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Brave New World Packet

Monday 26 Formative 1 due Review packet and calendar Brave New World Introduction Tuesday 27 SAT Warm up In class reading: 3-29 Discuss the society and population presented in the beginning of the novel HW: 30-56 4 Reading Due: 140-171 Socratic Seminar on the reading. This will be explained more in depth in class. HW:172-197 Reading Calendar Wednesday Thursday 28 Interims 29 SAT warm up SAT warm up Reading Due: 30-56 Discuss Audens Unknown Citizen HW: 57-86, rewrite Audens poem 5 Reading Due: 172-197 Writing lesson: Correctly using quotations HW: 198-229 Reading Due:5786 Share Auden rewrites HW 87-139, Write a 1 page reflection on the reading. Friday 30 NO SCHOOL TEACHER WORK DAY

3 Vocabulary Test Reading Due: 87-139 HW: 140-171

6 Reading Due: 198-229 Current Event discussion changing history HW: 230-259 (end) Write a 1 page reflection on the end of the book 13 Dystopia Project Presentations

7 Early Release Reading Due: 230-259 HW: Finish Reading questions for discussion on Monday

10 Discuss end of the book Begin working on comparative paper

11 Work on comparative paper

12 Dystopia Project Presentations

14 Comparative Paper Due

Assessments: Daily reading quizzes Theme questions from packet Literary paper comparing Huxley and Orwell Dystopia Project Introduction: Historical background on Brave New World Introduction to behavioral conditioning and the science of learning

Directions: Read the following article and annotate it. Discuss the article with the other people in your group. Be prepared to present your article to the other groups.

Aldous Huxley - BIOGRAPHY

Aldous Huxley was born in 1894, a year that marked a significant decline in Victorian values. He died in 1963, the same year that John F. Kennedy was assassinated. In between his birth and his death, Huxley was witness to cataclysmic events in the world. He endured two world wars, saw his native England bombed, experienced rapid moral, cultural, and financial changes and became aware of rapidly developing technology. All of these things influenced Huxley's life and writing. Huxley's genealogy is impressive. He was the grandson of Thomas Huxley, an illustrious scientist and well-known agnostic; he was the grandnephew of Matthew Arnold, a famous Victorian poet; he was the son of Julia Huxley, a pioneering educator, and Leonard Huxley, a scholar and a reputed man of letters; and he was the brother of Julian Huxley, a famous scientist and humanist. It is no wonder that Huxley had a strong and abiding interest in both science and art. Huxley was also privileged to have an outstanding education. He attended Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, where he studied medicine. He was prevented from pursuing a medical career due to an eye-problem that temporarily blinded him. In 1919 he married Maria Nys, a woman from Belgium and moved with her from England to California in 1947. After Maria died in 1956, he married Laurel Archers the following year. Huxley became a prolific author, writing novels, short stories, essays, poetry, biographies, travelogues, and art and literary criticism. He began his writing career by joining the staff of the Athenaeum. His first novel Crome Yellow was published in 1921, followed by Antic Hay in 1923. From 1923 to 1930 he lived in Italy, where he befriended D.H. Lawrence, the writer who greatly influenced Huxley. While living in Italy, he published Point Counter Point in 1928. Brave New World was next published in 1932, followed by Eyeless in Gaza in 1936. Huxley's later works include: Ends And Means (1937), After Many a Summer (1944), The Perennial Philosophy (1946), Ape And Essence (1948), The Devils of Loudun (1952), Brave New World Revisited (1958), and Island (1962). Throughout his career, Huxley belonged to the intellectual aristocracy, where he was 2comfortable in both artistic and scientific circles; but he was also capable of communicating with ordinary society. In fact, he directs his writing to the masses and tries to bring science and philosophy to all levels of people through his writing. Although Huxley admitted that he was a keen and curious observer of all of life, he valued first-hand experience above all else. His novels satirize the upper class for trying to survive on a depleted moral and religious tradition; they further praise the pleasure derived from the senses. A certain dualism between the sensual and the ascetic is constant in his work. As a novelist, Huxley was criticized for not striking an emotional chord in his writing. As a person, he was accused of lacking commitment to any cause. He did, however, influence the younger generation, which found his blend of science and art to be appealing; they also believed that he was futuristic - ahead of his age.


After World War I, two basic themes emerged in literature: isolation and relationship within a decaying moral order. In Brave New World, Huxley deals with both themes. In fact, the novel is an example of science fiction dystopia, a utopia-in-reverse. Huxley clearly portrays a disenchanted world that has become dehumanized by scientific advancement. The novel further belongs to the literature of ideas, following in the tradition of Dickens, Shaw, Wells, and Orwell. Several authors influenced Huxley before he wrote Brave New World. In fact, the novel is modeled largely upon H.G. Well's Men Like Gods, but it offers a more negative point of view. Additionally, the new world order created by Huxley is not greatly different from the one painted by Wells in his Experiment in Autobiography. Huxley was also inspired by books like Pavlov's Conditioned Reflexes (translated in 1927) and Bertrand Russell's The Scientific Outlook (1931). Although Brave New World is science fiction, many of the advances described in the book had already been introduced. The cultivation of embryos of small mammals in vitro and the cloning of parasitic insects had already been accomplished in the scientific community by the time Huxley wrote the novel. And largely due to leaders like Darwin and Freud, science had begun to supplant ethics, religion, art, and philosophy. In the political sphere, the individual was no longer the central concept of society; instead, there was a powerful movement towards a government controlled welfare state. Because of post-war change, social instability, and economic chaos, it was a time of great anxiety and stress for all people. As a result, many searched for a simple formula that could serve as a panacea to all the problems that they encountered. The totalitarian system of Huxley's new world was such a panacea, but the author clearly points out that it was not an answer to the many problems of his day. How do you think his upbringing could have affected Huxleys writing? What do you think are the most important trends from this time period that could have influenced Huxley in his writing?

Directions: Read the following article and annotate it. Discuss the article with the other people in your group. Be prepared to present your article to the other groups.

Classical vs Operant Conditioning

The Differences Between Classical and Operant Conditioning
By Kendra Cherry, Guide

How Classical Conditioning Works

Even if you are not a psychology student, you have probably at least heard about Pavlov's dogs. In his famous experiment, Ivan Pavlov noticed dogs began to salivate in response to a tone after the sound had been repeatedly paired with the presentation of food. Pavlov quickly realized that this was a learned response and set out to further investigate the conditioning process. Classical conditioning involves pairing a previously neutral stimulus (such as the sound of a bell) with an unconditioned stimulus (the taste of food). This unconditioned stimulus naturally and automatically triggers salivating as a response to the food, which is known as the unconditioned

response. After associating the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus, the sound of the bell alone will start to evoke salivating as a response. The sound of the bell is now known as the conditioned stimulus and salivating in response to the bell is known as the conditioned response.

How Operant Conditioning Works

Operant conditioning focuses on using either reinforcement or punishment to increase or decrease a behavior. Through this process, an association is formed between the behavior and the consequences for that behavior. For example, imagine that a trainer is trying to teach a dog to fetch a ball. When the dog successful chases and picks up the ball, the dog receives praise as a reward. When the animal fails to retrieve the ball, the trainer withholds the praise. Eventually, the dog forms an association between his behavior of fetching the ball and receiving the desired reward.

The Differences Between Classical and Operant Conditioning

One of the simplest ways to remember the differences between classical and operant conditioning is to focus on whether the behavior is involuntary or voluntary. Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus, while operant conditioning is about making an association between a voluntary behavior and a consequence. In operant conditioning, the learner is also rewarded with incentives, while classical conditioning involves no such enticements. Also remember that classical conditioning is passive on the part of the learner, while operant conditioning requires the learner to actively participate and perform some type of action in order to be rewarded or punished. Today, both classical and operant conditioning are utilized for a variety of purposes by teachers, parents, psychologists, animal trainers and many others. In animal training, a trainer might utilize classical conditioning by repeatedly pairing the sound of a clicker with the taste of food. Eventually, the sound of the clicker alone will begin to produce the same response that the taste of food would. In a classroom setting, a teacher might utilize operant conditioning by offering tokens as rewards for good behavior. Students can then turn in these tokens to receive some type of reward such as treat or extra play time. How could these strategies be used to manipulate people and add to a dystopic world? What do you think would have to occur for these strategies to have a large-scale effect on the population? Do you think that we are influenced by the these strategies now? Through media and advertising? Explain your answer

Directions: Read the following article and annotate it. Discuss the article with the other people in your group. Be prepared to present your article to the other groups.

Learning in your sleep

Overscheduled people often look at sleep as wasted time. If we can multi-task while were awake, why not while asleep? That question leads many to consider whether they can learn something while sleeping. There are businesses that sell recordings designed to play to the sleeping student in hopes of imparting knowledge, or at least a change in attitude or habits. While the viability of these techniques is not out of the question, there has been surprisingly little scientific investigation of sleep learning. Hypnopaedia is a fancy name for sleep learning. In the mid-20th Century serious researchers found positive results, and sleep-learning entered the popular consciousness. It was used in the dystopian novels Brave New World and Clockwork Orange. A more positive use of sleep learning was encouraged by people who sold records designed to play while the listener was asleep. Commercially, things havent changed much although the recordings you find today are more likely to be digital. Such hard evidence as we have suggests that these methods can be effective in getting people to remember rote facts. It does not appear to be effective in promoting more subtle and substantial learning. However, little recent formal scientific investigation has been done on the question.

Problem solving Sleep on it

There is some evidence people can solve complex problems more readily if their deliberation is interrupted by sleep. Attacking a tough problem (mathematical, logical, or pragmatic day-to-day) during the day but unable to solve it, people often have better success the next day, after a night of sleep. It is not known which stage, if any, of sleep is the most productive for problem solving. Further, there is evidence that complex designs, including those with emotional components, often go better after one or more nights of sleep. The familiar admonishment to sleep on it appears to be valid. It's not just mental learning. Physical training such as practicing music, dance and sports causes people to continue to improve for at least a day following a training session. That's been known for a long time. Recent research confirms that sleep plays an important part in that continued learning. Do you think this theory of learning could be applied on a large scale? How could this theory be used as a form of manipulation and societal control? Elaborate What could be the biggest advantages and disadvantages to this strategy?

Directions: Read the following article and annotate it. Discuss the article with the other people in your group. Be prepared to present your article to the other groups.

The Little Albert Experiment

A Closer Look at the Famous Case of Little Albert
By Kendra Cherry, Guide The "Little Albert" experiment was a famous psychology experiment conducted by behaviorist John B. Watson and graduate student Rosalie Raynor. Previously, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov had conducted experiments demonstrating the conditioning process in dogs. Watson was interested in taking Pavlov's research further to show that emotional reactions could be classically conditioned in people. The participant in the experiment was a child that Watson and Raynor called "Albert B.", but is known popularly today as Little Albert. Around the age of nine months, Watson and Raynor exposed the child to a series of stimuli including a white rat, a rabbit, a monkey, masks and burning newspapers and observed the boy's reactions. The boy initially showed no fear of any of the objects he was shown. The next time Albert was exposed the rat, Watson made a loud noise by hitting a metal pipe with a hammer. Naturally, the child began to cry after hearing the loud noise. After repeatedly pairing the white rat with the loud noise, Albert began to cry simply after seeing the rat. Watson and Raynor wrote:
"The instant the rat was shown, the baby began to cry. Almost instantly he turned sharply to the left, fell over on [his] left side, raised himself on all fours and began to crawl away so rapidly that he was caught with difficulty before reaching the edge of the table."

Elements of Classical Conditioning in the Little Albert Experiment

The Little Albert experiment presents and example of how classical conditioning can be used to condition an emotional response.

Stimulus Generalization in the Little Albert Experiment

In addition to demonstrating that emotional responses could be conditioned in humans, Watson and Raynor also observed that stimulus generalization had occurred. After conditioning, Albert feared not just the white rat, but a wide variety of similar white objects as well. His fear included other furry objects including Raynor's fur coat and Watson wearing a Santa Claus beard.

Criticisms of the Little Albert Experiment

While the experiment is one of psychology's most famous and is included in nearly every introductory psychology course, it has also been criticized widely for several reasons. First, the experimental design and process was not carefully constructed. Watson and Raynor did not develop an object means to evaluate Albert's reactions, instead relying on their own subjective

interpretations. Secondly, the experiment also raises many ethical concerns. The Little Albert experiment could not be conducted by today's standards because it would be unethical.

What Ever Happened to Little Albert?

The question of what happened to Little Albert has long been one of psychology's mysteries. Watson and Raynor were unable to attempt to eliminate the boy's conditioned fear because he moved with his mother shortly after the experiment ended. Some envisioned the boy growing into a man with a strange phobia of white, furry objects. Recently, however, the true identity and fate of the boy known as Little Albert was discovered. As reported in American Psychologist, a seven-year search led by psychologist Hall P. Beck led to the discovery. After tracking down the location of the original experiments and the real identity of the boy's mother, it was discovered that Little Albert was actually a boy named Douglas Merritte. The story does not have a happy ending, however. Douglas died at the age of six on May 10, 1925 of hydrocephalus, a build-up of fluid in his brain. "Our search of seven years was longer than the little boys life," Beck wrote of the discovery. What was learned from the Little Albert experiments? Why are these important discoveries? The article ends by saying that this experiment could never be conducted in present society because it is unethical. What makes this experiment unethical? Even though it is considered unethical, modern day technology still makes use of the information gathered from the experiment. Do you think that this means we should continue unethical experiments, if it could mean huge breakthroughs in the psychological field? What if the discovery could help millions of people?

"The Unknown Citizen" W. H. Auden

(To JS/07/M/378) This Marble Monument Is Erected by the State) He was found by the Bureau of Statistics to be One against whom there was no official complaint, And all the reports on his conduct agree That, in the modern sense of an old-fashioned word, he was a saint For in everything he did he served the Greater Community. Except for the War till the day he retired He worked in a factory and never got fired, But satisfied his employers, Fudge Motors Inc. Yet he wasn't a scab or odd in his views, For his Union reports that he paid his dues, (Our report on his Union shows it was sound) And our Social Psychology workers found That he was Popular with his mates and liked to drink. The Press are convinced that he bought a Paper every day And that his reactions to advertisements were normal in every way. Policies taken out in his name prove that he was fully insured And his Health-card shows he was once in a hospital but left it cured, Both Producers Research and High-Grade Living declare He was fully sensible to the advantages of the Installment Plan And had everything necessary to the Modern Man, A phonograph, a radio, a car and a frigidaire. Our researchers into Public Opinion are content That he held the proper opinions for the time of year; When there was peace he was for peace when there was war he went. He was married and and added five children to the population, Which our Eugenist says was the right number for a parent of his generation, And our teachers report that he never interfered with their education. Was he free? Was he Happy? The question is absurd: Had anything been wrong, we should certainly have heard.

The Unknown Citizen

W.H. Auden Literary questions 1. Name at least four pieces of information that has been gathered about the citizen JS/07/M-378. 2. Where does all of the information about this citizen come from? Name at least three groups that offer information about this citizen. 3. What do the concerns of the state and these groups reveal about the society a whole? What does that societys version of a perfect citizen look like? 4. Do you agree with these standards for a perfect citizen? Are these facts what makes a perfect citizen? Why or why not? 5. At the end, the author asks Was he free? Was he happy? Do you think these questions are absurd? Why or why not? 6. Do you think that all of the information gathered by the state would be able to determine the answer to these questions? Why or why not? 7. Do you think the author would agree with these standards for a perfect citizen? Why or why not? 8. What do you think is Audens real PURPOSE is in writing this poem? What is he trying to say? What point is he trying to make? 9. Why do you think this poem is called The Unknown Citizen? How is this citizen unknown? 10. W.H. Auden uses a number of phrases to develop the idea of a passively obedient, unthinking citizen: no official complaint, the Greater Community, normal in every way, the proper opinions for the time of the year, etc. What might their opposite be? For example, what are improper opinions for the time of the year? When should you lodge an official complaint? 11. Using the flip side of the arguments presented in this poem to reveal the perfect citizen, rewrite it so that it instead describes the imperfect citizen. You must use at least five of the same sources of information presented in the poem, and you should describe someone that the government in this society would NOT like.

Historians speak out against proposed Texas textbook changes

By Michael Birnbaum Washington Post Staff Writer Thursday, March 18, 2010 Historians on Tuesday criticized proposed revisions to the Texas social studies curriculum, saying that many of the changes are historically inaccurate and that they would affect textbooks and classrooms far beyond the state's borders. The changes, which were preliminarily approved last week by the Texas board of education and are expected to be given final approval in May, will reach deeply into Texas history classrooms, defining what textbooks must include and what teachers must cover. The curriculum plays down the role of Thomas Jefferson among the founding fathers, questions the separation of church and state, and claims that the U.S. government was infiltrated by Communists during the Cold War. Because the Texas textbook market is so large, books assigned to the state's 4.7 million students often rocket to the top of the market, decreasing costs for other school districts and leading them to buy the same materials. "The books that are altered to fit the standards become the bestselling books, and therefore within the next two years they'll end up in other classrooms," said Fritz Fischer, chairman of the National Council for History Education, a group devoted to history teaching at the pre-college Each subject in Texas's curriculum is revised every 10 years, and the basic social studies framework was introduced by a panel of teachers last year. But the elected state board of education, which is comprised of 10 Republicans and five Democrats, has made more than 100 amendments to the curriculum since January. Discussions ranged from whether President Reagan should get more attention (yes), whether hip-hop should be included as part of lessons on American culture (no), and whether President of the Confederacy Jefferson Davis's inaugural address should be studied alongside Abraham Lincoln's (yes). Of particular contention was the requirement that lessons on McCarthyism note that "the later release of the Venona papers confirmed suspicions of communist infiltration in U.S. government." The Venona papers document communication between the Soviet Union and its spies. Historians dispute the extent to which transcripts show Soviet involvement in American government. Also contentious were changes that asserted Christian faith of the founding fathers. Historians say the founding fathers had a variety of approaches to religion and faith; some, like Jefferson, were quite secular. Some textbook authors expressed discomfort with the state board's changes, and it is unclear how readily historians will go along with some of the proposals. "I'm made uncomfortable by mandates of this kind for sure," said Paul S. Boyer, emeritus professor at University of Wisconsin-Madison and the author of several of the most popular U.S. history textbooks, including some that are on the approved list in Texas. Boyer said he had not fully reviewed the Texas curriculum and did not know how he would respond to it. But he added that in theory, changes in his text could be required that would make him uncomfortable endorsing his own book.

Texas school districts are able to buy books that the state board rejects but designates as containing at least half the required curriculum -- but they'll have to use their own money to do so. Almost all currently use state funds to buy textbooks off the approved list, said Suzanne Marchman, a spokeswoman for the Texas Education Agency. One publisher said Tuesday that changes in technology, including the introduction of online components, make it easier and cheaper to tailor textbooks to specific states and requirements, and downplayed the impact that Texas's decisions would have on the rest of the country. "We now have the ability to deliver completely customized content" to different states, said Joseph Blumenfeld, spokesman for Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, one of three major publishers that supply Texas with most of its social studies textbooks. But some historians weren't so certain. Fischer, who is a historian at University of Northern Colorado, noted that first-year teachers fall back on what's most readily available to them -- their textbooks. "Teachers have a lot to do and a lot on their plate, and if there's a nice big textbook that the kids have been taking home, they'll use it," he said

Summarize this article. What is Texas trying to do and why is it significant?

Many Republicans argue that there is currently a liberal bias in the media; therefore this is simply an effort to give a more balanced view of history. Do you agree? Elaborate.

Do you think it is possible to give an objective view of history?

What do you think should be done about teaching history in schools?

Reading Guide
Directions: As you read, answer the following questions. These completed questions will be due on Monday, October 10th for discussion. We will use these as a starting point for our dystopia paper.
1. 2. 3. 4. Chapters 1 5: Explain and analyze the caste system: how it is achieved and what are its uses and benefits to this society. Cite any contemporary parallels in our society. Explain and analyze the significance of consumerism in this culture. Cite any contemporary parallels in our society. Explain how morality and values are instilled and controlled in this population. Cite any contemporary parallels in our society. Analyze the dramatic effect of Huxleys use in Chapter 3 of interfacing fragments of dialog, independent of setting or explanation, from varying scenes. What is the main idea being conveyed through this cacophony? How are natural instincts/human nature regulated in this society? Cite any contemporary parallels in our society. Chapters 6 10: Explain and analyze how (and why) Bernard Marx is so different from his fellows. Explain and analyze the role of individualism in this society. Explain and analyze Lindas experience on the reservation. Although raised by Linda, a product of civilization, John has taken on the characteristics of a savage. Explain and analyze why this is so and what these characteristics are that make John uncivilized.


6. 7. 8. 9.

Chapters 10 15: 10. Explain the irony contained in the scene in Chapter 10. 11. Explain and analyze the choice that Linda makes when she returns to civilization. How does her choice benefit this society? Are todays medical advances to prolong the lives of terminally ill patients, as well as assisted suicide, parallels to the path Linda chooses? Explain. 12. Compare and contrast Helmholtz Watson to Bernard Marx (you may need to look at Helmholtzs introduction in Chapter 4 as well). Explain and analyze the disturbance that his original rhyme creates (Chapter 12). 13. Based on what you know about John, explain his reaction to Lenina in Chapter 13, and his reaction to Lindas fate in Chapter 14. Chapters 15 18 14. Explain Mirandas proclamation, O brave new world! (defined in Chapter 15) as it applies to this society. Cite any contemporary parallels in our society. 15. Describe Mustapha Mond and explain why, given his knowledge and instincts, he chose the path he has taken. 16. At the end of Chapter 15, Mond explains how and why this society came into being. Do you agree or disagree with his assessment? Explain your position and how Monds conclusions apply to our contemporary society. 17. In Chapter 17, God and humankind and their relationship to one another are discussed. Explain Johns and Monds positions and provide your opinion(s) on this topic. 18. Explain and analyze what happens to John at the end of the novel. Compare and contrast the choices he makes in Chapter 18 to the choice his mother Linda makes on her return to civilization.

Dystopia Project
A dystopia takes current trends and exaggerates them, pushing them to the extreme in order to criticize them. Even though it is an extreme, most of the ideas are still LOGICAL progressions. CREATE YOUR OWN DYSTOPIA You are going to create your own dystopia. Choose several trends that you see today and imagine how these trends progress in 30-50 years. Take these trends to the extreme in order to point out how these trends could be dangers. For example, trends you could choose could include: cellphone technology, commercialism, obesity, alcoholism, television entertainment, virtual reality, robotics, governmental inaction, pettiness in politics, social networking, etc. The assignment: Create your own dystopic story that imagines an exaggeration of a current trend The story could take the form of one of the following: o Short story that is at least 2 pages typed, double spaced. o DETAILED cartoon strip including at least 20 frames o Skit which lasts 5 minutes minimum o Poem/ballad that is at least 1 page long o Diary entries from someone who lived in that society (2 pages) o Television commercialswrite the script and film the commercial You should include a brainstorm that includes: o the trend(s) you want to exaggerate o a general outline of your world o some of the details you want to include in your dystopia. Hint: One way to structure your story could simply be to relate a normal, day-in-the-life story of someone who lives in your society. It could be a high school scene, a work scene, etc.

Rubric: _____/10 Creativity and presentation _____/20 Includes dystopic qualities (from notes) _____/20 Accurately exaggerates a current trend in order to critique it _____/50 Total

Comparative Literary Paper

Both 1984 and Brave New World present a world in which technology, language, and human nature has been altered, desecrated, and manipulated in the effort of control. The end goal of each of the societies is the same: for stability and power. However, the methods of each of the societies are drastically different. Write a 3-4 page literary paper comparing and contrasting Orwells 1984 and Huxleys Brave New World as visions of a future gone drastically wrong. In your essay, be sure to use specific examples from both novels for comparison and contrast. Throughout the essay, you should address the effectiveness of both methods and in the final paragraphs take a stand as to which is more applicable to our world today.

Your essay will be graded on the following rubric: ____/10 Introduction has a brief summary of each book ____/10 Thesis statement clearly states your argument ____/20 Each body paragraph enhances and elaborates on the thesis ____/20 Effective use of quotes to prove your points ____/30 Effectively evaluates each novel ____/20 Makes a cohesive argument for which is more applicable to todays world ____/30 3-4 pages ____/10 No grammar, punctuation, spelling errors. ____/150 Points Total