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Brushless DC motors (BLDC motors, BL motors) also known as electronically commutated motors (ECMs, EC motors) are electric motors

powered by direct-current (DC) electricity and having electronic commutation systems, rather than mechanical commutators and brushes. The current-to-torque and frequency-to-speed relationships of BLDC motors are linear. BLDC motors may be described as stepper motors, with fixed permanent magnets and possibly more poles on the rotor than the stator, or reluctance motors. The latter may be without permanent magnets, just poles that are induced on the rotor then pulled into alignment by timed stator windings. However, the term stepper motor tends to be used for motors that are designed specifically to be operated in a mode where they are frequently stopped with the rotor in a defined angular position; this page describes more general BLDC motor principles, though there is overlap.

[edit] Brushless versus Brushed motor

Brushed DC motors have been in commercial use since 1886.[1]HYPERLINK \l "cite_note-1"[2] BLDC motors, however, have only been commercially possible since 1962.[3]HYPERLINK \l "cite_note-3"[4] Limitations of brushed DC motors overcome by BLDC motors include lower efficiency and susceptibility of the commutator assembly to mechanical wear and consequent need for servicing, at the cost of potentially less rugged and more complex and expensive control electronics. BLDC motors develop maximum torque when stationary[citation needed] and have linearly decreasing torque[citation needed] with increasing speed as shown in the adjacent figure. This section requires expansion.See Stepper motor, Servo motor.

[edit] Stepper motor

The stepper motor is used in microprocessor and microcontroller-based and robotic equipment, as it consumes less power and provides accurate movement of robotic arms. Semiconductor producers include Infineon Technologies, Texas Instruments and Microchip. Infineon offers so-called LIN stepper motors used in applications such as instrumentation and gauges, CNC machining, multi-axis positioning, printers and surveillance equipment.[11]

[edit] Model engineering

BLDC motors are a popular motor choice for model aircraft including helicopters. Their favorable power to weight ratios and large range of available sizes, from under 5 gram to large motors rated at thousands of watts, have revolutionized the market for electricpowered model flight. Their introduction has redefined performance in electric model aircraft and helicopters, displacing virtually all brushed electric motors. They have also encouraged a growth of simple, lightweight electric model aircraft, rather than the previous internal combustion

engines powering larger and heavier models. The large power to weight ratio of modern batteries and brushless motors allows models to ascend vertically, rather than climb gradually. The low noise and lack of mess compared to small glow fuel internal combustion engines that are used is another reason for their popularity. Legal restrictions for the use of combustion engine driven model aircraft in some countries have also supported the shift to high-power electric systems. Their popularity has also risen in the Radio Controlled Car, Buggy, and Truck scene, where sensor-type motors (with an extra six wires, connected to Hall effect sensors) allow the position of the rotor magnet to be detected. Brushless motors have been legal in RC Car Racing in accordance to ROAR (the American governing body for RC Car Racing), since 2006. Several RC Car Brushless motors, feature replaceable and upgradeable parts, such as sintered neodymium-iron-boron (rare earth magnets), ceramic bearings, and replaceable motor timing assemblies. These motors as a result are quickly rising to be the preferred motor type for electric on and off-road RC racers and recreational drivers alike, for their low maintenance, high running reliability and power efficiency (most Sensored motors have an efficiency rating of 80% or greater).

[edit] See also


[edit] References
^ Frank Julian Sprague#Joining the emerging electrical industry ^ Electric motor#The first electric motors ^ ^ T.G. Wilson, P.H. Trickey, "D.C. Machine. With Solid State Commutation", AIEE paper I. CP62-1372, Oct 7, 1962 ^ ^ United Hobbies: "Kv rating explained" ^ ^

^ ECMs and HVAC Systems ^ ^ XC866 LIN Stepper Motor by Infineon