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# Technische Universitt Mnchen

Lehrstuhl fr Regelungstechnik

Handout 7

Gilberts and Hautus controllability and
observability criteria

7.1 Gilberts Controllability criterion
We now apply Kalmans criterion to a stae-space system in diagonal form.
Given: Single-Input System in diagonal form (i.e. distinct eigenvalues):
`
`
z z b = + A u
we apply Kalmans criterion:

| |
det det
` ` `
det
` ` `
` ` `
` ` `
` ` `
det
Q b b b
S
n
n
n
n n n n
n
n
n
n
n
n n
n
b b b
b b b
b b b
b b b
= =
=

(
(
(
(
=
=

(
(
(
(

A A

. . .

. . .

1
1 1 1 1
1
2 2 2 2
1
2
1
1 2
1 1
1
2 2
1
1
1
1
1

the determinant is unequal zero if and only if all
i
are distinct!
As we have assumed distinct eigenvalues, controllability is assured, if all the factors
are unequal zero.
`
b
i
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Lehrstuhl fr Regelungstechnik

Gilberts controllability criterion (1963):
A single input system with distinct eigenvalues is controllable if all ` x Ax b = + u
`
b
i
= 0, where are the components of the vector
`
b
i
V b
1
.
A multi-input system `
( , )
x Ax B u
n p
= + is controllable, if in every row of matrix
`
B V B
1
=

at least one element is unequal to zero.
Although this criterion requires the calculation of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, it is
frequently used because it assigns controllability to each single eigenvalue: A single
eigenvalue can be considered controllable, if its corresponding is nonzero.
i
b

## Advantage: Controllability / Non-controllability can be assigned to each singel

eigenvalue.
Disadvantage: State transformation to diagonal form required.
7.2 Hautus controllability criterion
This criterion immediately follows from Gilberts. We again consider the elements :
`
b
i

` `
b V b
w
w
b w = =

(
(
(
=
1
1
T
n
T
i i
T
b . b
First, we denote the rows of V
-1
by the vectors .
T
i
w
Interpretation of the vectors :
T
i
w
A =

V AV V
1 1

AV V A
1
=
1

( )

1 1
1
1
w
w
w A
w A
w w A w I A 0
T
T
n
T
T
n
T
i i
T
i
T
i
T
i
. .

(
(
(
=

(
(
(
= =
The row vectors obviously are something like eigenvectors, but multiplied from the left
hand side. We therefore call them left-eigenvectors of A
T
i
w

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Lehrstuhl fr Regelungstechnik

Consider now
w I A b 0
T T
i
n n
n
=
+
+
, ,
( , )
( , )
1
1 1
0
_
_

The matrix within this equation is built up by two blocks. Suppose now, we were looking for
a vector fulfilling this equation.
T
w
A nontrivial vector w
T
, fulfilling this equation is certainly a left-eigenvector of A, and
(because of w b
T
= 0) indicates non-controllability. If such a vector w
T
does not
exist, the eigenvalue
i
is controllable!
How can we check the existence of a solution ? If the matrix
T
w
i
I A b , has rank n
(i.e. n linear independent row vectors) then there is no vector which, by
premultiplication, results in zero. Only if the matrix has rank smaller than n, we will find
non-trivial solutions . This is expressed by the following criterion:
T
w
T
w
Hautus controllability criterion (1969):
A single input system is controllable, if and only if for each eigenvalue ` x Ax b = + u

i
of A
| | n rank
i
= b A I , .
(and | | n rank
i
= B A I , for multi-input systems).
Like Kalmans criterion, this criterion is valid for systems with multiple eigenvalues
as well.
7.3 Gilberts observability criterion
Without going into details, we note Gilberts criterion, which, again, can be derived from
Kalmans by considering a diagonal system.
Recall that in diagonal form the output equation is

y du c z c z
T
n n
T
= + = + + + c V z
c`
` ... `
1 1
du
where
| |
` ` ` c
T
n
c c =
1

Since the state equations are fully decoupled here, we can observe the state variables
only if they directly act on y, i.e. if the corresponding are unequal zero. ` c
i
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Lehrstuhl fr Regelungstechnik

Gilberts observability criterion
A SISO system with distinct eigenvalues is du y u
T
+ = + = x c b Ax x , `
observable, if all , where are the components of ` c
i
= 0 ` c
i
c V
T
(i.e. ). ` c
i
T
i
= c v
A MIMO system is observable, if in each column of
`
C CV = there is at least one
element unequal to zero.
7.4 Hautus observability criterion
Gilberts criterion invoked that none of the eigenvectors of A should be orthogonal to .
Now, we combine this requirement with the definition of eigenvectors to get:
c
T

i
T
I A
c
v
0

(
=

(
0

A non-trivial vector v , fulfilling this equation is certainly an eigenvector of A and
indicates non-observability, because c v
T
= 0.
Can we check the existence of a solution v? Yes! If matrix

i
T
I A
c

(
is full rank, then
there is no nontrivial vector v which, by multiplication, leads to zero. Only if the matrix has
rank smaller than n, there is a nontrivial solution of the above equation. This is expressed
by the following criterion:

Hautusobservability criterion:
A SISO system is observable if and only if for every eigenvalue
i
of A
n rank
T
i
=
(

c
A I

(and n rank
i
=
(

C
A I
for MIMO systems.)
As Kalmans criterion, this is also valid with multiple eigenvalues!

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Lehrstuhl fr Regelungstechnik

7.5 Grafical interpretation of controllability and observability
SISO-system with single eigenvalues in diagonal representation:

1
s -
1
1
s -
2
1
s -
3
1
s -
4
b
1
b
2
c
1
c
3
u(t)
y(t)
b = 0
3
b = 0
4
c = 0
2
c = 0
4

1
: is controllable and observable
2
: is controllable but not observable
1
: is not controllable but observable
1
: is neither controllable nor observable