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Introduction to APA (American Introduction to APA (American Introduction to APA (American Introduction to APA (American
Psycho|ogica| Association Sty|e) Psycho|ogica| Association Sty|e) Psycho|ogica| Association Sty|e) Psycho|ogica| Association Sty|e)
Identifying and co||ecting information for Identifying and co||ecting information for Identifying and co||ecting information for Identifying and co||ecting information for
citations citations citations citations
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Troub|eshoot prob|ems with formatting Troub|eshoot prob|ems with formatting Troub|eshoot prob|ems with formatting Troub|eshoot prob|ems with formatting
issues issues issues issues
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Give key background information and data Give key background information and data Give key background information and data Give key background information and data
Document facts presented Document facts presented Document facts presented Document facts presented
Support or dispute research statement Support or dispute research statement Support or dispute research statement Support or dispute research statement
Avoid p|agiarism Avoid p|agiarism Avoid p|agiarism Avoid p|agiarism
Check out Rutgers University Check out Rutgers University Check out Rutgers University Check out Rutgers University s tutoria| s tutoria| s tutoria| s tutoria|
http://|ibrary.camden.rutgers.edu/Educationa| http://|ibrary.camden.rutgers.edu/Educationa| http://|ibrary.camden.rutgers.edu/Educationa| http://|ibrary.camden.rutgers.edu/Educationa|
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May Have to Adapt Examp|es Given to Fit May Have to Adapt Examp|es Given to Fit May Have to Adapt Examp|es Given to Fit May Have to Adapt Examp|es Given to Fit
Your Situation Your Situation Your Situation Your Situation
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PROFESSOR, WHO ASSIGNS GRADES PROFESSOR, WHO ASSIGNS GRADES PROFESSOR, WHO ASSIGNS GRADES PROFESSOR, WHO ASSIGNS GRADES
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to refer your reader to your References to refer your reader to your References to refer your reader to your References to refer your reader to your References
page for comp|ete information page for comp|ete information page for comp|ete information page for comp|ete information
Number of authors of a work varies the Number of authors of a work varies the Number of authors of a work varies the Number of authors of a work varies the
format format format format
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What Does a Citation !nclude?
Paraphrasing - !ndirect Quotation
Author(s)
Year of Publication
Can add page number for emphasis, not required
Direct Quotation - Word-for-Word
Author(s)
Year of Publication
Page Number Location of Quotation, is required
9
What is Paraphrasing?
Restating a passage from a source in Restating a passage from a source in Restating a passage from a source in Restating a passage from a source in
your own words your own words your own words your own words
Expressing essentia| information and Expressing essentia| information and Expressing essentia| information and Expressing essentia| information and
ideas from someone e|se ideas from someone e|se ideas from someone e|se ideas from someone e|se s writing s writing s writing s writing
Providing more detai|s than a summary, Providing more detai|s than a summary, Providing more detai|s than a summary, Providing more detai|s than a summary,
which focuses on one main idea which focuses on one main idea which focuses on one main idea which focuses on one main idea
10
Why Paraphrase?
Makes you focus on the meaning of what you Makes you focus on the meaning of what you Makes you focus on the meaning of what you Makes you focus on the meaning of what you
grasped from the origina| source grasped from the origina| source grasped from the origina| source grasped from the origina| source
Reduces use of too many direct quotes Reduces use of too many direct quotes Reduces use of too many direct quotes Reduces use of too many direct quotes
Note: According to writing experts, a we|| Note: According to writing experts, a we|| Note: According to writing experts, a we|| Note: According to writing experts, a we||- -- -
written paper contains on|y about 10% of written paper contains on|y about 10% of written paper contains on|y about 10% of written paper contains on|y about 10% of
direct|y quoted materia| direct|y quoted materia| direct|y quoted materia| direct|y quoted materia|
For more assistance, check out OWL at Purdue For more assistance, check out OWL at Purdue For more assistance, check out OWL at Purdue For more assistance, check out OWL at Purdue
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Kanu (2006) noted that Native American and
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Citation and the Date
Always add the date to the
parenthetical citations
Examples: (Cain 8 Abel, 2009) or (Smith,
Jones, 8 Green, 1999) or (Brown, 2007)
With the authors in the narrative style,
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in same paragraph
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Inc|ude the date in each citation for the first Inc|ude the date in each citation for the first Inc|ude the date in each citation for the first Inc|ude the date in each citation for the first
and subsequent citations in each paragraph and subsequent citations in each paragraph and subsequent citations in each paragraph and subsequent citations in each paragraph
18
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author and add the year, if avai|ab|e author and add the year, if avai|ab|e author and add the year, if avai|ab|e author and add the year, if avai|ab|e
The pharmacy staff now are able to
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within the same parentheses in within the same parentheses in within the same parentheses in within the same parentheses in
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used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form
of interconnectednessgenealogical rather than ecological (p.
14).
23
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paragraphs. paragraphs. paragraphs. paragraphs.
24
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manua| does not answer a|| of your manua| does not answer a|| of your manua| does not answer a|| of your manua| does not answer a|| of your
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25
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26
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book chapter a study done in 2002 by book chapter a study done in 2002 by book chapter a study done in 2002 by book chapter a study done in 2002 by
Organista, Manzo, and Wong. Organista, Manzo, and Wong. Organista, Manzo, and Wong. Organista, Manzo, and Wong.
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or the study by Organista and the or the study by Organista and the or the study by Organista and the or the study by Organista and the
others? others? others? others?
27
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Multivariate analysis of clinicians revealed differences
in competency based on ethnicity (Organista, Manzo, &
Wong, as cited in Lum & Lu, 2003).
Organista, Manzo, and Wong (as cited in Lum & Lu,
2003) used multivariate analysis of Latino and non-
Latino clinicians in their comparative study of
competency.
28
Brainstorm Action Verbs Brainstorm Action Verbs Brainstorm Action Verbs Brainstorm Action Verbs
29
Exercise Exercise Exercise Exercise Editing In Editing In Editing In Editing In- -- -Text Text Text Text
Citations Citations Citations Citations
30
The End The End The End The End