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Dalian, China

Reconfiguration Considering the Priority of Customers

Shu Hongchun Sun Xiangfei

Abstract--This paper is concerned with distribution network adequately. First of all, due to the limited capacity of

reconfiguration in order to maintain load and generation available power in substation during the initial stage of

balance at acceptable frequency during the restoration process restoration, the priority of customers is considered

after a total or partial blackout. The problem is formulated as a emphatically. Secondly, load pickup in small increments

constrained multiple-objective optimization problem. ACO

tends to prolong the restoration duration. However, with large

algorithm is used to search the proper reconfiguration sequence

based on the PN model. The proposed method is designed with increments, there is always the risk of falling into frequency

consideration to the priority of customers emphatically. At the decline and recurrence of the system outage. Hence it is

same time, the restoration is accomplished as soon as possible by desirable to determine the magnitude of load blocks can be

minimizing the number of switching operations while the radial restored as a guideline for operators. Moreover, to cooperate

network structure is maintained. As a result, a feasible sequence with the procedure of the whole restoration, it should provide

of operations to reach the final configuration is outlined. The a feasible sequence of operations using a minimal number of

effectiveness of the proposed approach has been demonstrated switching operations while maintaining power balance

through the test system. between supply and demand and remaining the radial network

structure.

Index Terms--Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm

As a valuable graphical and mathematical modeling tool,

Distribution Network Reconfiguration, Power System

Restoration, Petri Net, Petri Net (PN) has gained increasing acceptance in modeling

of discrete event systems. In power systems, PN has been

INTRUDUCTION successfully applied in the areas of service restoration

scheduling [3], [4], fault section estimation [5], and power

A CCORDING to the general characteristics of restoration

process after a total or partial blackout, the restoration

can be divided to three stages: black-start, system

system protection [6]. With the form of graphic

representations, PN simulates the operations of a system

including their timing and sequence of the physical objects.

reconstruction and load recovery [1]. Although the aims of The knowledge and configuration of the study system can be

each stage are different, it is always necessary to maintain expressed systematically through a structured model with

system frequency within the allowable limits during the parallelism and synchronization. In [4], a rule-based expert

whole restoration duration. This is generally accomplished by system with colored PN models for distribution system

picking up loads in increments. Therefore, it is desirable to service restoration was established, in which the heuristic

provide a feasible scheme for distribution network rules were derived according to the rule of thumb of the

reconfiguration in order to maintain load and generation experienced operators.

balance at acceptable frequency. In this paper, the PN model is built to simulate the

The distribution network reconfiguration problem is operations of distribution network reconfiguration. Based on

formulated as a constrained multiple-objective optimization the simulation evaluation by the PN model, ant colony

problem. In the past, considerable efforts have been made optimization (ACO) algorithm is used to optimize the

towards service restoration through network reconfiguration. sequence of operations to minimize the number of switching

However, most of researches were developed for the purpose operations. However, only the problem without constrains

of restoring as much loads as possible by transferring de- can be solved by ACO algorithm. Therefore, Tabu list is used

energized loads in the out-of-service areas to other supporting to restrict violation of engineering and operation constrains in

distribution feeders without violating operation and the ACO algorithm.

engineering constrains [2].

In this paper a novel method for distribution network

reconfiguration is proposed, in which some constrains related

The purpose of this paper is to determine a restoration

plan for distribution network reconfiguration and to assist the

This work was supported in part by National Natural Science decision making of dispatchers for the service restoration of

Foundation (50347026,50467002), Yunnan Key Technoligies Project

(2003GG10) and Yunnan Applied Base Research Project

out-of-service area during the initial stage of power system

(2002E0025M,2004E0020M) . restoration. In the initial stage of power system restoration,

Shu Hongchun is with Kunming University of Science and Technology, light loaded high and extra high voltage lines produce a large

Kunming 650051 China; amount of Mvar, if the on-line generation is not adequate,

Sun Xiangfei is with Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001

China.

then a certain amount loads need to be picked up to avoid

sustained overvoltage [7]. In practice, distribution dispatchers

2

need to restore service to the outage areas as quickly as transition may or may not fire. A firing of an enabled

possible with a minimal number of switching operations. transition removes token from one of its input places, and

However, due to the limited capacity of available power in adds token to one of its output places. The movement of

substation during the initial stage of restoration, the priority tokens through the PN graph represents the flow of

of customers is considered emphatically. information or control in the system.

The service restoration problem with priority customers

B. The ACO Algorithm

through network reconfiguration is formulated as a

constrained non-differentiable multi-objective optimization ACO algorithm imitates the behaviors of real ants. As is

problem. The following objectives are considered: well known, real ants are capable of finding shortest path

1) It must restore as many customers as possible while from food sources to the nest without using visual cues. They

considering priority customers. are also capable of adapting to changes in the environment,

2) The restoration should be accomplished as soon as for example, finding a new shortest path once the old one is

possible by minimizing the number of switching no longer feasible due to a new obstacle. Studies made by

operations. ethnologists have revealed that such capabilities ants have are

3) A feasible sequence of operations to reach the final essentially due to the aids of what is called pheromone. The

configuration should be outlined. pheromone is the material deposited by the ants, which serves

4) The radial network structure must be maintained. as critical communication media among ants, thereby guiding

5) It must not cause violations in either engineering or the determination of next movement. The ants are guided by

operating constraints. the amount of pheromone. Gradually, the path rich in

The service restoration problem is an NP-complete pheromone becomes the best tour, or as the solution to the

problem with discrete and continuous variables, where the problem. This concept incubates the emergence of ACO

discrete variables are network switch statuses and the algorithm. The detail depiction about ACO algorithm may

continuous variables are the network voltages and current refer to [9].

flows [8]. In [8], a ranking-based search method employing C. Solution Algorithm

analytical information obtained from three-phase power flow

In order to obtain an effective reconfiguration plan that

simulations was designed. In this paper, ACO algorithm is

restores as many customers as possible while minimizing the

used to search the proper reconfiguration plan based on the

number of switching operations, the duration for completion

PN model.

DISTRIBUTION NETWORK RECONFIGURATION BASED ON

of restoration actions must be carefully estimated. In view of

this fact, a value what is called restorative operation cost is

allocated to each restoration path. The restorative operation

PETRI NET MODEL cost is related to the number of switching actions. On the

other hand, the load shedding strategy is constructed by the

A. The PN Model

priority levels of customers and the amount of important load

A PN is a particular kind of directed graph, which has within each service zone. Four priority levels are used to

two sets of nodes, i.e., place nodes and transition nodes, and define how important is each customer class [4]:

one set of directed arcs. Directed arcs are either from a place Level 1: customers that cause human life in danger (hospital,

node to a transition node or from a transition node to a place fire station, important telecommunications, etc.)

node. Fig. 1 depicts an example PN structure, in which place Level 2: customers that could result in serious financial

(P) nodes are denoted by a node of circle “ ”, transaction (T) damage or affect a large community (banks, oil refinery

nodes are represented by a bar “ ”, and a token of a place plants, high technology plants, etc.)

node is indicated by a black dot “ ” inside. P nodes represent Level 3: customers that could be affected by inconvenience

states and T nodes stand for the actions or tasks that are or public concern (schools, supermarkets, sport and

performed to change the system states. Therefore, by entertainment facilities, etc.)

representing events with transition nodes and conditions with Level 4: normal customers.

place nodes, a system may be mapped into a PN model. The

presence of a token in a place is interpreted as holding the

truth of the condition associated with the place. The only

advance according to the practice

The priority of each service zone is determined in

execution rule in a PN model is the rule for transition follows:

enabling and firing. A transition is said to be enabled if each Step 1. Construct the PN model for distribution network

input place of transition is marked with token. An enabled reconfiguration.

P1 Using bus data, line data and load data, nodes are

T1 P3 T2

created based on the principles described above. Acts are

P4 generated according to the rules of restoration.

P2

T3 Step 2. Evaluate the restoration capacity of available power

in substation.

Because the capacity of available power in substation is

Fig. 1. An example PN model limited during the initial stage of restoration, it is desired to

know how many total loads can be restored as much as

2

3

NUMERICAL STUDIES

always the risk of falling into frequency decline and

To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a

recurrence of the system outage. The maximal capacity of

typical distribution system [10] is selected for the computer

available power in substation is evaluated according to the simulation. As shown in Fig. 2, the system includes 3 buses,

generation and system conditions at given time. As a result,

16 nodes, 3 feeders and 3 connection switches.

the maximal load to be restored is noted as Lmax.

Step 3. Determine the customers that should be restored. Bs1 1 Bs2 2 Bs3 3

The feeders that serve more customers with higher

service priority will have better chance to be selected for Bk1 Bk2 Bk3

restoration. As the priority of each service zone is determined

14

in advance, which customers would be restored can be 5

1 9 11 12 13

12 13

14

determined according to the Lmax.

Step 4. Optimize the reconfiguration process.

Based on the customers that should be restored first,

4

9

6

10

8

7 8

15

ACO algorithm is used to realize the objectives as follow: 2 10

7 11

first, the restoration of as much priority load as possible,

15

second, the restoration of as much total load as possible, third,

the use of a minimal number of switches and forth, no

violations in either engineering or operating constraints. The

5

3

6

4 16 16

main computation steps are discussed below:

Step 4.1. Ant Production Initiation Assume that all breakers are opened after the blackout. In

In this step, the colonies of ants are first randomly this case, the (fictitious) time to close a breaker is 15 minutes,

generated. A random number generator can be programmed the time to energize a line is 10 minutes, and the time to pick

to generate the number of ants. These ants are positioned on

up load is 10 minutes. The priority of each service zone is

different states while the initial pheromone value τ ij (0) is determined in advance shown in Table .

TABLE I

also given at this step. PRIORITY LEVELS OF CUSTOMERS

Step 4.2. Fitness Evaluation

In this step, the fitness of all ants are assessed based on Priority Level Load Node

the corresponding objective function, which can be expressed

as below: 1 5 8 13

n 2 4 7 16

F (µ ) = rc ( sµ i , sµ i+1 )

(1) 3 9 12 15

i =1 4 6 10 11 14

where rc ( s i , s j ) is the restorative operation cost between The restoration process starts at time 0. Suppose busbars

Bs1, Bs2 and Bs3 are energized at time 0, 25, 40 min.

state i and state j , and µ i for i= 1,….n defines a permutation. respectively. Table shows the sequence of actions to

With the evaluated fitness of the corresponding ants, the restore the Level 1 loads by network reconfiguration. The

pheromone can be added to the particular direction in which partial PN model for restoring node 5 and node 8 is shown in

the ants have selected. Fig. 3. where a token of a place node is indicated by a dot “ ”

Step 4.3. Ant Dispatch simply.

In this step, the ants are dispatched based on the level of

pheromone τ ij (t ) and distance φ ij values. In the TABLE

SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS TO RESTORE LEVEL 1 LOADS

reconfiguration sequence study, τ ij (t ) can be seen as the

total loads that would restored at the time t, and φ ij can be

Index Time (min.) Actions

1 0 Bs1 is energized.

seen as the restorative operation cost between state i and state

j. Therefore, in this step, the ant dispatch process help convey 2 15 Close Bk1 to energize line1.

ants by selecting directions based on these two parameters. 3 25 Line2, line7 and Bs2 are energized.

After n iterations, all ants have completed a tour. The shortest

The loads with priority level 1 at node 5 are

path found by the ants is allowed to update its pheromone. 4 35

picked up, line8 is energized.

Step 4.4. Stop criteria

5 40 Close Bk2 to energize line5, the loads with

The computation process continues until the total loads

priority level 1 at node 8 are picked up.

would be restored reach the value Lmax. All the tour visited 6 50 Line11 is energized.

by ants in each iteration should be evaluated. If a better path 7 60 Line12 is energized.

found in the process, it will be saved for later reference. The

The loads with priority level 1 at node 13 are

best path selected among all iterations implies the 8 70 picked up

reconfiguration sequence to the problem.

3

4

P2 and constrains,” IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 13, No.3, pp. 789-

P1 P3 795, Aug. 1998.

[9] M.Dorigo, V.Maniezzo and A.Colorni, “Ant System: Optimization by a

Colony of Cooperating Agents,” IEEE Trans. on Systems, Man, and

T1

Cybernetics, Vol.26, pp:29-41, Jan. 1996

P9 P5 [10] T. P. Wagner, A. Y. Chikhani, R. Hackam, “Feeder reconfiguration for

P4 loss reduction: an application of distribution automation,” IEEE Trans.

on Power Delivery, vol. 6, No.4, pp. 1922-1933, Oct. 1991.

T4

T2

P7

BIOGRAPHIES

P10 P6 Shu HongChun was born in 1961. He received the Ph.D. degree in Harbin

Institute of Technology, China in 1997 and is post doctor of Xi’an Jiaotong

T3 Univercity. Presently he is working as a professor of power system in

Kunming University of Science and Technology, Yunnan, China. His

present research interests include novel relay of power system, stability

P8 control and power system restoration.

Sun XiangFei was born in 1977. She is a Ph.D. candidate in the

P1: Bs1 is energized P2: Bk1 is open Department of Electrical Power Engineering, at Harbin Institute of

P3: Line1 is not energized T1: Connect line1 to Bs1 Technology, China. Her research interests include novel relay of power

P4: Pick up line1 and Line1 is energized system, power system restoration and artificial intelligence.

P5: Line7 is not energized T2: Connect line7 to node 4

P6: Pick up line7 and Line7 is energized

P7: Line8 is not energized T3: Connect line8 to node 7

P8: Pick up line8 and Line8 is energized

P9: Line2 is not energized T4: Connect line2 to node 4

P10: Pick up line2 and Line2 is energized

CONCLUSIONS

This study results in a novel approach for distribution

network reconfiguration during the initial stage of restoration.

ACO algorithm is used to search the proper reconfiguration

sequence based on the PN model. The priority of customers is

considered emphatically. Moreover, the restoration is

accomplished as soon as possible by minimizing the number

of switching operations.

REFERENCES

[1] L. H. Fink, K. L. Liou, and C. C. Liu, “From generic restoration to

specific restoration strategies,” IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 10,

No.2, pp. 745-752, May. 1995.

[2] K. N. Miu, H. D. Chiang, and R. J. MeNulty, “Multi-Tier Service

restoration through network reconfiguration and capacitor control for

large-scale radial distribution networks,” IEEE Trans. on Power

Systems, vol. 15, No.3, pp. 1001-1007, Aug. 2000.

[3] J.S. Wu, C. C. Liu, K. L. Liou, and R. F. Chu, “A Petri Net algorithm for

scheduling of generic restoration actions,” IEEE Trans.on Power

Systems, vol. 12, No.1, pp. 69-75, Feb. 1997.

[4] C. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, and H. Y. Tsai, “A rule-based expert system with

colored Petri Net models for distribution system service restoration,”

IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 17, No.4, pp. 1073-1080, Nov.

2002.

[5] C. L. Yang, A. Yokoyama, and Y. Sekine, “Fault section estimation of

power system using colored and timed petri nets,” Proc. Expert Systems

Applicat. Power system, vol. 13, pp.321-326, Jan. 1993.

[6] L. Jenkins and H. P. Khincha, “Deterministic and stochastic petri net

models of protection schemes,” IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, vol.7,

pp.84-90, Jan. 1992.

[7] M. M. Adibi, R. W. Alexander, and D. P. Milanicz, “Energizing high

and extra-high voltage lines during restoration,” IEEE Trans. on Power

Systems, vol. 14, No.3, pp. 1121-1126, Aug. 1999.

[8] K. N. Miu, H. D. Chiang, B. Yuan, and G. Darling, “Fast service

restoration for large- scale distribution systems with priority customers

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