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UML (Unified Modeling Language)

UML Notation:

1. Interaction

Some behavior constituted by messages exchanged among objects; the

exchange of messages is with a view to achieving some purpose.

2. State machine

A behavior that specifies the sequence of “states” an object goes

through, during its lifetime.
A “state” is a condition or situation during the lifetime of an
object during which it exhibits certain characteristics and/or
performs some function.


3. Grouping Things (Packages)

A general-purpose element that comprises UML elements –

structural, behavioral or even grouping things.
Packages are conceptual groupings of the system and need not
necessarily be implemented as cohesive software modules
4. Annotation Things (Note)

A graphical notation for attaching constraints and/or

Comments to elements of the model

5. Dependency

A semantic relationship where a change in one thing (the

independent thing) causes a change in the semantics of the other
thing (the dependent thing).

(Arrow-head points to the independent thing)

6. Aggregation

Aggregation is a variant of the "has a" or association

relationship aggregation is more specific than association
Aggregation: "is part of" symbolized by a clear white diamond.

7. Composition

Composition usually has a strong life cycle dependency between

instances of the container class and instances of the contained
class (es) if the container is destroyed; normally every instance
that it contains is destroyed.

Composition: "is entirely made of” symbolized by a black


8. Relationships (Link)

A structural relationship that describes the connection between

two things

9. Generalization

The Generalization relationship indicates that one of the two

related classes (the subtype) is considered to be a specialized
form of the other (the super type) and super type is considered
as Generalization of subtype.
(Arrow-head points to the super class)

10. Realization

A realization relationship is a relationship between two model

elements in which one model element (the client) realizes the
behavior that the other model element (the supplier) specifies.

(Arrow-head points to the thing being realized)

11. Interface

This means that it has no member variables, and that all of its
Member functions are pure virtual.

12. Collaboration

A collection of UML building blocks (classes, interfaces,

relationships) that work together to provide some functionality
within the system.
13. Process

The Process entity identifies a process taking place, it must have

at least one input and output.

14. Class

A class diagram is a type of static structure diagram. That

describes the structure of a system.

15. Active Class

Active Class - a class whose instance is an active object; an

active object is an object that owns a process or thread (units of

16. Component

A physical part (typically manifests itself as a piece of software)

of the system.
17. Node

A physical element that exists at run-time and represents a

computational resource (typically, hardware resources).

18. Multiplicity

• * ⇒ 0, 1, or more
• 1 ⇒ 1 exactly
• 2..4 ⇒ between 2 and 4, inclusive
• 5..* ⇒ 5 or more