You are on page 1of 51

HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH

THUNDERSTORMS:
LIGHTNING

HEAVY RAIN

TORNADO

HAIL (CHUNKS OF ICE)


HAZARDS
ASSOCIATED WITH
THUNDERSTORMS:

LIGHTNING
More about
thunderstorms
A lightning bolt can
heat the air it passes
through to
temperatures as high
as 26,000 degrees
Celsius.

It is the quick and intense heating of the air that


generates shockwaves, which propagate rapidly
away from the lightning bolt. These shockwaves
become soundwaves as they travel through the air.
This is how thunder is produced.
The creation of thunder
When a streak of lightning flashes across
the sky, a crack of thunder is often heard
several seconds later. Thunder happens
because lightning heats the air to more
than 43,000 degrees, causing the air to
expand. As this air cools, it begins to
contract. This quick expansion and
contraction of air around the lightning
starts air molecules moving back and
forth, making sound waves, which we
hear as thunder.
LIGHTNING FACTS:
 There are thousands of lightning strikes every
day. Scientists think that lightning hits
somewhere on the earth about 100 times every
second
 More people are killed by lightning than by any
other kind of storm, including hurricanes and
tornadoes.
 Every year, about 100 people are killed by
lightning in the United States and also about 100
people in Europe.
 In the whole world, lightning kills more than 1,000
people in a year, maybe many more.
 A lot more people are hurt by lightning than are
LIGHTNING SAFETY
RULES (OUTDOORS)
BE ALERT OF THE SIGNS OF THE
IMPENDING STORM
GET AWAY FROM TREES OR TALL
OBJECTS. STAY AWAY FROM HILLTOPS,
BENCHES AND OPEN FIELDS AND SEEK
SHELTER IN A LOW LYING AREA SUCH
AS A DITCH OR RAVINE.
IF YOU ARE WITH OTHER PEOPLE,
SPREAD OUT.
STAY AWAY FROM WATER OR WET
AREAS.
WHAT TO DO IF THERE IS NO
SHELTER AND YOU ARE CAUGHT IN
A THUNDERSTORM?

Lightning safety experts have invented a "lightning


safety position" that is very important to know if you
are caught in a thunder storm and you can't find a
shelter. This position looks hard, but it could save your
life. There are several reasons for doing it.
It makes you a smaller target.
With your heels together, if lightning hits the
ground, it goes through the closest foot, up to
your heel and then transfers to the other foot
and goes back to the ground again. If you don't
put your feet together, lightning could go
through your heart and kill you.
You put your hands over your ears to protect
them from thunder.
LIGHTNING SAFETY
RULES (INDOORS)
STAY AWAY FROM ELECTRICAL
SOCKETS, APPLIANCES,
TELEVISION AND TELEPHONES;
SHUT-OFF THE MAIN POWER
SWITCH.
STAY AWAY FROM WINDOWS,
WATER FAUCETS, PIPES AND
ELECTRICAL OUTLETS.
HAZARDS
ASSOCIATED WITH
HEAVY RAINS
THUNDERSTORMS:

MAY ALSO CAUSE LANDSLIDES IN MOUNTAIN


AREAS
HEAVY RAINS (30 MIN TO 0NE HOUR) DURING
THUNDERSTORMS) MAY CAUSE FLASH FLOODS
OR FLOODING IN LOW LYING AREAS
Hail: Chunks of ice from the
sky

Path of
hailstone

Strong air
currents

Ice crystal collides


with droplet, which
freezes around it

Hailstone is carried
around the cloud and
coated with more ice

Heavy
hailstone
falls

INSIDE THE
Rising air breeds summer ice THUNDERSTORM CLOUD
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED
WITH THUNDERSTORMS:
HAIL (CHUNKS
OF ICE FROM
THE SKY)
COLD FRONT
Occurs when a region of moving cold
air mass overtakes a region of moving
warm air mass
Characterized largely by an increased
cloudiness and heavy rains
Affects the Philippines from November
to February
Eastern parts of the country receives
most of the associated rainfall
ALONG THE FRONT, CLOUDS DEVELOP
BRINGING RAIN
C
O
L
D
WAR M
AIR
Cold Air
F RISES
Mass
R
O CO LD AI R
N SI NKS

T
A SCHEMATIC PRESENTATION OF HOW A COLD FRONT
DEVELOPS AND ITS ASSOCIATED WEATHER
N T
O
FR
L D
C O

ITCZ L ITCZ L
ITCZ
L ITCZ
L

ANIMATED SATELLITE PICTURES OF A COLD FRONT


(TAIL-END AFFECTING EXTREME NORTHERN LUZON)
AND ITCZ AFFECTING SOUTHERN LUZON, VISAYAS AND
MINDANAO
SOUTHWEST
MONSOON
(HABAGAT)
N

W E

S
SOUTHWEST MONSOON
Locally known as “HABAGAT”; affects
the country from July to September
Very warm and humid
Occurs when warm moist air flows over
the country from the southwest
direction.
Characterized by heavy rainfall that may
last for a week.
Brings rainy season to the western
portion of the country.
NORTH EA S
T Cold air from Siberia
MO NSOON
(AMI HAN )
N

W E

S
NORTHEAST MONSOON
Locally known as “Amihan”, affects the
eastern portions of the country from October
up to late March
Starts over Siberia as a cold, dry air mass
but gathers moisture as it travels across the
Pacific Ocean before reaching the Eastern
Sections of the Philippines
Occurs when the cold and intense Asiatic
winter Anti-cyclone sends northeasterly
winds across the Philippines
Characterized by widespread cloudiness
with rains and showers
HAZARDS ASSOCIATED WITH
INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE
ZONE (ITCZ)
Showers to heavy rains
which may cause flashfloods
or floodings
Severe thunderstorms
Breeding ground of tropical
cyclones
TROPICAL CYCLONES
IntenseLow Pressure Systems
Winds rotate in a counter-
clockwise direction
Originates from tropical oceans
Generally moves westward then
polewards
CLASSIFICATION OF TROPICAL
CYCLONES IN THE PHILIPPINES
TROPICAL DEPRESSION Maximum
winds near the center of between 35 and 64
KPH
TROPICAL STORM Maximum winds
near the center of between 64 KPH and
118 KPH
TYPHOON Maximum winds
exceed 118 KPH
(Super Typhoon- was conceived by JTWC with max
winds of greater than 200 kph near the center)
5 cyclones
2 cyclones in 2 yrs
per year
FREQUENCY OF
5 cyclones
in 3 yrs
PASSAGE OF
3 cyclones
in 2 yrs TROPICAL
CYCLONES BY
1 cyclone
per year
GEOGRAPHICAL
ZONES IN THE
1 cyclone
PHILIPPINES
in 12 yrs
WHAT GOES ON
INSIDE A TYPHOON?
DIFFERENT VIEWS OF
A TYPHOON

THE “EYE” OF A
TYPHOON
Warm, moist air
spirals upward
CROSS
Rainbands
Air
sinks
in the
SECTION OF A
eye
Eye TYPHOON
wall
Clouds spin in
layers around
the eye
Icy cirrus clouds are
thrown outward by the spin

Warm
sea

Strong
winds Direction of
hurricane
movement
THE “EYE” Wet air
rises and
condenses
to produce
rain

Ships caught in severe


hurricanes rarely
survive the combined
The satellite image of Hurricane Allen (1980) battering of wind,
clearly shows the eye of the hurricane waves, rain and hail
THE PHILIPPINE AREA OF RESPONSIBILITY [PAR]
27

26
120 135
25 25
25

24 ONCE A TROPICAL
23

22
CYCLONE IS INSIDE THE
21

20
20 PAR, IT IS GIVEN A
19
PHILIPPINE NAME
18

17

16

15
15
14

13

12

11

10

5
5 5
4
115 135
114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137
NAMING OF TROPICAL CYCLONES IN THE PHILIPPINES
I II III IV
2001 2002 2003 2004
2005 2006 2007 2008
2009 2010 2011 2012
2013 2014 2015 2016
A •AURING AGATON AMANG AMBO
B •BAROK BASYANG BATIBOT BIDAY
C •CRISING CALOY CHEDENG COSME
D •DARNA DAGUL DODONG DUGONG
E •EMONG ESPADA EGAY ENTENG
F •FERIA FLORITA FALCON FLOR
G •GORIO GLORIA GILAS GILING
H •HUANING HAMBALOS HARUROT HATAW
I •ISANG INDAY INENG INGGO
J •JOLINA JUAN JUANING JULIAN
K •KIKO KAKA KABAYAN KENKOY
L •LABUYO LAGALAG LAKAY LAWIN
M •MARING MILENYO MANANG MANOY
N •NANANG NENENG NIÑA NONOY
O •ONDOY OMPONG ONYOK OSANG
P •PABLING PAENG POGI PANDOY
Q •QUEDAN QUADRO QUIEL QUINTA
R •ROLETA RAPIDO ROSKAS RIGODON
S •SIBAK SIBASIB SIKAT SIGLA
T •TALAHIB TAGBANWA TISOY TOTOY
U •UBBENG USMAN URSULA USA
V •VINTA VENUS VIRING VIAJERO
W •WILMA WISIK WANG-WANG WASIWAS
Y •YANING YAYANG YOYOY YOYONG
Z •ZUMA ZENY ZIGZAG ZOSIMO
OLD NAM ES OF TR OPI CA L
I CY
II CLONES
III IV
1997 1998 1999 2000
2001 2002 2003 2004
2005 2006 2007 2008
A ATRING AKANG AURING ASIANG
B BINING BISING BEBENG BIRING
K KLARING KARING KONSING
D KURING DELING DIDING DITANG
E DALING EMANG ETANG EDENG
G ELANG GADING GENING GLORING
H GORING HELING HELMING HUANING
I HULING ILIANG ISING ISANG
L IBIANG LOLENG LUDING LUSING
M LUMING MIDING MAMENG MARING
N MILING NORMING NENENG NINGNING
O OYANG ONIANG OSANG
P NARSING PASING PEPANG PARING
R OPENG RITANG RENING REMING
S PINING SUSANG SENDANG SENIANG
T RUBING TERING TRINING TOYANG
U SALING UDING ULDING ULPIANG
W TASING WELING WARLING WELPRING
Y UNDING YANING YAYANG YERLING
WALDING
YEYENG AUXILLIARY LIST
ANDING ANING ADING APIANG
BINANG BIDANG BARANG BASIANG
KADIANG KATRING KRISING KAYANG
DINANG DELANG DADANG DORANG
EPANG ESANG ERLING ENANG
GUNDANG GARDING GOYING GRASING
DISASTROUS TYPHOONS IN TERMS OF
DAMAGES (MORE THAN ONE BILLION PESOS)
YEAR NAME AREAS DAMAGES
AFFECTED ( Billions )
•1990 T. RUPING Central Visayas 10.85
•1995 T. ROSING Southern Luzon 9.30
•1993 T. KADIANG Central Luzon 8.75
•1988 T. UNSANG Southern Luzon 5.64
•1984 T. NITANG Northeastern Mindanao/
Visayas 3.91
•1991 T. TRINING Northern Luzon 3.47
•1995 T. MAMENG Visayas 2.80
•1988 T. YONING Visayas 2.75
•1993 T. MONANG Southern Luzon 2.34
•1985 T. SALING Central Luzon 2.18
•1992 T. MARING Northern Luzon 2.16
•1987 T. HERMING Northern Visayas 2.06
•1984 T. UNDANG Eastern Visayas 1.54
•1990 T. ILIANG Luzon 1.50
•1994 T. KATRING Luzon 1.43
•1989 T. SALING Southern Luzon 1.39
•1989 T. GORING Northern Luzon 1.36
•1992 T. GLORING Eastern Luzon 1.35
•1980 T. ARING Central Luzon 1.34
•1993 T. PURING Southern Visayas 1.33
•1995 T. PEPANG Visayas 1.20
•1987 T. SISANG Southern Luzon 1.12
DISASTROUS TYPHOONS IN TERMS OF DEATHS
YEAR NAME AREAS DEATHS
AFFECTED
•1991 T. URING Eastern Visayas 5,101 (REMEMBER?)
•1995 T. ROSING Southern Luzon 936
•1984 T. NITANG Southern Visayas/ 900
Northern Mindanao
•1984 T. UNDANG Visayas 895
•1987 T. SISANG Southern Luzon 808
•1990 T. RUPING Cntral Visayas 508
•1993 T. MONANG Southerm Luzon 272
•1995 T. PEPANG Visayas 265
•1988 T. YONING Visayas 217
•1981 T. DINANG Southern Luzon 188
•1988 T. UNSANG Southern Luzon 157
•1993 T. PURING Southern Visayas 157
•1993 T. KADIANG Central Luzon 126
•1995 T. MAMENG Visayas 116
•1982 T. BISING Visayas 112
•1986 T. GADING Northern Luzon 106
•1980 T. ARING Central Luzon 103
•1982 T. WELING Northern Luzon 96
•1989 T. GORING Northern Luzon 90
•1989 T. SALING Southern Luzon 88
HAZARDS DUE TO TROPICAL
CYCLONES:
 STRONG WINDS
 FLOODS/HEAVY RAINS
 STORM SURGES
 LANDSLIDES
 MUDFLOW
HOW TYPHOONS CREATE KILLER STORM
SURGES

AT COASTAL AREAS,
THE STORM SURGE
PHENOMENON CAUSES
A GREAT PORTION OF
THE DAMAGE DUE TO
TYPHOONS!!!
PUBLIC STORM WARNING
SIGNALS
Public Storm Warning Signal Number 1
A tropical cyclone may threaten or affect the
locality. Winds of not more than 60 KPH may
be expected in at least 36 hours.
What to do?

 Keep listening to your radio for more information


or updates about the weather disturbance.
 Prepare flashlights, batteries, matches, kerosene
lamps or candles and charcoal in anticipation of
power failure - check the capacity of the house to
withstand strong winds and strengthen the house if
necessary.
PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNAL
NO. 1
PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNALS
Public Storm Warning Signal Number 2
A tropical cyclone may threaten the locality.
Winds between 60-100 kph may be expected
in at least 24 hours.
What to do?
Board up windows or put storm shutters in place.
Board up windows - making use of good lumber
which are securely fastened.
Store drinking water in covered containers as
water supply may be cut-off. Children are advised
to stay indoors.
Stay at home!!! Keep posted for updates from your
radio.
PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNAL
NO. 2
PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNALS
Public Storm Warning Signal Number 3
A tropical cyclone will affect the locality. Winds
of 100 - 185 Kph may be expected in at least 18
hours.
What to do?
Keep your radio on and listen to the latest news
about the tropical cyclone.
Everybody is advised to stay indoors.
If the house is not strong enough to
withstand the
battering of strong winds go to designated
evacuation center or seek shelter in stronger
building and stay there until the typhoon has
passed.
PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNAL
NO. 3
PUBLIC STORM WARNING SIGNALS
Public Storm Warning Signal Number 4
A very strong typhoon will affect the locality.
Very strong winds of more than 185 kph may be
expected in at least 12 hours.

What to do?

 Stay in safe houses or evacuation


centers!!
TO SUMMARIZE, NO.14
PSWSNO. 32
PSWS

WINDS OF UP TO 185
100KPH
KPHEXPECTED
EXPECTEDININAT
ATLEAST
LEAST1824
WINDS OF MORE THAN 185 KPH EXPECTED IN AT LEAST
HOURS
12 HOURS
WINDS OF UP TO 60 KPH EXPECTED IN AT LEAST 36 HOURS
THE WINDS OF A
TROPICAL TYPHOON PASSING NORTH OF
CYCLONE THE PLACE (CLOSELY WATCH
FOR THE WIND DIRECTIONS AS
THE TYPHOON APROACHES);

MANILA
THE WINDS OF A
TROPICAL TYPHOON PASSING NORTH OF
CYCLONE THE PLACE (CLOSELY WATCH
FOR THE WIND DIRECTIONS AS
THE TYPHOON APROACHES);

MANILA
THE WINDS OF A
TROPICAL TYPHOON PASSING NORTH OF
CYCLONE THE PLACE (CLOSELY WATCH
FOR THE WIND DIRECTIONS AS
THE TYPHOON APROACHES);
BACKING WINDS DUE WEST

MANILA
THE WINDS OF A
TROPICAL TYPHOON PASSING SOUTH OF
CYCLONE THE PLACE (CLOSELY WATCH
FOR THE WIND DIRECTIONS AS
THE TYPHOON APROACHES);
VEERING DUE EAST)

MANILA
THE WINDS OF A
TROPICAL TYPHOON PASSING SOUTH OF
CYCLONE THE PLACE (CLOSELY WATCH
FOR THE WIND DIRECTIONS AS
THE TYPHOON APROACHES);
VEERING DUE EAST)

MANILA
THE WINDS OF A
TROPICAL TYPHOON PASSING SOUTH OF
CYCLONE THE PLACE (CLOSELY WATCH
FOR THE WIND DIRECTIONS AS
THE TYPHOON APROACHES);
VEERING DUE EAST)

MANILA
BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF
TROPICAL CYCLONES ?
Rainfall increases groundwater and the
water levels of dams that provide
drinking water, irrigation water and
power generation.
Rains mean water for plants. About
50% of our water supply comes from
rainfall brought by tropical cyclones.
Decreases the level of pollutants.
Starting up an El Niño event
The western Pacific Ocean warms
and cools in cycles. Normally,
east-to-west winds pile up warm
water in the western Pacific,
while cold water from deep in the
ocean rises to the surface along
the South American Coast. Every
few years, the trade winds
change, allowing the pool of
warm water to move east where it
blocks the rising cold water.
These changes help trigger the
global weather changes associated
with El Niño.
THE HYDROLOGIC OR WATER CYCLE

The hydrologic cycle begins with the evaporation of


water from the surface of the ocean. As moist air is
lifted, it cools and water vapor condenses to form
clouds. Moisture is transported around the globe
until it returns to the surface as precipitation.

Once the water reaches the ground, one of two processes


may occur; 1) some of the water may evaporate back into
the atmosphere or 2) the water may penetrate the surface
and become groundwater. Groundwater either seeps its
way to into the oceans, rivers, and streams, or is released
back into the atmosphere through transpiration. The
balance of water that remains on the earth's surface is
runoff, which empties into lakes, rivers and streams and
is carried back to the oceans, where the cycle begins
again.