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How do I study this material?


Chapter 1 covers a lot of terminology. You are responsible for all this material for the first test, even though we will not go over this in detail in class. The major topics are:
1. Levels of organization
2. Anatomical position 3. Body regions 4. Body planes 5. Directional terms

6. Body cavities
7. Body systems 8. Homeostasis (negative & positive feedback)

Levels of organization
chemical organelle cell tissue organ system organism

Dont just memorize this list, but have a good understanding of what each word means!

Levels of organization
chemical: atoms proteins protein filaments cell: heart muscle cell tissue: cardiac muscle tissue organ: heart system: cardiovascular system organism: man Can you make similar lists for other body systems?

Can you give examples in the digestive system?

chemical organelle cell tissue organ system organism

HCl (hydrochloric acid) - chemical nucleus of stomach cell - organelle

mucus cell of lining of stomach - cell

smooth muscle - tissue of stomach stomach - organ digestive system - system human body - organism

NOTE: You could have many different


Note that this man is in anatomical position. Remember that in this position the palms face forward!

You are responsible for all terms in the lecture notes!

Identify the regions

cephalic ocular buccal oral nasal mental

umbilical inguinal pubic femoral axillary patellar

cervical mammary pectoral acromion brachial antebrachial

phalangeal pedal manual palmar pollex crural



You are responsible for all terms in the lecture notes!

Can you come up with the terms?

head eye cheek mouth nose chin

belly button groin hand thigh armpit knee

neck breast chest shoulder upper arm lower arm

fingers or toes foot palm big toe thumb lower leg


lateral lower leg

Identify the regions cephalic cranial cervical acromion

You are responsible for all terms in the lecture notes!

olecranon digital lumbar gluteal femoral popliteal

calcaneal coxal plantar

Identify the regions head skull neck shoulder

You are responsible for all terms in the lecture notes!

upper arm
elbow fingers or toes loin buttocks thigh back of knee

lower calf
heel bottom of foot hip

Make sure that you can go both ways. If you are given the word coxal, you should know it means pertaining to the hip.

If you are given the word hip, you should know that the word for hip is coxal.
There is flash card practice located under the lessons button on Angel with the terms from your lecture notes. Or if you prefer, you can make your own flash cards! YOU CAN DO THIS! The first chapter of your lab manual also has great practice questions!

Do you know your directional terms?

superior inferior proximal distal medial lateral These terms are always used to describe two areas of the body relative to each other.

How about some practice?

Phalangeal is _______ to the carpal region. Coxal is ________ to the pubic region. Frontal is _________ to the nasal region.

Patellar is _________ to the popliteal region.

Femoral is _________ to the sural region. Pubic is ________ to the umbilical region

(answers on next slide)

Answers to practice questions!

Phalangeal is DISTAL to carpal. Coxal is LATERAL to pubic. Frontal is SUPERIOR to nasal. Patellar is VENTRAL to popliteal. Femoral is PROXIMAL to sural. Pubic is INFERIOR to umbilical.

Learning directional terms

The ones students miss most commonly on tests are: - medial and lateral
(Its a good idea to substitute the words closer to the midline for medial or further away from the midline for lateral)

So, the acromion is ________ to the cervical region.

LATERAL would be the correct answer

- proximal and distal

(Its a good idea to substitute the words closer to the trunk of the body for proximal and further away from the trunk of the body for distal)

So, the olecranon is __________ to the acromion.

DISTAL would be the correct answer.

More directional terms

Other terms that are often misunderstood: - visceral and parietal
The visceral layer of a tissue will be found directly on the internal organ. The parietal layer of tissue is found lining the inside of the body cavity. Do you understand

visceral and parietal peritoneum

visceral and parietal pleura

visceral and parietal pericardium

- ipsilateral, bilateral, contralateral

Ipsilateral means on the same side. Bilateral would mean on both sides. Contralateral would mean on opposite sides. If a patient had bilateral lung metastases, the tumors would be in the right and left lungs!

This slide shows the visceral and parietal layers of pericardium. Can you identify each? Which layer is DEEP to the other?

You must understand how organs have been cut (sectioned) in order to understand the anatomy in diagrams. frontal (coronal) sagittal mid-sagittal transverse (cross)

What type of a section would this be? Which side is dorsal and which is ventral?
Can you identify visceral and parietal pleura?

First of all, identify the ventral and the dorsal body cavities.


Find the thoracic cavity and the abdominal cavity. Which organs are contained in each?

Which muscle divides these cavities?

Now differentiate the pleural from the pericardial cavity and the abdominal from the pelvic cavity. What tissue lines the abdominal cavity? DORSAL BODY CAVITY Which organs are contained here? What tissue lines this cavity?

Can you identify each body system?

For each body system you should know the major organs and general functions of each system. Dont get caught up in small details; just make sure you understand the purpose of each system and the major organs that comprise that system. Write down the function of each system in your own words to make sure you understand. We will not copy the wording in the textbook!

The last important concept is homeostasis!

Our bodies have several mechanisms in place to stay within normal boundaries. For example, we maintain pH (acidity) in the range of 7.35-7.45, sugar levels around 120mg/dl and a body temperature of around 98.6. How does the body do that? Mostly through negative feedback mechanisms!

Negative feedback is controlled largely by our nervous system and endocrine system!

Negative feedback is a common regulatory mechanism in the body. If the body moves out of normal limits, a mechanism is in place to bring it back to normal limits. In this example on the left, the house is getting too warm. The air conditioner kicks in to get the house back to normal. The human body may also get too warm. The brain in turn sets off the sweating mechanism to keep the body within normal limits.

So if the black line represents normal body temperature, as the temperature rises (red line above dotted line) we will sweat to bring temperature back to normal. On the other hand, if the temperature becomes cold, we will shiver to get back to normal. That is the amazing ability of the body to maintain homeostasis!

This curve would also hold true for glucose levels. The dotted line would represent normal glucose levels. If the glucose level rises, we make a hormone (insulin) to lower the blood glucose. On the other hand if glucose levels fall, we make a hormone (glucagon) to increase glucose levels.

Sometimes there are also positive feedback systems. They are rare in physiology.

In this case, when clotting is stimulated, more clotting results! In other words, we are moving further and further away from the dotted line. Positive feedback mechanisms are also responsible for the birth process. The more the cervix dilates, the more labor hormone (oxytocin) a woman makes!

Im sure youre feeling a little out of homeostasis with all of this information. GET STARTED EARLY!
BIOL 2113 will continue to move at a fast pace. Study these terms every day. Get together with a study group and quiz each other. Try and explain the concepts to your study group. You know you understand a concept when you can teach it to others!