You are on page 1of 20

Introduction to FEM

FEM Modeling: Mesh, Loads and BCs

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 1

Introduction to FEM

Topics in Chapter 7
General Modeling Rules Finite Element Mesh Layouts Distributed Loads NbN Lumping EbE Lumping Displacement BCs suppressing rigid body motions taking advantage of symmetry and antisymmetry

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 2

Introduction to FEM

General FEM Modeling Rules


Use the simplest elements that will do the job Never, never, never use complicated or special elements unless you are absolutely sure of what you are doing Use the coarsest mesh that will capture the dominant behavior of the physical model, particularly in design situations

3 word summary: Keep It Simple

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 3

Introduction to FEM

Another Justification for Simplicity

In product design situations several FEM models of increasing refinement will be set up as design evolves Ergo, do not overkill at the beginning

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 4

Introduction to FEM

Where Finer Meshes Should be Used

entrant corners Cutouts Cracks weld Vicinity of concentrated (point) loads, and sharp contact areas

Load transfer (bonded joints, welds, anchors, reinforcing bars, etc.)

Abrupt thickness changes

Material interfaces

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 5

Introduction to FEM

Avoid 2D/3D Elements of Bad Aspect Ratio


Good Bad

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 6

Introduction to FEM

Elements Must Not Cross Interfaces

No

OK

Physical interface

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 7

Introduction to FEM

Element Geometry Preferences

Other things being equal, prefer in 2D: Quadrilaterals over Triangles in 3D: Bricks over Wedges Wedges over Tetrahedra

(Elements do not file discrimination suits)

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 8

Introduction to FEM

Node by Node (NbN) Distributed Load Lumping


Nodal force f3 at 3 is set to P, the magnitude of the crosshatched area under the load curve. This area extends halfway over adjacent element sides

;; ;; ;; ;;
3

Distributed load intensity (load acts downward on boundary)

f3 = P 4 5 6

Boundary

Finite element mesh

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 9

Introduction to FEM

Element by Element (EbE) Distributed Load Lumping


Force P has magnitude of crosshatched area under load curve and acts at its centroid

f2e 1

;;; ;;; ;;; ;;;


e

Distributed load intensity (load acts downward on boundary)

centroid C of crosshatched area

f 2 = (b/L )P

C
e

f3e = (a/Le)P

f3e

2
4 5 6 Boundary

P
a b

Le=a+b Details of element-level force computations

Finite element mesh

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 10

Introduction to FEM

EbE Shortcut for Linearly Varying Line Load (Bypasses Centroid Calculation)

Le (2q +q ) fi = 6 j i
e

qi

;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;; ;;;;;


e

qj Le (q +2q ) fj = i j
e 6

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 11

Introduction to FEM

Boundary Conditions (BCs)

The most difficult topic for FEM program users

Essential Two types Natural

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 12

Introduction to FEM

Boundary Conditions Essential vs. Natural


Recipe: 1. If a BC involves one or more DOF in a direct way, it is essential and goes to the Left Hand Side (LHS) of Ku = f 2. Otherwise it is natural and goes to the Right Hand Side (RHS) of Ku = f

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 13

Introduction to FEM

Minimum Support Conditions to Suppress Rigid Body Motions in 2D

;;; ;; ;

(a)

(b)

y B

(c)
B

;; ;;
A

;; ;;

;; ;; ;
A

;;; ;;
A

; ;
x

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 14

Introduction to FEM

Minimum Support Conditions to Supress Rigid Body Motions in 3D

;; ;; ;; ;;; ;; ; ;;; ;;; ; ;;; ;;; ;; ;;;;;


y B A C z

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 15

;; ;; ;;
x

Introduction to FEM

Visualizing Symmetry and Antisymmetry Conditions in 2D

(a)

Symmetry line

(b)

Antisymmetry line

A' loads

A" displacement vectors

A' A

A"

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 16

Introduction to FEM

Example of Application of Symmetry BCs


y
(a) A C B D

(b)

; ;; ; ; ;
IFEM Ch 7 Slide 17

; ;

A C

B D

Introduction to FEM

Example of Application of Antisymmetry BCs


y
(a) A B

(b)

;; ;;;; ;; ;; ;; ;;;; ;;;;


A B C

Vertical (y) motion of one node such as C or D may be constrained to suppress y-RBM

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 18

Introduction to FEM

"Breaking Up" Point Loads at Symmetry BCs


y

(a)
A B D

(b)

P/2 P/2

P/2 P/2

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 19

;; ;; ; ; ; ;

; ; ;

(c)

P/2

Introduction to FEM

"Breaking Up" Point Loads at Antisymmetry BCs


(A trickier problem)
y

A C

B D

;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;

P/2

IFEM Ch 7 Slide 20

;; ;; ;; ;; ;; ;;
P/2

; ; ;

2P

; ; ;