K3 (RPM) HP = HP = Pumps HP = GPM x Head (ft) x Specific Gravity 3960 x % Efficiency of Pump Flow varies directly as the speed
CFM x Pressure (lb/in2) 229 x Efficiency of Fan CFM x Inches of Water Gauge 6356 x Efficiency of Fan
Specific Gravity of Water = 1.0 1 ft3 per sec. = 448 GPM 1 PSI = A head of 2.309 ft for water weighing 62.36 lb/ft3 at 62F Constant Displacement Pumps Effect of Speed on HP: HP = K (RPM) Horsepower and capacity vary directly as the speed. Displacement pumps under constant head require approximately constant torque at all speeds. Centrifugal Pumps Effect of Speed on HP: HP = K1 (RPM)3 T = Horsepower varies as the 3rd power of speed.
Web Transport Systems and Surface Winders HP = Tension (lb) x Velocity (FPM) 33,000
Note: The tension value used in this calculation is the actual web tension for surface winder applications. For sectional drives, it is the tension differential: downstream tension upstream tension. Center Winders (Control to Base Speed Only) HP = Tension (lb) x Line Speed (FPM) x Buildup 33,000 x Taper Center Winders (Field Control) If Taper x Field Range > Buildup, then, HP = Tension (lb) x Line Speed (FPM) 33,000 If Taper x Field Range < Buildup, then, HP = Tension (lb) x Line Speed (FPM) x Buildup 33,000 x Taper x Field Range NOTE: The preceding formulae for calculating horsepower do not include any allowance for machine function windage or other factors. These factors must be considered when selecting a drive for a machine application.
K2 (RPM)2 Torque varies as the 2nd power of speed. Flow varies directly as the speed.
500 to 1,000 gal/min 1,000 to 1,500 gal/min Larger than 1,500 gal/min
Displacement pumps may vary between 50% and 80% efficiency, depending on size of pumps.
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Mass
g g kg oz lb US ton 1 1000 28.2495 453.592 907185 kg 103 1 2.835 x 102 4.536 x 101 907.185 oz 3.5274 x 102 35.274 1 16 32 lb 2.204 x 103 2.20462 6.25 x 102 1 2000 US ton 1. 102 x 106 1.102 x 103 3.125 x 105 5 x 104 1
Energy
J J
Wh kp m k cal BTU 1 3600 9.807 4186.8 1055.06
439
440
are 10
6 8 10 1 3 4 11
1 10.7639 1076.39 107639 1.076 x 10 6.944 x 10 1 9 2.787 x 107 43560 4840 1 2.0976 x 106 1.1111 x 101 7.716 x 10 1.196 x 10 11959.9 3.861 x 10 119599 3.861 x 105 3.861 x 103
1 10
4
m2
10000
are
106
100
10000 6.4516 x 10 9.2903 x 106 258.999 4.04686x10 4.04686 x 10 6.272 x 106 2.58999 4.014 x 109 9.2903 x 108 144 6.4516 x 10
km
10
10
10
inch
6.4516
6.4516 x 10
foot2
929.03
9.2903 x 102
yard2
8.36127
mile2
2.589 x 1010
2.589 x 106
acre
4.046 x 10
4046.86
dm3 (=litre) 1.308 x 10 1.308 x 103 2.143 x 105 3.7037 x 102 1 3.868 x 10
5
10
3
dm3
1000
inch3
16.3871
1.638 x 102
28316.8
28.3168
764555
764.555
US fl oz
29.5735
2.957 x 10
Imp fl oz
28.4131
2.841 x 102
US gal 34.6774
3785.41
3.78541
Imp gal
4546.09
4.54609
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Imp pint
568.261
5.682 x 10
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Mechanical Conversion Table
yard3
US fl oz 3.3814 x 10
2
US gal 2.641 x 10
4
Imp gal 2.199 x 10 2.641 x 101 4.329 x 103 7.48052 201.974 7.8125 x 10
3 4
Imp pint 1.759 x 103 2.199 x 101 3.604 x 103 6.22884 168.179 6.505 x 10
3
1.75975 2.883 x 102 49.8307 1345.43 5.204 x 102 9.6076 x 101 128 153.772 19.2152 1 133.228 160 20 7.506 x 103 1 1.20095 1.501 x 10
1
5 x 102 6.66139 8 1
kp m s2 1.019 x 105 10 1
5 2
1.416 x 102 3.417 x 101 8.850 x 104 2.373 x 103 7.375 x 105
1.829 x 10
oz in s2
2
24.1305
1.675 x 101 5.208 x 103 6.944 x 103 2.1548x104 2.68117 1 32.174 8.333 x 102 3.108 x 102 1
4
5
lb in s2
2
1
2
lb ft s2
1.382 x 101
Torque
N cm N cm Nm kp cm kp m p cm oz in in lb ft lb 1 100 9.80665 980.665 9.806 x 10 11.2985 135.582
3
ft lb 7.375 x 103
7.375 x 101 7.233 x 102 7.233 7.233 x 105 5.208 x 103 8.333 x 102 1
7.061 x 101
7.061 x 103
1
6.25 x 102
Force
N N kp p oz lbf 1 9.80665 9.806 x 103 2.780 x 101 4.44822 kp 1.019 x 101 1 103 2.835 x 102 4.536 x 101 p 101.972 1000 1 28.3595 453.592 oz 3.59694 35.274 3.5274 x 102 1 16 lbf 2.248 x 101 2.20462 2.204 x 103 6.25 x 102 1
Power
kW kW PS hp kp ms1 kcals1 1 7.355 x 101 7.457 x 10 4.1868
1
kcal s1 2.388 x 101 1.756 x 101 1.781 x 101 2.342 x 103 1
9.806 x 103
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To: kg kg kg kg kg kg kg
Multiply by: 1016 907.2 103 14.59 0.454 2.84 x 102 103
102
3
Area
SI UNIT  square meter (m2) To convert from: Square Miles Acre Hectare ha Km (sq. km) cm2 mm2 yd2 ft2 in
2 2 2
To: m2 m m
2
lbf (lb wt) poundal ozf (oz wt) kp p kgf (kg wt) gf (g wt) dyn
m2
2
m2 m2 m2 m2 m m
2 2
mil
Volume
SI UNIT  cubic meter (m3) To convert from: yd3 ft3 in3 dm
3
To: m3 m3 m3 m m m m
3 3 3 3
Nm2
m3 m3
kgf cm2
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Moment of Inertia
SI UNIT  Kilogram meter2 (kgm2) Multiply by: 0.447 5.08 x 103 0.305 0.278 1.67 x 102 0.515 To convert from: lb in s
2
To convert from: mph (mile per hour) ft min1 fts1 km h1 m min1 knot
To: ms
1
To: kgm
2
Multiply by: 0.113 7.06155 x 102 8.85075 141.612 104 0.25 4.21 x 102 9.807 1.356 2.926 x 104 1.829 x 105
oz in s2 kg m2 kg m
2
kgm2 lb in s2 oz in s2 kgm2
2
kgm
Velocity (Angular)
SI UNIT  radians per second (rad s1) To convert from: rpm (revolutions per min) rs1 (revolutions per sec) s1 (degrees per sec) To: rads1 rads1 rads1 Multiply by: 0.1037 (2p/60) 6.283 (2p) 1.75 x 102 (2p/360)
ozf in
Temperature
SI UNIT  Kelvin (K) To convert from: C To: K K K K Multiply by:
Torque
SI UNIT  Newton meter (Nm) To convert from: lbf ft lbf in ozf in kgf m kp m To: Nm Nm Nm Nm Nm Multiply by: 1.356 0.113 7.062 x 103 9.807 9.807
tC F tF
Flow
SI UNIT  cubic meter per second (m3s1) To convert from: gallon per hour (Imp) gallon per hour (US) To: ms ms
3 1 3 1
Energy
SI UNIT  Joule (J) To convert from: Btu therm (105 btu) cal ft lbf (ft lb wt) ft poundal To: Multiply by: 1.055 x 103 1.055 x 108 4.187 1.356 0.042
m3s1 m3s1 ms ms ms
3 1 3 1 3 1
J J J J J
m min
Torque
SI UNIT  Newton meter (Nm) To convert from: To: Nm Nm Nm lb ft lb ft oz in Multiply by: 1.356 0.113 7.062 x 103 0.738 8.857 141.6 lb ft lb in oz in Nm Nm Nm
3
Power
SI UNIT  kilowatt (kW) To convert from: hp ps ch, CV Btu s1 kcal s1 ft lbf s
1
To: kW kW kW kW kW kW
Linear Acceleration
SI UNIT  meter per second2 (ms2) To convert from: To: ms
2 2
Force
SI UNIT  Newton (N) To convert from: lb(f) N To: N lb(f) Multiply by: 4.448 0.225
ins fts
2
2
ms fts
ms2 ms
2
ins2
2
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