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Class IX Physics Ch.

Sound NCERT Solutions

Page 162 Question 1: How does the sound produced by a vibrating object in a medium reach your ear? ANS: When an object vibrates, it forces the neighbouring particles of the medium to vibrate. These vibrating particles then force the particles adjacent to them to vibrate. In this way, vibrations produced by an object are transferred from one particle to another till it reaches the ear.

Page 163 Question 1: Explain how sound is produced by your school bell. ANS: When the school bell vibrates, it forces the adjacent particles in air to vibrate. This disturbance gives rise to a wave and when the bell moves forward, it pushes the air in front of it. This creates a region of high pressures known as compression. When the bell moves backwards, it creates a region of low pressure know as rarefaction. As the bell continues to move forward and backward, it produces a series of compressions and rarefactions. This makes the sound of a bell propagate through air.

Question 2: Why are sound waves called mechanical waves? ANS: Sound waves force the medium particles to vibrate. Hence, these waves are known as mechanical waves. Sound waves propagate through a medium because of the interaction of the particles present in that medium. Since the presence of the medium is essential for the sound waves to travel, sound waves are known as mechanical waves.

Question 3:

Suppose you and your friend are on the moon. Will you be able to hear any sound produced by your friend? ANS: Sound needs a medium to propagate. Since the moon is devoid of any atmosphere, you cannot hear any sound on the moon.

Page 166 Question 1: Which wave property determines (a) loudness, (b) pitch? ANS: (a) The loudness of a sound is determined by its amplitude. If the amplitude of a sound is large, then the sound produced will also be loud. (b) The pitch of a sound depends on its frequency. A sound will be considered a high pitched sound, if its frequency is high.

Question 2: Guess which sound has a higher pitch: guitar or car horn? ANS: The frequency of the vibration of a sound produced by a guitar is greater than that produced by a car horn. Since the pitch of a sound is proportional to its frequency, the guitar has a higher pitch than a car horn.

Page 166 Question 1: What are wavelength, frequency, time period and amplitude of a sound wave?

ANS: Wavelength: The distance between two consecutive compressions or two consecutive rarefactions is known as the wavelength. Its SI unit is metre (m). Frequency: The number of complete oscillations per second is known as the frequency of a sound wave. It is measured in hertz (Hz). Amplitude: The maximum height reached by the crest or trough of a sound wave is called its amplitude.

Question 2: How are the wavelength and frequency of a sound wave related to its speed? ANS: Speed, wavelength, and frequency of a sound wave are related by the following equation: Speed ( v) = Wavelength ( v = ) Frequency ( )

Question 3: Calculate the wavelength of a sound wave whose frequency is 220 Hz and speed is 440 m/s in a given medium. ANS: Frequency of the sound wave, v = 220 Hz Speed of the sound wave, v = 440 m s-1 For a sound wave, Speed = Wavelength Frequency

Hence, the wavelength of the sound wave is 2 m.

Question 4: A person is listening to a tone of 500 Hz sitting at a distance of 450 m from the source of the sound. What is the time interval between successive compressions from the source ANS: The time interval between two successive compressions is equal to the time period of the wave. This time period is reciprocal of the frequency of the wave and is given by the relation:

Page 166 Question 1: Distinguish between loudness and intensity of sound. ANS: Intensity of a sound wave is defined as the amount of sound energy passing through a unit area per second. Loudness is a measure of the response of the ear to the sound. The loudness of a sound is defined by its amplitude. The amplitude of a sound decides its intensity, which in turn is perceived by the ear as loudness.

Page 167 Question 1: In which of the three media, air, water or iron, does sound travel the fastest at a particular temperature? ANS: The speed of sound depends on the nature of the medium. Sound travels the fastest in solids. Its speed decreases in liquids and it is the slowest in gases.

Therefore, for a given temperature, sound travels fastest in iron. Page 168 Question 1: An echo returned in 3 s. What is the distance of the reflecting surface from the source, given that the speed of sound is 342 ms-1 ? ANS: Speed of sound, v = 342 m s-1 Echo returns in time, t = 3 s Distance travelled by sound = v t = 342 3 = 1026 m In the given time interval, sound has to travel a distance that is twice the distance of the reflecting surface and the source. Hence, the distance of the reflecting surface from the source,

Page 169 Question 1: Why are the ceilings of concert halls curved? ANS: Ceilings of concert halls are curved so that sound after reflection (from the walls) spreads uniformly in all directions.

Page 170 Question 1: What is the audible range of the average human ear? ANS: The audible range of an average human ear lies between 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Humans cannot hear sounds having frequency less than 20 Hz and greater than 20,000 Hz.