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Tuesday, May 10, 2011

Star Delta or Wye Delta Motor Wiring Configuration - A basic how to guide
The previous article which covered the star delta motor control power circuit for industrial process control presented an electrical diagram showing the interchanging motor wiring configuration for a star connection and a delta connection using magnetic contactors as motor starters. Exploring further with reference to the previous star delta power circuit diagram, if you manually trace each line connections going to the motor you will begin to understand how the following star and delta motor wiring connections are achieved.

Motor Terminals Before Wiring Connection

Normally, an AC induction motor have six wiring terminals, U1, V1, W1 for the primary terminals, and U2, V2, W2 for the secondary terminals. The start coil where the motor's coil winding starts is marked by a dot (see drawing on the right) to represent each primary starting ends of the three internal motor coils. These starting coil windings are designated with the number 1 following each three phase terminal which are alphabetically represented with U, V, W, so then the primary terminals are named U1, V1, W1. Correspondingly, the other end of each coil is designated with the number 2 to represent the completed end of the coil where each winding comes to a finish, each of these finish ends which are designated with the number 2 are also alphabetically and numerically represented to identify them as the secondary terminals U2, V2, W2. In the field of industrial process automation control technology, it has always been a common safe practice before doing the actual wiring installation of the electric motor to firstly check for the continuity on both ends of each coil using an ohm meter to verify that U1 meets with U2, and V1 meets with V2, and W1 with W2.

Motor Connected in Star (Wye) Configuration

The AC induction motor's wiring terminals can be configured in either the star connection or the delta connection. The star wiring configuration is connected by shorting all the secondary terminals U2, V2, W2 together while connecting all the primary terminals U1, V1, W1 to the supply source voltage L1, L2, L3. This is achieved by the star delta control circuit which initially activates the main contactor and the star contactor simultaneously while leaving the delta contactor inactive during the startup run sequence of the motor from standstill.

Motor Connected in Delta Configuration

The delta wiring configuration of the motor, which resembles a triangle, is connected by joining U1 and V2, V1 and W2, W1 and U2, while also connecting each of these joined terminals to each of the supply source voltage L1, L2, L3. The delta configuration is achieved by energizing the main contactor together with the delta contactor while disengaging the star contactor. Learn more about the proper phasing sequence in accordance to a conforming orderly configuration for a star delta motor control wiring configuration.

Star Delta or Wye Delta Industrial Process Automation Control Motor Wiring Configuration Recommended wiring configuration suitable for reduced changeover current peaks from star to delta motor connection - A basic How To Learn Guide

Fig-1

With reference to our previous articles which covered thestar delta or wye delta motor wiring configuration - the delta motor wiring diagram presented in Fig-1 on the right shows two of each of the six motor terminals joined together and while connected also to each of the three reference source voltages that conforms to an orderly configuration of phase sequence U1-V2-L1, V1-W2-L2, W1-U2-L3.

As previously discussed, the star delta motor controller provides a changeable motor wiring configuration which is made possible by the sequential switching of magnetic contactors each wired accordingly with a star and a delta connection directly to the motor terminals. When the motor terminal connection is switched to the delta mode after running in the star mode, a time gap exists in between this transition period wherein high inrush transient current generated from residual voltage is developed during the changeover delay. This intense current spikes can cause extreme over current to overload the motor or damage the magnetic contactors. To prevent such an occurrence, the best way is to follow an orderly wiring configuration most suitable to achieve a reduced current peaks during the star to delta switching transition period. The delta wiring configuration U1-V2-L1, V1-W2-L2, W1-U2-L3 in Fig-1 achieves the best desirable result of reducing high inrush current upon switching of the magnetic starters from star (wye) to delta connection.

Fig-2

The vector diagram in Fig-2 illustrates the phase relationship of voltage behavior during the star delta transition period which uses a motor wiring connection according to a conforming orderly configuration. In Fig-2, the blue arrow VL1-L3 is the primary phase sequence selected here in this example where L1 is connected to the starting end coil U1 where it meets with its finishing end coil U2 connected to L3 in reference to Fig-1 above. The green arrow VL1b-N represents the transition voltage developed during the changeover duration of the motor connection from star to delta configuration.

Fig-3

Transposing the blue and the green arrows to form a vector diagram to plot the vector difference between them yields a third red arrow Vdiff as shown in Fig-3. Notice the length of the resulting red arrow Vdiff which shows a relatively small differential voltage. Thus providing a relatively small current spike during the transition period when the motor connection switches from star to delta configuration.

Fig-4

Moving further, if we are to consider reconfiguring the delta connection in Fig-1 above with a different phase orientation sequence such as the illustration in Fig-4. The delta wiring connection in Fig-4 is rearranged in a different manner which is not in accordance to the conforming orderly configuration previously explained. The rearranged delta connection in Fig-4 is reoriented in the order of U1-W2-L1, V1-U2-L2, W1-V2-L3.

Fig-5

The corresponding vector diagram resulting from the rearranged configuration from Fig-4 above is shown in Fig-5 which illustrates the phase relationship of voltage behavior during the star delta transition period which uses a motor wiring connection not according to a conforming orderly configuration. In Fig-5, the blue arrow VL1L2 is the primary phase sequence selected in the example where L1 is connected to the starting end coil U1 where it meets with its finishing end coil U2 now connected to L2 instead of the previous connection to L3 (see connection difference between Fig-1 and Fig-4 above). The green arrow VL1b-N represents the transition residual voltage developed during the idle changeover duration from star to delta configuration of the motor connection.

Fig-6

Transposing the blue and the green arrows to form a vector diagram to plot the vector difference between them yields a third red arrow Vdiff as shown in Fig-6. Notice the length of the resulting red arrow Vdiff which shows a relatively longer differential voltage compared to the red arrow Vdiff from Fig-3. The red arrow in Fig-6 is definitely longer than the red arrow in Fig-3, thus Fig-3 provides a relatively smaller current spike during the transition period when the motor connection switches from star to delta configuration. It is therefore a recommended practice in the field of industrial process automation control technology to follow a wiring configuration suitable for a reduced high changeover transient current. The best method to achieve a minimal inrush peak current during when the motor transitions from star to delta connection is the one in accordance to the conforming orderly configuration of the reference voltage's phase sequence with respect to the motor terminal connection illustrated accoridngly in Fig-1, Fig-2 and Fig-3.