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Volume 1



Contents Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.3 Types of Hotels Facilities offered by hotels Role of the Front Office Department in a hotel

Self Study

Objectives In this unit you will take a look at the whole of the travel and tourism industry. Hotel Front Office Operations profession is a part of the hospitality industry which in turn is a part of the travel and tourism industry. Looking at the total travel and tourism industry will give us an idea of the total picture of the industry and how hospitality and front office operations function in relation to other sectors of the industry.

Introduction While tourism is universal, each country looks to international tourism with a rather different set of ideas. What is permissible, what is not, will reflect some basic differences by which a country sets its goals and guidelines. Most countries are aware of the desire to share as well as to preserve their cultural heritages, to exploit their natural wonders while

conserving them. The most important contributions in tourism are from its ability to generate foreign exchange and provide employment. Tourism is regarded as a component part of the national economy, a window for international exchange and understanding between people, a highly comprehensive economic undertaking characterized by quick investment turnover, good economic result and low conversion costs. To most countries, tourism development gives impetus to the development of domestic communications, urban construction, commerce, light industry and the catering trade, plus expansion of job opportunity. Sri Lanka mainly relies on tourism development to help correct its dependence on a narrowly based economy of few primary products, while expanding the employment base and dispersing regional development. The safeguard against the possible adverse effect of tourism on the culture and society is built into its planned tourism development, which must be implemented in a planned and integrated way, and will broaden and expand job opportunities, while exposing the outside world to the varied culture and tradition of the country. All countries have rich cultural heritages in their people, varieties of geographical points of interests, and their own unique attraction in people, in trade and in places. These are to be shared, in order to help with foreign exchange earnings and to generate greater cash flow within the country. Tourism industry is made up of various different segments. The most prominent being the travel sector and the hospitality sector. The following structure gives an outline of its more important components as found in Sri Lanka.




Destination Activities


Food and Beverage Service

International Air Transportation

Internal Transportation

Cultural Shows

Sports and Leisure Activities

Now that we have an idea of the total travel and tourism industry, let us look at more detailed information on what concerns us, the Front Office Operations. Typically Front Office is a part of the hospitality industry. So an understanding of the hotel sector and the types of hotels will be appropriate here. So, the section below deals with the types of hotels. Read it and try to understand the different types available.

1.1 Types of Hotels The hotel industry is so diverse that many hotels do not fit into any single well defined category. Some of the categories used to classify hotels are location, the type of guests served, the kind of ownership structure/chain affiliation, and the size and level of service. The size and the level of service of a hotel are its most important characteristics. However, size and service levels are not dependent on each other. The size of a hotel often has very little to do with the service it offers. The size characteristic may include the number of guest rooms it has, meeting and banquet rooms within the hotel, and the number of departments within the hotel requiring various services. A more precise measure of work performed by a hotels staff is the level of hotels service. While the levels of service offered by hotels vary tremendously, hotels can, for sake of simplicity, be classified in terms of their location. 4

Transient Hotels These hotels are situated in and around major cities and airports. They typically provide for short stay guests, offer intensive food and beverage service (mostly around the clock) and attract guests on business and, if near airports, staying over night for air connections. City Hotels These hotels are situated in major cities and mainly cater to businessmen who visit these cities for business purposes, and participants of conferences and seminars that are often held in these cities. The length of stay of guest is short, and usually check-ins & checkouts take place throughout the day. The speed of service is of utmost importance in these hotels as the guests are often in a hurry to obtain various services that they require, whilst attending to their business activities. The atmosphere is very formal and there is no season or off season. Airport Hotels These hotels are highly transient hotels situated near international airports providing accommodation to passengers who are transient and those who have to take flights early in the morning or late at night and for passengers whose flights are delayed due to technical reasons. Like city hotels facilities would by of high standards.

Resort Hotels These hotels are found in various resort areas, and majority of guests come to these hotels for holidays. The average length of stay of guests is longer, compared with transient hotels. The atmosphere is also less formal. Examples; Motel The word motel, derived from the word motor hotel, is situated along the highways intending to accommodate those who travel long distance by motor vehicles. In most typical motels, guests park their own vehicle, carry their own luggage, provide their own room service, and make their own arrangements for laundry, cleaning and pressing etc. In other words the services provided in motels are very limited. Some of the earlier motels omitted food & beverage service, however nowadays most motels provide 24 hour coffee shops providing food & beverage facilities throughout the day and night. Not found in Sri Lanka, though prevalent in larger countries, such as the USA. Beach Resorts Mountain Resorts Ski Resorts Health Resorts Ancient City Resorts Cultural Resorts Wild Sanctuary Resorts

Of course, a common classification of hotels is referred to as the star classification of hotels. Here hotels are awarded a number of stars depending on the facilities and the levels of service offered by individual hotels. These systems are an indicator for the customers and guests to have an idea of the levels of service and facilities to be expected 6

in a hotel. In Sri Lanka the star classification is handled by the Sri Lanka Tourist Board and they award stars to hotels from one to five stars to depict the levels of service and facilities offered. Activity Could you try and match some hotels in Sri Lanka that falls under each category?


Facilities Offered by Hotels

Now that we have an idea of the types of hotels available, lets take a closer look at what facilities are offered by hotels. Do not worry if some of the terms are alien, we will deal with them later on in the unit.

Hotels come in all sizes and with many kinds of atmospheres. They may be urban, suburban or located at airports or in remote resort locations. They may be all suite, budget or conference centers. The type of the ownership, size of the property and the type of operation are prime factors in determining the type of facilities offered by a hotel. The type of facilities also varies with the type of guests who patronize a hotel. For example, airport hotels cater primarily to business people who fly in one night, and fly out the next. Today even the finest resorts solicit business meetings and provide facilities for such activities. However, most city, airport and resort hotels offer the following facilities in most countries.

Deluxe suites Specialty restaurant 7

Coffee shop Supper club Night club Business center Onward reservation facilities Encashment of foreign currencies Laundry and dry clean facilities Health and recreation swimming pool, tennis, etc.


The functions of the Hotel Front Office Department

An organization such as a hotel needs a formal structure to carry out its mission and objectives. An organization chart shows where each position fits into the overall organization and illustrates the divisions of responsibility and lines of authority. The divisions and departments of a hotel may be classified into revenue centers and support centers, or selling and production areas. Traditionally the front office department and the food and beverages department are classified as sales departments (or revenue centers), and the housekeeping and kitchen departments as production departments. The front office department and the housekeeping department together is called the rooms division. In the front office of a large hotel, different employees handle separate operational areas to enhance internal control and allow more specialized guest attention. This may not be practical in a small hotel. Many hotels give all front office employees the same title, and divide duties along with work shifts. Front office work shifts may vary according to traffic patterns and work loads.

Rooms Division: The rooms division includes the front office, housekeeping, and uniformed service departments. In addition, some hotels make the reservation and switchboard functions (which we discuss as front office tasks) into separate rooms division departments. In most hotels, the rooms division generates more revenue than other divisions. The front office is the most visible department in a hotel, with the greatest amount of guest contact. The housekeeping department cleans rooms, inspects rooms for sale, co-ordinates room status with the front office, and may be in charge of the propertys linens. In some hotels, housekeeping is an independent hotel division. The uniformed serviced department employs parking attendants, door attendants, porters, limousine drivers and bell persons.

Front Office Organization: Traditional front office functions include registration, room and rate assignment, guest services, room status, maintenance and settlement of guest accounts, and creation of guest history records. The front office is responsible for developing and maintaining a comprehensive database of guest information, coordinating guest services, and ensuring guest satisfaction. In a large hotel, the front office supports many positions with considerable separation of job duties, providing internal control over front office operations and allowing specialized attention to guests. In a mid-size hotel, job duties are typically combined and front desk agents may informally divide tasks among themselves. In a small hotel, one front desk agent often performs nearly all the functions with little assistance. The front desk agent/receptionist represents the hotel to the guest throughout all stages of the guests stay, although the traditional functions of the position centre on the registration process. Reservations agents are responsible for all aspects of reservations processing, and also acts as sales representatives for the hotel to the guest and to callers from outside. The tasks of the front office cashier centre on the front office accounting cycle. The night auditor checks the accuracy of front office accounting records and

compiles a daily summary of hotel financial data. Finally, the concierge serves as the guests liaison with both hotel and non-hotel services.

Reservations Agent typically monitors and responds to reservation requests, creates and maintains reservation records, prepares letters of confirmation, tracks future room availabilities, develops forecasts, and communicates reservation information to front desk agents. Coordination with the sales and marketing division is essential when large groups are booked. The switchboard operator plays an important role in representing the hotel to the guest. The switchboard operator typically answers incoming calls, directs calls to guest rooms, takes and distributes messages for guests, processes guest wake-up calls, and answers inquiries about hotel events and services. Operators may also be required to post longdistance call charges, monitor automated systems and coordinate emergency communication system. The front office typically posts charges to guest accounts, receives payments from guests, coordinates billing with the accounting division, balances accounts, and control cash at the front desk. The front office cashier may also perform a variety of banking services for guests. In many hotels, the front office cashier is responsible for the management of safe deposit boxes, instead of the front desk agent. The night auditor checks the accuracy of front office accounting records and compiles a summary of hotel financial data at the close of the business day. The night auditor typically posted, verifies accounts posting and balances, posts room charges and taxes to guests accounts, monitors promotional programs and summarizes the results of operations for management. The concierge specializes in a personal approach to both hotel and non hotel services. A concierge must be unusually resourceful and knowledgeable about the hotel and the



Typical guest requests handle by a concierge include directions and In some hotels, the concierge is designated to handle guest

information, travel or entertainment reservations and tickets, special functions and secretarial services. complaints. Front Office work shifts may vary with traffic patterns. Some operations provide limited guest service during the night shift. Flexi time allows employees to vary their times of starting and ending work, although certain periods may require the presence of most workers. A compressed work schedule is a method of working full-time hours in fewer than the traditional five days. Part time workers allow the front office flexibility to respond to fluctuating guest demands, and may also reduce overall labor costs. Job sharing allows two or more part-time employees to share the responsibilities of one fulltime position. Job Descriptions: A job description lists all the tasks and related information which make up a work position. It may also outline reporting relationships, responsibilities, working conditions, equipment & material to be used and other information specific to the property. Job description should be written for a position, not for a particular employee. They should be revived at least once a year for possible revision, with input from employees. Well-written job descriptions can be used in many aspects of staffing, training, and evaluating. A job specification list the personal skills, and traits needed to successfully perform the tasks outlined by a job description. Traits important to front office work include a professional demeanor, a congenial personality, a helpful attitude, flexibility, a spirit of hospitality and a well groomed appearance. An outgoing personality and a willingness to learn are especially important. employees. Also, front office work often requires mathematical aptitude and typing skills. Job specifications are often the basis for hiring and promoting


Self Study 1 Read the travel section of daily newspaper. Usually theres a once a week travel section in most Sri Lankan daily English papers, and most weekend papers devote a section for travel related news. Make a habit of reading this section as apart of your study activities. 2 Read the advertisements of hotels found in the travel pages. Using the knowledge that you have gained try to judge the classification of the various types of hotels advertised. 3 Start reading articles and books on Sri Lankas attractions. This will be extremely useful when it comes to working in a hotel front office, as the chances are that you would be required to respond to guest inquiries on local attractions. 4 If you have any friends or colleagues working in the hotel industry, speak to them about the industry and its nature & structure.



Contents Introduction 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Importance of a guest to a hotel Front office Department Organization Duties of a Receptionist Front Office layout Front Office Equipment

Self Study

Introduction Front Office .What is it?

Mostly, because you are in front; you will be the first that guests would come into contact most of the time. You will set the first impressions about the hotel, about its service and quality. We all know that first impressions count. As a receptionist, you are often the customer's first contact with the hotel and you will greet people from all over the world. You might not always understand their native tongue but you can speak with a smile and convey a greeting that is understood anywhere. As a receptionist, you have to look good, act professionally and, most important of all, be genuinely welcoming. Responsible? Yes. Challenging? Certainly. Rewarding? Most definitely. As we said before, you are most likely to be the person who first greets the guest on arrival at the hotel. A good first impression - your welcome, your appearance, and the appearance of reception - gets the stay off on the best note. Administrative skills are also important, so that you deal with reservations accurately and efficiently, prepare guest bills correctly, and ensure that the necessary information goes to


housekeeping, the restaurant, maintenance, management, the leisure centre and any other departments with whom the guest will come into contact. Many guests take their queries to reception, also complaints and other problems that are less easy to deal with. You may be responsible for taking payment, exchanging foreign currency, and in some hotels, receptionists work the switchboard, directing in-coming calls, and assisting guests to make external calls. Selling is a key skill: a timely suggestion can persuade the guest to have a better room, to stay longer, to eat in the restaurant, to take advantage of a special promotion, and so on. In some hotels, receptionists show guests to their room, otherwise the porter will, or you must give clear directions. You may have to respond to reservation enquiries by telephone, in person, and by letter, fax and email. You will often also take messages for guests, and ensure they receive these and any mail safely and without delay. Guest valuables may be taken care of at reception, in safe deposit boxes or the hotel safe. Most hotels use a computer for reservations and word processing, so I.T. skills will be a bonus. In an emergency, you need to know what your responsibilities are, which may include assisting guests to evacuate the building, calling the emergency services, and checking that all guests have reached safety.

Before we start on any work that we have to do in the Front Office Department of a hotel let us take a look at the reason for the existence of the whole travel and hospitality industry the guest or the visitor. They are the main reason that we have an industry and we should have an idea about them and their needs in order to understand our work.


Importance of a Guest to a hotel

A guest is the person who provides the vital nourishment for the existence of a hotel. You may have the most beautiful hotel with the best of facilities, and may also have a well experienced and trained top quality staff, but without, the guests in it, a hotel is bound to fail, and may end up in bankruptcy. More than anyone else in the hotel the GUEST is 14

the most important person in the hotel. Without the guests there is no need for a hotel. The guest is the source of revenue for a hotel, and of course pays the salaries of everyone from the General Manager, downwards. The guests provide vital revenue resources and job opportunities to the overall economy of the country, through the travel and hospitality industry. Guest Expectations Satisfying guest expectations is one of the key deliveries in the hospitality industry. The Oxford Dictionary describes expectation as thing that is expected to happen, it comes from the Latin exspectare which means to look forward to. When guests come to a hotel they have expectations. Expectations about the rooms, the food and drinks, the surroundings and the level of service etc. Guest expectations vary from one guest to another. The socio cultural influences formulate ones expectations. Our cultural and social backgrounds form the basis of the value systems. The values we have contribute much to what type of expectations we have. The difference between satisfied guests and dissatisfied guests is when the service we provide is up to the expectation or not up to the expectations, of the individual. Our guests form expectations through what they have heard, read or just felt about the hotel or restaurant. They may have seen brochures, advertisements, heard people talking about the hotel or a destination, or just thought up expectations based on their past experiences. However the expectations were formed, it is important to realize that they have expectations and a big part of our job is meeting them.

What are first impressions?


The first impressions are created when a person first meet someone or experiences something. It is from this experience that perceptions are created. Perceptions dictate ones likes and dislikes. It does not always take long to have the first impressions. Remember you never get a second chance to create the first impression. So you, your hotel, your work area, should be looking good, all the time. Guest recognition Remember, everybody likes to be recognized. Just think about what, you, yourself would feel when people recognize you. It feels good, does it not? Similarly, recognizing guests, and their likes and dislikes is a part and parcel of the hospitality trade. It is especially important in the Front Office, as more often than not, the first contact between the hotel and guest happens at the reception.

Providing service to delight the guest If and when we give service that is better than what the guest expected, then he/she becomes delighted. The target of any hotel should be to have 100% delighted guests. But this is much easier said than done. However as hotel staff we should always anticipate guest needs and have viable service solutions, so that we keep attempting to delight guests rather than merely trying to satisfy them.

Safety Any human being is concerned about his/her safety, and guests are no exception. Guest will not stay in areas or countries where there are safety concerns such as diseases famine, natural disasters, violence, etc. Within hotels they would be concerned about, the condition of the building and surrounding, layout, hygiene


standards, caution signs etc. Even by oversight if the hotel or its staff neglect the safety concerns of its guest, they will find it hard to sell any services or facilities to guests. Think about yourself as a guest. Will you eat in a caf, which looks dirty and unhygienic or sleep in a room (in a strange place), which has a roof, which is about to collapse? Comfort and Convenience Once safety concerns are met, then comes comfort and convenience. Guests look at quality, quantity, price, timing, physical comfort, and a general sense of being well looked after. People with special needs such as the elderly, those with children or babies, those with physical disabilities and those with special interests will want their needs satisfied. Understanding the guest Many of our guests are from socio-cultural backgrounds different from our own. Therefore how they see a particular issue/item might completely be different to that of ours from how we look at it. What is culture? The definition of Culture is civilization, way of life, life style, customs, habits, ways, morals, (source Oxford Dictionary). Therefore cultural differences are differences that exists between different ways of life, or life styles, customs in people belonging to different groups. These groups may be divided by way of tribes, families, organizations, races, religions, castes or nations. Groups of people have variance in the way issues are perceived. The need to understand the cultural differences is to realize that on certain aspects your guests might have ideas different to your own. These have to be acknowledged but need not necessarily be totally rejected or accepted.


Since within the hotel environment the guest is the most important person. His/her point of view also matters more than what our point of view is. If our objective is to make the guests happy, then our services have to be better than what they expect (guest expectations). Therefore we have to understand the guest expectations. Guest expectations are in other words what the guest think is right for him/her for the money he/she pays. Well, that is the guests point of view. Guest satisfaction In general, our guests want comfort and security in their bedrooms, a pleasant atmosphere, a tasty and clean food with courteous service in a restaurant etc. Depending on the perceptions of the guest these expectation levels may change from guest to guest. The following are a few simple rules that may lead to guest satisfaction; 1. 2. Recognize the guest. Say, by using the guest's name, if possible, and always with warmth and sincerity in your dealings. Remember the saying first impressions are the lasting ones. Get it right the first time. Show a genuine welcome and an impression of the high quality standards of your establishment and the country. 3. Always fulfill and try to exceed the guest expectations. They are here to enjoy themselves. Focus on their expectations from the hotel or the destination of Sri Lanka. 4. Create memories. Let Sri Lanka and your establishment be a memory of good times. When they leave all they take with them are the memories.



Front office Department Organization

A hotel, or any establishment for that matter, is organized by grouping the workers according to the tasks and jobs that they are called upon to perform. Such organizational structures can also show the relationships between the staff members, who reports to whom, and who has authority or responsibility in the structure and to what levels etc. A typical mid sized hotel may have the main departments segmented as follows;

General Manager

Food and Beverages Dept

Kitchen Dept

Front Office Dept

Housekeeping Dept

Accounts Dept

Human Resources Dept

Sales and Marketing

Engineering and maintenance

Typically, the Front Office, (or the Hotel Reception as it may be called in a smaller hotel) may have some or all of the following sub departments or sections; the number of sections and staff would depend on the size of the hotel.

Hotel Front Office Department


Front Office Or Reception

Telephones / Switch Board

Bell Desk / Concierge

Night Audit

Front Office Cashiers

Guest Relations


The basic duties performed by each section/sub department are as follows; RESERVATIONS 1. Monitoring & responding to reservation communication. 2. Creating & maintaining reservation records. 3. Preparing letter of confirmation. 4. Tracking future room availabilities. 5. Developing forecasts. 6. Communicating reservation information to for office desk personal.

RECEPTION 1. Selling Rooms. 2. Communicating with other departments. 3. Answering inquiries. 4. Handling complaints. 5. Keeping records. 6. Checking-in & Checking-out guests. 7. Greeting & Welcoming.

TELEPHONE / SWITCH BOARD 1. Answer incoming calls. 2. Direct calls to guest rooms. 3. Take and convey messages for guests. 4. Process guest wakeup calls. 5. Answer inquires about hotel event & service.


BELL DESK / CONCIERGE 1. Direction and information 2. Travel or entrainment reservation & Tickets. 3. Special Functions. 4. Other miscellaneous services such as; 1. providing flowers, newspapers 5. Handling guest luggage. 6. Paging guests. 7. Delivering mail & message to guests. 8. Accompanying guests to their rooms. 9. Effecting room change. 10. Greeting & welcoming guests. 11. Openings car door for guests. 12. Paging for vehicles. 13. Operating lifts. FRONT OFFICE CASHIERING 1. Posting charges to guest Accounts. 2. Receiving payment for guests. 3. Co-ordinate billing with the accounting division. 4. Balance Accounts. 5. Control cash at the front desk. 6. Management of safety deposit boxes.



1. Checking the Posts to guest Accounts. 2. Checking individual guest bills and their postings 3. Ensure that bills and postings are free of errors GUEST RELATIONS 1. Dealing with guest complaints. 2. Maintaining guest comments cards. 3. Maintaining guest history cards. 4. Maintaining records of complaints. Now that we have some idea of how a front office department is sectioned, and how each section works, let us take a closer look at the work of a Front Office Receptionist. That is the most common job category found in the front office and one that you may be called upon to handle or handling right now.


Duties of a Front Office Receptionist

Job Description Responsible to: Head Receptionist Overlooks : Trainees Job Definition/Summary: To work as a member of the front office team, helping to present and maintain an environment that will ensure guest satisfaction. Assist in achieving maximum occupancy. To assist guests efficiently, courteously and professionally in all front office related functions and to maintain high standards of service and hospitality at all times. Duties and Responsibilities:


1. Reports to front office in uniform at the time the shift begins. 2. Develops detailed knowledge about the hotels services, staff and hours of operation. 3. Registers guests and assigns rooms, accommodates special requests, wherever possible. Assists in pre-registration and blocking of reservations when necessary. 4. Keeps up-to- date on room rates, packages, discounts and how to handle each, as well as how each, relates to other department. 5. Possesses a thorough knowledge of credit and cheque cashing policies and procedures and adheres to them. 6. Develops a thorough knowledge of room rack, room locations, types of rooms and room rack operation. 7. Promptly notifies housekeeping of all check-outs: also informs house keeping of late check-outs, early check-ins, special requests and day rooms. 1. Develops a working knowledge of the reservations department, takes days reservations procedures. 2. Takes charge of room keys. 3. Handles guests check-ins and check-outs efficiently and in a friendly, professional manner. 4. Knows cash handling procedures; files and posts all charges to guest, master and city ledgers. 5. Handles safe deposit boxes in accordance with the propertys procedures. 6. Uses proper telephone techniques and etiquette. 7. Understands and uses proper mail, package and messages handling procedures. 8. Reads and initials log and bulletin board daily to keep updated on all current information. Be aware of the daily activities and meetings taking place in the hotel. 9. Reports any unusual occurrences and/or requests to a superior officer. 10. Knows all safety and emergency procedures and how to act upon them. Be aware of accident prevention policies. and future reservations when necessary. Knows cancellations


11. Maintains the cleanliness and neatness of the front desk area. Utilizes free time cleaning and tidying up work areas. 12. Understands that at all times, it may be necessary to move employees from their accustomed shifts to accommodate business demands. 13. Performs any other functions assigned by the supervisor. Assigned Area of Activity: Front desk counter and reservations office. Hours of Operation: Usually 8 hours per day, but may be extended by supervisor according to operational requirements. Inter-Departmental: with reservations clerks, guest relations personnel, telephone staff, front office cashiers and bell staff.


Layout of Front Office

A well designed and laid Front office can have a great effect on the efficiency of the department and the well being of the staff. The basic aims when planning the Front office should be,

Maximum customer contact without endangering the security of cash, keys, records and information. The minimization of effort in processing a guest stays from the original reservation to the point of departure. The flow of work involved should be reflected in the positioning of equipment, and the various functions.

The front office consists of two main areas.


1. Guest contact Area 2. Back of House Area

Guest Contact Area This area consists of Reception, Registration, Cash, information, bell desk, Guest Relations desk, lobby managers desk, and travel counter (optional). They are located in the areas accessible to guests. Back of house Area This area consists of Telephone operation room, Front office managers office, Reservations office, Baggage room and safe deposit boxes.(Optional). These departments are in the back area and are not immediately in guest access area. They are considered vital support services sections of the front office.

Guest Contact Areas Hotel Entrance The main entrance of a hotel must be easily identifiable and lead to the front desk. An entrance should be clearly defined and should provide a good view of the enterer. The doors should be quite large to facilitate to enter and leave the hotel building easily.

Hotel Lobby


This includes a waiting area leading to the reception. The Cashiers desk, information Counter, Guest Relations desk and Lobby Managers desk, which combines to do service to the front office of the hotel, are located here. The lobby also serves as an assembling point for guests. The Reception desk should be very noticeable to the lobby. The lobby should be attractive as it is the area from which a person forms the first impression of the hotel. The entire constructions and decoration should be done, bearing in mind the extent and nature of traffic, appearance, cleaning, maintenance, safety, noise, comfort and cost. Reception Counter/desk This section handles the selling of rooms to guests. It also handles allocations of rooms, and amendments to guest stays. It maintains statistics and provides information to other departments of the hotel as well.

Split-level Reception Desk The reception counter is located in the lobby. Most counters would be in two different levels. The side, which the guest uses higher level counter and the lower counter is used by the receptionist. This is to ensure safety and convenience for the receptionists. In medium and large hotels the reception section, porterage and information section, billing and the cash desk can also be a part of the counter and at the same level, instead of separate counters. In some hotels, especially if they are large, there may be a separate counter for cash and billing sections. Guest Relations Desk


This is an elegant small office table with many drawers normally situated at a corner of lobby on the opposite side of the main (Reception) counter used to help guests with any and all issues they may have. It is situated in such a way to observe guest movements easily as well as other service providers in the guest contact zone. They coordinate all day to day matters at the Front office, in addition to maintain guest relation activities. Porterage and Information (Concierge) This section handles guest luggage (incoming out going and left behind). It undertakes various services such as providing information supplying news papers, selling picture postcards & stamps, receiving and handling mail, paging guests, etc. staff working in this area should be knowledgeable and should have information such as railway time tables, flight schedules and Road Maps, and all information pertaining to hotel and destination that guests may regularly request. Cash Desk All current guest bills are kept up to-date in this section. The guest vouchers (credit bills) are posted into the appropriate guest accounts. This counter is usually partitioned with glass for security reasons. The cashier encashes foreign currency, receives payment from the guests, issue receipts for payments, maintains safe custody of guest valuables, handles guest disbursements (paid outs). Travel Desk Usually this is a sourced out facility manned by staff that are from the travel company. They would arrange taxis, buses and van for hire with or without chauffeurs. Also would offer tour itineraries.


Backup Service Area Reservations Office This is usually located in a room behind the reception counter/desk area, away from the guest view. The positioning is to facilitate smooth & easy operation in liaising with the reception staff. This department handles all reservations and correspondence concerning them. In addition to many telephone lines, there can be, Fax machine and email facilities, and computer stations for central reservation system and internet access, if necessary, in this office for communication regarding reservations. Telephone Operators Room It is located in a room close to the lobby, and away from the view of the guest. It should be in a quite environment so that, the telephone operators are not disturbed by outsiders. The telephone exchange is usually air-conditioned and has a low temperature due to the sensitive nature of the switching equipment. Front Office Managers Room It is an office that the front office manager occupies, to carryout his duties. His office should be within close proximity to all front office areas as he is overall in charge of the front office department.


Front Office Equipment

Front Office Equipment can be divided into two types. a. Manual Equipment b. Electronic equipment


Manual Equipment Besides modern equipment such as computers, the following conventional equipments are used in a large number of hotels in Sri Lanka as well as in other countries due to their low cost and ease in operation.

Key and Mail rack Reception Board/ Room rack Reservations rack

Key and Mail Rack It was until recently a standard piece of equipment in almost all the hotels. It is still used in many Sri Lankan hotels. The key and mail rack has pigeonholes corresponding to the number of rooms in the hotel. Each room number has a corresponding pigeonhole, with its number on it. The guest keys (when not with guests or in use otherwise) are kept there as well as guest mail and correspondence. The shape and size of the key and mail rack varies from one hotel to another, depending on the size of the hotel, the size of the reception counter area and interior dcor of the particular hotel. The key and mail rack is in numerical sequence, a systematical arrangement of rooms and floors to enable receptionists to locate the desired pigeonhole without delay.


Operation The original keys of rooms are kept in the key and mail rack. They are given to guests from it, on arrival and are collected when guests depart. During their stay, guests are requested to leave their room keys at the reception counter whenever they go out of the hotel, and collect same upon their return, during which time the receptionists keep the guests keys at the key and mail rack. When mail and messages are received for guests, the receptionists timestamps them, locates the guests on the alphabetical index, and writes the room number on the envelope. The mail is then placed in the pigeonhole corresponding to the guests room. Packages that are too large for the pigeonhole are stored elsewhere, and a message is placed in the appropriate pigeonhole, indicating that a parcel awaits collection. In older hotels, the key and mail rack is visible to any one who comes towards the reception counter, as it was fixed on the wall that was just behind. But now in newer hotels, it is fixed in the counter itself, away from the view of outsiders, mainly for security reasons as others may get to notice the whereabouts of guests (i.e. If the key is in the rack, the guest is not in the room etc). Reception Board/room Rack/room Status Rack The reception board/Room rack/ Room status rack provides a visual indication of room status at any given time. The receptionists can at a glance ascertain whether the room is vacant or not, and the name and particulars of a guest occupying the room. The room rack should have a number of pockets/slots arranged according the floors, and equal to the number of rooms in the hotel/ these are arranged in vertical or horizontal order. Due to space limitations in most hotels it is mostly vertically arranged. Each slot/pocket has a corresponding room number.


1) When a room is occupied a rack slip is filled out with the following particulars; Name of guest, the terms, duration of stay and number of people occupying the room. This slip is then inserted to slot corresponding to the room number given to the guest.

OCCUPIED Room No Until.. Name of Guest :.. Meal Plan No of Pax:..

Date Signature. elf Study Process cessnsierge be used to build a close relationship with guests as information and the likes and selection an

2) On the day of departure, the room slip is may be folded in half placed on the slot. No sooner the departure takes place the slip will be removed. 3) On room change the slip is altered accordingly and is moved from the slot of the previous room to the present room. 4) If a room is out of order a special slip is usually printed in red and placed in the slot until such time the room is readied.


OUT OF ORDER Room No Until.. Reason _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Date Signature. elf Study Process cessnsierge be used to build a close relationship with guests as information and the likes and selection an

5) If a room is house used or held off, more or less the same procedure is adapted, (as for out of order rooms) a special card could be used the purpose.


BLOCKED Room No Until.. Reason _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Date Signature. elf Study Process cessnsierge be used to build a close relationship with guests as information and the likes and selection an

6) Receptionists on the night shift or early morning shift would go through the rack and fold rack slips of guests due to check out next day/ day beginning. The receptionist in duty in the morning, then going through the folded slip will know which guests are going to check out and will be able to handle it better (get ready with the departure Procedure). This situation also makes it easier it prepare departures list, particularly if you have a large number of guests. 7). Allocating of rooms, too, can be done on the reception board. Special room allocation (rack) slips are inserted and partially lifted in the slot. In times of high occupancy this is particularly important because allocation can be then done not only in vacant ready rooms but also on already occupied due out room by inserting a rack slip lifted, but behind the existing one.


RESERVED Room No Until.. Name of Guest :.. Meal Plan No of Pax:..

Date Signature. elf Study Process cessnsierge be used to build a close relationship with guests as information and the likes and selection an

8) Different colored cards could be used to identify different groups etc. who are staying in the hotel. Also separate colors can be used for F.I.T. s V.I.P. s and so on. 9) It is Important to up date the reception board each time a change in room status takes place. Otherwise it would give wrong information.

The Location The reception board is fixed and recessed in the reception counter, facing the receptionist (& not the guest) at a 60 degree angle (approx.). So that it is not visible to guests, but at all times in direct view of the receptionists.

Electronic Equipments


Electronic equipments take the shape of computerized equipments that help the workflow of the Front Office Department. The systems that are available are mostly computer based. Most hotels would have a main computer with a lot of work stations for each area of the hotel. 1. POS or Point of Sales systems These are systems that are computer based and today mostly are equipped with touch screen facilities. There are menu options displayed on the computer screen and one only has to touch the selection and the computer can pick it up. They are mostly used for billing, room, restaurant and other areas. It will then send the info to accounts, stores, kitchen etc. so that all information is shared instantly at the time of guest order. 2. PMS or Property Management Systems - These systems are made up of several different modules of system software put together. Each module looks after one particular aspect of the management of a hotel property. The number and scale of each module would depend much on the size and level of service of the individual hotel or property. Typical examples of modules are; 1. property management, 2. sales and catering, 3. quality management, 4. accounting 5. room management 6. Function space sales, etc. 3. CRM or Customer Relationship Management Systems - The Customer Relationship Management systems are designed to track all relationships with guests to improve guest service and marketing. All guest visits are tracked with information on guest details, personal preferences, likes dislikes etc. So each time a guest comes to the hotel, the staff has a way of finding out the basic information and the likes and dislikes of each guest. This can be used to build a close


relationship with guests as well as to anticipate the guest needs and wants in advance.

Self Study 2.1 Think about a time when you, yourself, expected a service, it may have been at a shop, a bank or a restaurant. Think of anytime that you were recognized personally. It may have been in the local shop, or the hair saloon or any other [place that you are known. How did it make you feel? Compare that to a time that you were not recognized. Please write a paragraph about what made you feel a certain way to be recognized as against not been recognized. 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Study the section on Front Office Department Organization. Try to list the duties of the Bell desk Concierge. Draw an outline of a Key and Mail Rack for a 50 roomed hotel.. Draw a Reception board outline for a 20 roomed hotel. What information would be found on a room slip of an occupied room? What is a Customer Relationship Management program. What are its advantages? Can you think of two specific situations where it will be useful?



Contents Introduction 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 Types of Rooms Room Numbering Room Status Front Office Forms Meal Plans Types of Breakfasts

Self Study



To be able to describe a product effectively to a, would be guest or to his/her agent, full product knowledge is required. Also to promote the product on offer, or to compare it with ones competitors products and to determine strengths and weaknesses one should have a very good knowledge of the product. The strengths can be stressed when selling to a potential guest. This can be done in two ways, Product analyzing and Product sampling. By considering all factors that make up the product, product analyzing can be achieved. The using of an analysis checklist is of great value. Comparison with the competitors product is a must. Product sampling can be achieved best by actually experiencing what you are going to sell. However in the hotel situations, this can be difficult. You should at least have a complete detailed tour round the hotel premises.


Types of Hotel Rooms

Before we discuss the room reservation systems, its important to learn a little bit about the products we sell, or the products that are reserved by guests, through the front office. There are various different types of rooms on offer by different hotels. Some of the common rooms, as described by common terms are as follows;

Single A room occupied by one person, with a bed of the size of approximately 36x 76.


Double A room occupied by two persons, with a bed of the size of approximately 54x76, or two single joined together. Triple A room occupied by three persons, with either a double bed and a single or 3 single beds.

Twin Bedded A room occupied by two persons, with two single or double beds. 2 beds placed separately with a console desk between the two. Quad A room occupied by four people. May have two or more beds. Queen A room with a Queen size bed. May be occupied by one or more people. Size of the bed 60x 80. King A room with a King size bed. May be occupied by one or more people. Size of the bed 78-80


Double Double A room with two double beds usually arranged similar to a twin room. May be occupied by two or more people. Duplex A room with two levels of floor.

Invalid (Handicap) A room that is specially designed and fitted to suit the needs of physically handicapped persons. Interconnecting Room / Family Room Rooms that has connecting doors within. These can be locked from either side or sold to different parties as well. Chalet room Cottage type room until separated from the main building. It is a very popular concept in resort hotels. Cabana room


Cottage type room unit separated from the main building, sometimes, elevated from the ground level by stilts. Studio A room with divan type bed (sofa bed), which can be converted into a bed or sofa. May also have an additional bed. Bed sitting room/mini-suite or junior Suite A room with a separate sleeping area (bed room), and a separate sitting area (living room).

Suite Large, luxurious rooms with separate living, sleeping, dining and cooking areas. There are many varieties of these, 1. Single suite 2. Double suite 3. Duplex suite 4. Businessmens (executive) 5. Presidential 6. Penthouse 3.2 Hotel Room Numbering

All over the world, hotel rooms are usually numbered according to the floor number. In many hotels, the guest rooms are located from the first floor and above for the purposes


of privacy and security. The ground floor usually comprises of other facilities such as food & beverage outlets, shops & offices lobbies, front desk etc. The rooms on the first floor are numbered starting from 101 or 1001. The rooms on the second floor are numbered starting from 201 or 2001, and so on. In many hotels, the number 13 is avoided, as it is considered to be an unlucky number by superstitious people, in the West. However in a single storied hotel, the room number does not have any relation to the floors as there is only the ground floor. Series could be denoting the wing in which they are located, e.g. South wing rooms are starting from 101 North wing from 201 etc.


Status of rooms Vacant Room Vacant room is a room that has no defect and can be rented out. Vacant room also can be called a ready room or vacant ready room. Or OK room. Arrival Room This is a ready room, which has a definite booking. In this room you find drinking water, flower arrangement, fruit basket and bed side light on if it is an evening, (A.C. is on in addition to a vacant room) Also known as allocated room. Occupied Room This is a room, which has been occupied by a guest for one or more days. Housekeeping department has to service these rooms daily.


Departure Room This is a room from which the guest has checked out. It usually is in an untidy state. It is the responsibility of the housekeeping department to clean these rooms and make it ready for sale. Departure rooms are also known as check out rooms and vacant dirty. Out of Order Room (O.O.O) These rooms cannot be sold due to various defects Ex: A.C. not working, toilet cistern is not working, damp carper etc. It is the duty of the housekeeping department to inform the maintenance department to get them repaired as soon as possible. Day Let Room These rooms are usually sold for people who come to stay during the daytime. The duration may be couple of hours. In certain hotels these rooms are sold at a very low rate with limited facilities. In some hotels these rooms are given on complimentary basis where the guests buy more than a certain number of tickets. The number of people who occupy these rooms is not restricted. Held off Room This term is used for a room which cannot be sold for a couple of hours for reasons such as interviews being held in it, or used by artists for changing purposes, tailor working, or being used by hotel executives for inquiries, small meetings etc. This is usually given on a complimentary basis. Sleep Out Room


This is an occupied room where the guest has gone out of the room for few days, most probably on a tour. These rooms are kept double locked for security reasons and chambermaids carry out no routine cleaning. Normally no reduction is made on accommodation charges. Due Out Room This is an occupied room and the guest is expected to depart during the course of the day.


Front Office Systems

The technology used for front office record keeping and equipment has evolved and can mostly be found in three stages. Properties may combine elements of each approach. Non automated front office record keeping systems rely solely on handwritten forms. Reservations confirmations, Pre registration, and occupancy forecasts are not common. Room assignments are made according to a room rack. The registration card often doubles as a room rack card and guest accounts folio. At departure, used registration cards are filed in a box, as the hotel guests history file. A semi-automated front office system uses both hand written and machine produced forms. Pre registration activities include preparation of registration cards, guest folios and information slips. During occupancy, cash registers and posting machines are used to process many of the records formerly processed by


hand. Desk agents are able to quickly reconcile accounts and relay room status updates to the housekeeping department. Fully automated front office systems are computer based. The computer system may directly interface with a central reservation network and automatically block rooms, confirm reservations, perform pre-registration activities, and generate reports. Registration, room and account data are stored electronically in the computer for retrieval when needed. On-line credit card authorization terminals allow timely credit card approval. Guest charges are electronically transferred to the front desk and automatically posted. The system automatically creates a guest history record.

3.5 Front office forms All properties must record certain information on the following forms (or their computer based equivalents) in order to operate efficiently. A reservation record, detailing a reservation, enables the hotel to personalize service and schedule staff and facilities. A letter (or fax or email) of confirmation verifies that reservation has been made and that its specifications are accurate. A reservations rack slip is used to monitor reservations. A registration card contains guest personal data, length of stay, and method of settlement. In most countries, the guests signature is required for the establishment of a legal relationship with the hotel. Printed statement relating to the storage of guest valuables may also be required.


A room rack slip contains guest personal data, room rate, expected departure date, and room number, and is placed in the room rack to indicate room status. A guest folio is used to record the charges incurred and credits acquired by a guest during occupancy. transferred to the folio. Information from the guest registration card is Printed folios may have several duplicate pages,

including one copy for the front office and one copy for the guest at check-out. Folio formats vary according to the front office record keeping system. A voucher is a support document used to document information about a transaction. During the night audit, vouchers help ensure that transactions have been processed correctly. Information rack slips, arranged alphabetically by guest name in the information rack, enable switchboard operators and guest services personnel to quickly determine the location of specific guests in the hotel. A guest history record contains information relevant to marketing, sales, and servicing the guests return. Law may require retention of certain data for some period of time. An information rack lists guests alphabetically to assist front office employees with proper routing of telephone calls, mail and visitor inquiries. A folio tray is used in none and semi automated properties to store guest folios. A fully automated front office may need a folio tray for temporary storage of folios printed for guests expected to depart. A voucher rack stores vouchers for future reference.



Meal Plans

Rooms are usually sold coupled with a meal/meal plan, if available. They can be termed as follows; RO BB Room Only Selling of the room occupancy only, without any meals. Bed and breakfast Room with addition of breakfast Room with breakfast and one main meal Either lunch or dinner Room with all three meals

Half Board Full Board

Usually the meals that are served as a part of a meal plan would be set meals.

3.7 TYPES OF BREAKFASTS There are three types of breakfasts served in most hotels, known as Continental Breakfast, English breakfast and in many Sri Lankan hotels in addition to these a Sri Lankan breakfast comprising of Sri Lankan breakfast items, is also generally served. Continental Breakfast This is rather a light breakfast, which consists of fresh fruits or fruit juices, hot croissants/brotchens or hot toast, butter, preserves and coffee or tea. Sometimes a slight variation occurs in certain countries such as Germany and Austria, where a soft boil egg is served with the breakfast. On the European continent it is a usual practice to salt-free butter with continental breakfast. English breakfast The English breakfast is a substantial meal, which consists of a number of courses, with a choice of dishes from within each course. The extent and variety


of an English breakfast menu will obviously depend on the type of establishment in which it is served. A full English breakfast menu may sometimes consist up to eight courses. However, today most hotels offer an English breakfast comprising of the following items,

Fresh fruits or juices such as orange, Pineapple, grapefruit, tomato, papaw, etc. Stewed Fruits - such as prunes, pears, Apples, etc. Cereals - such as porridge, Corn Flakes, etc. Fish - such as fried or grilled, Parawa, Mullet, Seer Egg - such as fried poached Tea, coffee, hot chocolate

Local Breakfast Local Breakfast may contain items such as String Hoppers, Hoppers, Milk Rice, Thosai, varieties of Pittu, with traditional accompaniments such as Katta Sambol, Seeni Sambol, Coconut Sambol, Kiri Hodi, Sambaar, etc. Table dhote menus can be offered for breakfast, lunch and dinner. It is also known as Set Menu in many hotels. Usually the guests, who are on full board, half board, or Bed and Breakfast, are offered meals on a Table dhote menu.

Self Study


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5

Read the section on types of rooms in a hotel. Can you name five room types and their main features? Re read the section and check your answers. How are rooms numbered in a hotel? Contemplate on how it makes things convenient for staff and guests to have a uniform system of room numbering. Why is it important to know the status of a room? Try to list four common terms used in describing room status and what they mean. List the types of meal plans commonly offered in a hotel. List the items served in a continental breakfast.



Introduction 4.1 Guest Cycle 4.2 Reservations Procedure 4.3 Reservation Forms and Charts Self Study

Introduction When we look at the reservation process, it is important to note the bigger picture of guest interactions with a hotel that is called the guest cycle.


The guest cycle

Front office functions can be separated into a guest cycle of four stages: pre-arrival, arrival, occupancy and departure. Pre-arrival - The traveler chooses a hotel to patronize and request a reservation. If the request can be accepted, the reservation agent creates a reservation record. The hotel may confirm the reservation to verify the request and the guests personal information. Some hotels perform pre registration activities on the basis of reservation information.


Arrival Front desk agent determine the arriving guests reservation status. A registration record is created and (if not already done in pre registration) the front desk agent assigns a room and rate to the guest, considering each rooms characteristic and status. The guest is issued a key and occupancy begins. Occupancy - Especially during occupancy, the front office represents the hotel to the guests responses to requests should be timely and accurate. Good guest relations depend on clear, constructive communications. Another front office concern during occupancy (and throughout the guest cycle) is security. Occupancy also produces a variety of transactions affecting guest and financial accounts. The night audit reviews and verifies the accuracy and completeness of front office accounting records. Departure - At check-out, the guest receives a statement of accounts, settles the account, returns the room keys, and departs from the hotel. The room status is updated and the housekeeping department is advised. A guest history file may be created to allow the hotel to better understand the guest and provide a base for strategic marketing. Once the guest has checked-out, the front office can analyze data related to the guests stay to review operations, isolate problem areas, indicate where corrective action may be needed and point out trends.

4.2 Reservations Procedure

Since a majority of hotel guests reserve their room reservations it serves an important front office function. Efficient procedures allow reservations agents more time for attention to detail and greater opportunity to market the hotels services. Processing reservations involves matching room requests with room availability; recording, confirming and maintaining reservations; and producing management reports.


There are two types of reservations. A guaranteed reservation assures the guest that a room will be held until check-out time of the day following the day of arrival. The guest guarantees, payment for the room, even if it is not used, unless the reservation is properly cancelled. A non-guaranteed reservation assures the guest that a room will be held until a stated reservation cancellation hour on the day of arrival. The property is not guaranteed payment and may release the room for other use if the guest does not arrive by the cancellation hour. Three common sources of reservation transactions are central reservation systems, reselling agencies, and direct reservations. Most international chain hotels or lodging properties belong to one or more central reservation systems. An affiliate reservation network is a hotel chains reservation system, while a non affiliate reservation network links independent properties. A re-selling agency handles reservations for several travel and tourism business. In addition to these two sources, hotels usually handle over 40% of their reservation transaction directly. Travelers often contact the hotel directly by telephone, mail, email, property to property links, internet and other methods. A close check on reservations should be kept to avoid accepting reservation that outnumber available rooms. Avoiding over booking makes good sense in several ways. Most importantly, hotels may be subject to lawsuits when they fail to furnish agreed upon accommodation. Reservations can be made for individuals, groups, tours or conventions. Group reservations typically involve intermediary agents and require special care. A close working relationship with a groups meeting planner is crucial to a successful convention or conference. problems. To determine the availability of accommodations, reservation inquiry data are compared to previously processed reservations. Occasionally, a reservation request must be denied because the hotel is fully booked, and interested guests may be put on a waiting list. Good communication and a spirit of cooperation can prevent many


Guests with guaranteed reservations must be aware of the nature of the guarantee agreement. Also room rates quoted and confirmed during the reservation process should be honored. A reservation confirmation allows the hotel to verify a guests room request and personal information. As part of confirmation, central reservation systems and individual properties may assign a reservation confirmation number. Similarly, hotels may issue a cancellation number of guests who properly cancel a reservation. Such numbers protect both the guest and the hotel in the case of a misunderstanding. Even when care is taken during the reservations process, a change or cancellation may sometimes be necessary. Someone who takes the time to cancel a reservation is doing the hotel a service. Cancellation informs the hotel that a previously reserved room has become available to others, and helps the front office update its planning. process the modification or cancellation. An effective reservation system helps maximize room sales through the production of a variety of reports. Expected arrival and departure lists are prepared daily. Reservations histories include statistics on all aspects of the reservations process. The Process - The ability of the front office to plan, coordinate staff and organize activities can be enhanced by an effective reservation process. Types of Reservations - A guaranteed reservation is an assurance that the hotel will hold a room for the guest until check-out time of the day following the day of arrival. The guest guarantees payment for the room, even if it is not used, unless the reservation is cancelled in accordance with the hotels cancellation procedure. Guarantee methods include pre payment, credit card, advance deposit, travel agent, and corporate contract. The reservation agent must be able to quickly access the correct record, verify its contents and


A non- guaranteed reservation - is an assurance that the hotel will hold a room for the guest until the reservation cancellation hour. hotel is free to release the room for other use. A no-show is a guest who makes a reservation but does not use or cancel it. A close check on reservation is necessary to avoid overbooking (accepting reservations that outnumber available rooms). Avoiding overbooking helps maintain good customer relations and encourage repeat business. Also hotels may be subject to lawsuits when they fail to furnish agreed upon accommodation. Hotels must monitor room availability using a reservation control book, wall chart, computerized system or some other control device. A reservation control book is usually a binder with a tally page for each day of the year. On each page, the hotels rooms are divided into categories and numbered. When a reservation is received, a mark is made over the highest unmarked number for the requested room category on the expected arrival date. A reservations wall chart displays hotel rooms vertically and days of the month horizontally. The chart can keep track of availability based on the guests date of arrival, length of stay, and type of room. The reservation clerk assigns a specific room by taping over the line that represents the room. A computerized reservation system can tightly control room availability data ad automatically generate many reports. Computers can be programmed to display open, closed and special event dates for an extended period. They can store reservations for the distant future and automatically create waiting lists. The property is not guaranteed payment. If the guest does not arrive by the cancellation hour, the


Reservations Inquiry and Availability Reservations can be made for individuals, groups, tours or conventions. A reservation inquiry collects the date of arrival, date of departure type and number of rooms requested, room rate code and number of persons in the party/group. The reservation clerk enters these data into a reservation form or computer terminal according to clearly defined procedures. Inquiry data are compared to previously processed reservations to determine the availability of accommodations. Processing a reservation request results in acceptance of the reservation as requested, suggestions of alternative room types and/or rates, or suggestions of alternative hotel properties. If a reservation request must be denied because the hotel is fully booked but there is enough lead time before the proposed date of arrival, interested guests may be put on a waiting list. The Reservations Record After a reservation request has been matched with room availability data, the reservations agent creates a reservation record. Reservation record identify guests and anticipated occupancy needs before arrival at the property; enable the hotel to personalize guest service and appropriately schedule needed staff; and can be instrumental in generating several important management reports. The clerk collects and enters such guest data as guest name (and group name); home address: telephone number; company information, if caller is not the guest; number of people in the party; expected time of arrival; reservation type; special requirement; and additional information as needed. A reservation confirmation number may be assigned as a unique reference to the reservation record.


Reservation clerks will need to obtain additional information for guaranteed reservations. Guests making guaranteed reservations must be aware that failure to cancel before a specified time could lead to forfeiture of the deposit of charge against guarantee. A room rate quoted and confirmed during reservation process should be honored. Reservations agents should also be aware of supplementary charges, minimum stay requirements and special promotions, applicable currency exchange rates, and applicable room tax percentages. Reservation Confirmation Confirmation allows the hotel to verify a guests room request and personal information by telephoning or mailing a letter of confirmation. Confirmed reservation may be either guaranteed or non-guaranteed. An oral or written confirmation may constitute a contract binding the hotel to provide accommodation. As part of confirmation, central reservation systems and individual properties may assign a reservation confirmation number. This number assures the guest that a reservation record exists and can provide a reference if modification or cancellation is needed. Similarly, hotels may issue a cancellation number to guests properly cancellation was received. Reservation systems typically device unique methods of generating cancellation and confirmation numbers. Both cancellation and confirmation numbers should be recorded in a log.

Reservation Maintenance Guests often make non guaranteed reservations because they expect to arrive before the reservation cancellation hour. They may decide to guarantee their reservations when it becomes apparent that their arrival will get delayed. Reservations clerks must obtain all


information necessary to guarantee the reservation (guests credit card type, number, and expiration date), issue a new confirmation number, and complete the modification. Reservation cancellation Reservation cancellation informs the hotel that a previously reserved room has become available to others, and helps the front office update its planning. The reservation agent should obtain the guests name, address, number of reserved rooms, and arrival and departure dates. The caller may be asked whether he or she would like to make an alternative reservation. Cancellation of guaranteed reservation typically involves assigning a cancellation number. Most credit card companies will support no show billings only if the hotel properly issues cancellation numbers. Policies related to the cancellation of advance deposit reservations vary greatly among hotels. A corporate account or travel agency guaranteed reservation may be cancelled by someone other than the traveler; this persons name should be noted on the reservation record. Reservation Reports An effective reservation system helps maximize room sales by monitoring room availabilities and forecasting room revenue. Common management reports include a reservation transactions report (summarizing daily reservation activity), a commission agent report (tracking commission), a turn-away report (tracking the number of guests refused accommodations) and a revenue forecast report. Expected arrival and departure lists indicate the guests expected to arrive and depart as well as the number of stay-over guest. In a non automated system expected arrival data are developed daily from a control book, wall chart or reservation rack. Computers can also perform pre registration activities. In a computerized system a list of expected arrivals may be displayed or printed on demand.


Reservation histories

include statistics on all aspects of the reservation s process,

including the number of guests, occupied rooms, reservation (by source) no shows, walk links, overstays and under-stays. The hotels sales and marketing division can use these data to identify new trends, review product mixes, and assess the impact of marketing strategies.

Group Reservation A groups representative usually deals with the hotels sales division. A number of rooms are set aside for the group, and reservations from group members are applied against the rooms in the block. The hotel should know the groups profile and reservation history, and should review hotel policies with the convention planner. Regular reports and timely confirmation and correction of errors are also important. Convention rooms requirements at several hotels may be coordinated by a separate convention agency. Typically groups have had their accommodation, transportation, and related travel activities arranged for them. Hotels should be especially careful to research the reliability and past performance of tour operators and travel agents. Potential reservation problems Some steps of the reservation processes are more susceptible to error than others. To help prevent errors in the reservation record, reservations clerks should read back to the caller information obtained during a telephone call. To minimize misunderstanding due to industry jargon reservation agents should make every effort to understand what the guest needs and to explain what various terms mean at their particular property. To avoid miscommunication with external reservation systems reservation agents should give the guests the name and address of the property and a thorough description of its location.


Finally, to help prevent central reservation system failures, reservation agents must be aware of the need for accurate and timely communication. Since a majority of hotel guests reserve their rooms, reservations serve an important front office function. Efficient procedures allow reservations agents more time for attention to detail and greater opportunity to market the hotels services. Processing reservations involves matching room requests with room availability; recording, confirming and maintaining reservations; and producing management reports.

Common Reservation Queries The most common guest queries, during reservations, Is there a view? How noisy/quiet/close to the pool/ next to each other, are the rooms? Do you have rooms that are connecting /next to the elevator/near the exercise room? Does the room have a shower, a bath or a combination? What about children? Are there special rates? Can you arrange for a baby sitter? Do you have playroom?

4.3 Reservation Forms The acceptance of a reservation, whether over the phone or based on other form of communications, is facilitated through the Reservations Form. This can be a printed, as found in many smaller properties, or even internet based as found in many large and international properties.


Advantages of a reservation form: The form standardizes details of each reservation and therefore, facilitates quick reference. It assists in securing all the necessary information when a reservation is been accepted over the phone or personally. It functions as a data entry form, if someone other than the person accepting reservation feeds reservation data into a computer. It satisfies a requirement of a good reservations system.

Reservation Form Name.. Home Address Tel : email: Date of Arrival . Date of Departure Type of Room.Meal Plan Special Requests: Airport Pickup Late Arrival Meal Requests Reservation accepted by .Date

Accepting a Reservation Obtain the following information to be put on the reservation form: Name - clarify exact spelling Address - full mailing address


Arrival date - verify the local time & date Of arrival, (with the time difference of reservation originating country) Departure date - if uncertain, put down an approximate date Times of arrival - very helpful to anticipate high and low period of activity In Front Office and Housekeeping Means of transport useful in determining the Status of suspected no-shows, (E.g. flight number) Rate and plan - (e.g. half board, full board) Reservation status - advance payment, guaranteed payment, Late arrival, Part of a group booking Special request - sea view, wheel chair, baby Cot etc.


Reservation Charts

Introduction Reservation charts fulfill the essential requirement of having an indication of all reservations received in advance for any day, week or month, which would enable the receptionists to find out the number of rooms already sold and those remaining free to be sold. 'There are two types of charts, Conventional and Density, which are used in many hotels. Besides these, there are many other types of reservation charts are not as commonly used as above. Bookings diary The requirement of a good system to provide a record of advance reservations arranged by date of arrival, is met by the bookings diary.


Main characteristics One or more pages are used for each day, with the date prominently displayed at the top of the page. The pages are usually contained in binder (similar to a box file), from which past days pages are continually removed so that the current page is always first. New pages ate inserted at the end, usually for six months ahead. When each reservation is made, it is entered in the diary on the page devoted to the date of arrival. The amount of detail entered against each name varies from one hotel to another. The number of columns and details mentioned in the diary may be reduced, or increased to suit the requirements of a particular hotel.

The Conventional Chart Date > Room No 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 Basic Characteristics The chart displays the hotel room numbers vertically and days of the month horizontally. Normally a separate, sheet is used for each calendar month. Entries are made at the same time as entries made in the booking diary. Allocation of rooms also takes places at the time of entry. Chance arrivals are also entered in the chart. Any extension or reduction of stay is also marked accordingly. 62 Jan 1 Jan 2 Jan 3 Jan 4 Jan 5 Jan 6 Jan 7 Jan 8 Jan 9 Jan 10

Advantage of the Conventional Chart Each and every reservation can be identified, and an error can be traced on to.

Disadvantages of the Conventional Chart Difficult to figure out number of rooms available, at a glance. One or two nights stay is too short a period to clearly indicate on the chart, in instances where long names are found. Allocations, re-allocations, cancellations and amendments make the chart look untidy. Operation of the chart becomes difficult as occupancy increases

Density Chart Date > Double Rooms 1 2 3 4 5 Suites 1 2 Basic Characteristics The main feature of this chart is that the number of rooms available for a particular day is indicated by a scale. Individual reservations are not identified in the chart. Different categories of rooms are together. 63 Jan 1 Jan 2 Jan 3 Jan 4 Jan 5 Jan 6 Jan 7 Jan 8 Jan 9 Jan 10

The number of rooms available for each category is written in descending order vertically. The no. of days of the month is written horizontally. At any given time the scale indicates the number of rooms available for sale on a day for each category. This is referred to by looking at the scale along the most available space of the required category.

Entries are made by pencil. Entries in this chart are made by filling in the top most available space first under the relevant date. Cancellations are effected by erasing the bottom most space filled on the appropriate date~ under the relevant room category. Chance arrivals are recorded in the same manner as the extensions or reductions of stay. Thumb tacks are being used sometimes to indicate the date of bookings instead of markings on the claret

Advantages of the Density Chart Able to figure out number of available rooms at a glance. No. of re-alIocations are less.

Disadvantage of the Density Chart Individual reservations cannot be identified and therefore if a clerical error takes place it's virtually impossible to trace. Computerized Reservation Systems A computer reservations system, or CRS, is a computerized system used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to travel. Originally designed and operated by airlines, they were later extended to travel agents as a sales channel; major


CRS operations are also known as Global Distribution Systems (GDS). Airlines have divested most of their direct control of dedicated Global Distribution System companies, and many systems are now accessible to consumers through Internet gateways for hotel, rental cars, and other services as well as airline tickets. There are currently four major GDS systems: * Amadeus * Galileo * Sabre * Worldspan In addition, there are several smaller or regional GDSs, including SITA's Sahara, Infini (Japan), Axess (Japan), Tapas (Korea), Fantasia (South Pacific), and Abacus (Asia/Pacific) that serve interests or specific regions or countries.

Over-Booking Over booking occurs when bookings are accepted in excess of the number of rooms available. The purpose of over booking is to ensure 100% occupancy by compensating for non-arrivals, last minute cancellations and early departures, none of which can be foreseen. As a result of over booking the receptionists may have to relocate guests to another hotel with similar facilities.

Points to be remembered when relocating:

Anticipate early in the day how much the hotel is overbooked. Reserve a block of rooms in a hotel in the same area if possible for over-bookings.


Book only one night stays initially, which will minimize guest dissatisfaction. Over booked guest should be sent to hotels which are at least of the same standard and paid for by the hotel to take the guest to the new hotel. Transport should be arranged and paid for by the hotel to take the guests to the new hotel. The telephonist should be informed of the new location of the guest, in order that messages can be transferred. A letter of apology written to the guest by the Manager may help to offset loss of goodwill. Arrangements may be made by the hotel for a bowl of fruits or flowers to be placed in the bedroom in the new hotel with the compliments of the Manager.

Group Bookings A group booking takes place, when a group of people traveling together, books accommodation in a hotel. The unique feature in a group booking is that they generally require the same arrangements. Therefore hotel operation is simpler when, the clientele is mostly group guests. Groups are of different types. Charter groups which bring in clients on a regular basis (back to back) the groups that are not regular (G.I.T.) and convention groups.

Travel Agencies They are the main resource of advance reservations. Hotels have special discounted rates, for airlines and travel agencies. The discount allowed to travel agents, is referred to as the travel agents commission, which is usually 10% of room charges.


Travel Agencies use specially designed vouchers to inform hotels of the reservation details. These may sometimes be in duplicate, where the original is used as the hotel copy and the duplicate is known as the confirmation copy. The confirmation copy is signed and stamped by the hotel and returned to the travel agent as confirmation. Travel agencies also issue vouchers, which are in triplicate with Reservation copy, Bill copy and confirmation copy. Reservation copy is for the reservation file and the bill copy is for the payment (to be submitted along with the guest folio). Confirmation copy is signed and stamped and returned to the Travel agent, as in the previous situation for confirmation. It is important to pay attention to the details given in the voucher and record particulars in the relevant records. If there is a commitment for payment, the voucher should be entered in a register and handled in responsible manner.

Confirming Reservations Confirmation allows the hotel to verify a guests room request and personal information by telephoning, or by mailing a letter of confirmation. i.e.(standard letter/ card or a computer printout, or individually typed letter, or a photo copy of reservation form, or a telex or a fax). Ask for signed reconfirmation from the guest. In all correspondence TAKE CARE. Correspondence Accuracy Reduces Errors. A reservation confirmation number may be given for easy reference and to assure the guest that a reservation record exists. In todays net work environment, immediate confirmation is possible by the person requesting confirmation submitting his/her credit or debit card number on line to guarantee the booking. By using written application protocol (w@p) this could be done even by means of a cellular telephone. In Sri Lanka several hotel companies use this method.









a reservation

number to facilitate reference. It is an essential feature of such a system because there are no receipts or documents as reference or proof. Refusing (Denying) Never give any other reason than sold out. Do Not stop There! Because the sales opportunity is still there.

Suggest alternate dates, types of rooms and rates Suggest a waiting list Suggest trying to find a room in a neighboring hotel (which at least leaves a very good impression of your helpfulness)

Cancellations Even when care is taken during the reservation the process, sometimes changes or cancellations in a reservation record are necessary. Reservation clerks should adhere to hotel policies when receiving cancellations. A prospective guest who cancels a reservation in a way does a favour to the hotel as the room could then be released. In a network (WAN) environment the reservation confirmation number has to be requested to amend or cancel a reservation. No show A no show means failure of a guest who holds a confirmed reservation, to arrive on the due date.

Result of No shows

The room is held in vain, could have been sold (e.g. Walk-in guest)


Loss of revenue

Measures taken by hotels to protect themselves from No-Shows

(release time) impose time limits on to which a reservation will be held. Guaranteed bookings Ask advance payment deposit (over-booking) take more bookings than available rooms.

Air Line Reservations Can be divided into four categories: air line crew, off loaded passengers (during flight delays, cancellations etc.), stopover passengers, and transit passengers, who stay for a few hours or a day to get a connecting flight. Of these, flight crew reservations are similar to back to back Charter group operations. Airlines too use vouchers similar to travel agents vouchers.

Self Study 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 What are the four main points in a guest cycle? Name three commonly used reservation monitoring methods Name two advantages in using a reservation form. What are reservation chart? Compare the density chart and the conventional chart. Look at the advantages and disadvantages in the two charts. How would cancellations and no-shows affect hotel front office operations?




Contents Introduction 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 Arrival of Guests Communication Handling of Room Keys Front Office Security Functions Safe Deposit Room Change and Room Rate Upgrade Procedures

Self Study

Introduction There are various processes that the front office staff has to follow from the time a guest arrives until he or she leaves the hotel. In this unit you will learn all these processes.

5.1 Arrival of Guests Guest Registration From a front desk agents perspective, the registration process can be divided into five steps; pre-registration activity, creation of a registration record, 70

room and rate assignment, establishment of method of payment and Issuing the room key.

Pre registration activity is possible when necessary guest information is obtained during the reservation process. The guest who has been pre registered often needs only to verify the information already entered into a registration card by front office personnel. Pre arrival room and rate assignment, creation of guest folio and other functions may also be part of pre registration activity. registration also provides the opportunity for innovative registration options. A registration record is a collection of important guest information. Guest registration information is essential to other hotel areas and functions. For guests who have made reservations the registration record may confirm information collected during the reservation process. Registration cards of their computer equivalent also ask for information about the guests intended method of payment for the room rate and other charges. In addition the guest should be asked to reconfirm his or her date of departure. Non automated hotel front offices typically use a registration card. In most countries, a signature is a legal pre requisite to establishing a guest relationship with the hotel. In automated operations, signature may still be a legal requirement, but the computers information record serves as the main registration record. The registration card also includes information about the guests intended method of payment and re-confirmation of the data of departure. Some registration cards include a printed statement about the hotels responsibility for the storage of guest valuables, as required by laws. Pre

Room assignment is the identification and allocation to a guest of an available room in a specific room category. The assignment is finalized as part of the


registration process. This process requires that each front desk agent be aware of each rooms current occupancy status, furnishing, location, and amenities in order to best satisfy the guests request. Future reservation commitments may also need to be considered during room assignment so that rooms previously committed for use in the near future are not miss- assigned. The room rack or its computer equivalent should contain specific data about each room, such as its type, cost and other pertinent information. Keeping house keeping information status up to date requires close coordination and cooperation between the front desk and the housekeeping department. Since guest or groups may specify certain room locations as part of their reservation requests, front desk agents should be familiar with the hotel floor plan. Also important is awareness of the near future availability of rooms based on reservations blocks. If rooms are not properly blocked on the reservations control device, or if a block is overlooked, rooming conflicts may result and guest relations may suffer.

The registration process plays an essential role in front office accounting by establishing a method of payment. Regardless of whether the guest will use cash, a check, a credit card, or an alternative method of payment, the hotel should take precautionary measures to ensure eventual payment. A proper credit check at the outset greatly reduces the potential for subsequent settlement problems. Each individual property should establish its own policies for accepting checks and credit cards.



The issuance of a room key completes the registration process. In some hotels, a newly registered guest is simply handed a map of the hotel and a key. If the property provides bell service and the guest asks the assistance of a bell person, the bell person might explain the special features of the room and the hotel. One of the most effective marketing tools available to a hotel is the up selling of guest rooms by the front office staff. Every hotel can use non-pressure up selling tools to increasing sales revenues. In general a hotel is obligated to accommodate those persons who arrive as guests. Legitimate reasons for refusing to accommodate a guest may include for example, lack of available rooms, drunk or disorderly behavior or unwillingness to pay for hotel services. A lack of accommodation because of shortage of available rooms happens most frequently to walk-in guests. The hotel should set policies that inform the front office staff how to handle the occasions when the property cannot accommodate a guest.



Definition of communications is Transfer or transmission of information. This process can take place in several ways. They are oral, written, non-verbal and visual. Working in a guest contact zone such as reception, means a lot of the receptionists time will be spent communicating with guests, colleagues in their own department and other departments and with other people from out side the hotel. Understanding the importance of effective communications process and developing good communication skills will go a long way to help you carry out your job effectively and enjoyably as well. Methods of communication


Communicating can be carried out using several alternative methods. These can be mainly divided to verbal Non-verbal

Verbal communication can be used by telephone, radio, public address system or by direct speech. Non-verbal communications are mainly by gestures, body language, signals and written. Written communications are by letters, memorandums (memos), circulars, notices, pre printed forms and computers. Although voice inputs to computers are possible, it has not developed, as commonplace in hotel Property Management System solutions, as yet. Paying attention to guests The first requirement of effective communication is paying attention to guests. If no definite attention is paid guests would be heard but not listened to and also be seen and not looked at. This is like a radio or a TV that is switched on but not turned well to a particular station. Such communication is ineffective and unclear. A smile, a grin or at least a nod (if the receptionist is extremely busy with other guests) is the simplest way to pay attention to guests. Displaying courtesy Courtesy is very much an important part of hospitality. The meaning of courtesy is Polite behavior good manners(source: Oxford Dictionary). It is a quality that has to be cultivated among yourselves, as many of us in todays environment are not up to the accepted standard of courtesy, in hotels. Try a wide smile for a start!


Greeting There should be a standard mode of greeting in a hotel. It can be either a local greeting or an international greeting as decided by the hotel. What is of utmost importance is that it should be practiced at all times, indiscriminately. Gestures Gestures are signs that are made by us to convey a message. A movement of a part of the body, especially the hand or head, intended to suggest a certain meaning (Source: Oxford Dictionary). Gestures can be either used unaccompanied with words or accompanied with words. Most have a tendency to gesture with our hands, while we talk in our day to day life. There is nothing wrong in using gestures, provided we use it moderately, and appropriately. We should not be over reliant on gestures that would result in poor communications.

Guest service, guest relation and security are ongoing front office functions. All rally in part of clear communications. Within the front office, employees communicate with guests and visitors. Effective front office communication may involve the use of information books, log books, and mail and telephone procedures. Other department and division also rely on the front office to provide information, in order to satisfy guest requests, coordinate guest services, and collect guest receivables. Housekeeping and maintenance require the greatest exchange of information with the front office. likely to be. The more familiar front office personnel are with other departments procedures (and vice versa), the smoother the relationship between the departments is


Receptionists should also be aware of their marketing and public relations functions and their potential influence on the performance of the hotels revenue centers. Although guest room sales are a major contributor to a hotels profitability, a hotel may support a variety of additional revenue centers from food and beverage outlets and gift shops to telephone service. Responding to guest requests is critical to guest satisfaction. When a request falls outside the responsibility of front office personnel, they should communicate it to the appropriate person or department. At a growing number of hotels a concierge or other designated staff member is responsible for satisfying guest requests. answering guest questions. Guests may make special requests during the reservation process, at registration, or during their stays. The Receptionist should relay the request to the appropriate hotel department for processing. When other departments are closed or otherwise inaccessible, front desk agents should have an alternative method of satisfying requests. The high visibility of front office means front desk agents are frequently the first to learn of guest complaints. They should be attentive to guests with complaints and seek satisfactory resolution. They should also realize the guests who find no opportunity to tell the hotel of their complaints often tell their friends, relatives, and business associated instead. Log Books and Mail and Telephone procedures The front office log book is a journal in which notes of unusual events, guest complaints or requests and other information are recorded for reference during subsequent shifts. Mail for a registered guest is usually held in the appropriate slot in a mail and message rack at the front desk. The guest should be notified of its arrival as soon as possible. If mail arrives for a guest who has not registered, a notation should be made on the guests Some properties establish an information book at the front desk for employees to use in


reservation and the mail held for the guests arrival. Front office policy should also provide for mail requiring a signature upon delivery. Employees answering telephone calls should be courteous and helpful. Guest

information available to callers may be restricted. Front office personnel should time stamp telephone messages and facsimile and place them in the guests mail and message rack slot. If guestroom telephones are equipped with a message indicator light, the in room message light may be switched on. Wake-up calls require special attention. While computer systems can place calls automatically, many hotels still choose to offer personalized wake up calls for their guests. Interdepartmental Communications Guest services involve the coordination of activities between the front office and the hotels other functional areas. To ensure efficient rooming of guests, the housekeeping and front office departments must inform each other of changes in a rooms status. Maintenance problems such as poor heating or cooling faulty plumbing, noisy equipment, or broken furniture, may be recorded in the front desk log book and /or on work order forms. Hotels may include revenue centers in addition to the rooms division. Although a The

directory of hotel services is often placed in each guestroom, front desk agents must also be familiar with these services to respond knowledgeably to guest inquiries. effort. Front office personnel play an important role in personalizing hotel services. Inter departmental communications are done by media such as, direct speech, telephone, bells, or buzzers, notices, pre printed forms, memoranda, circulars and computers depending on the occasion and the basic ground of the hotel (such as computerized or non computerized environment). participation of the front office is crucial to a hotels marketing and public relations


Advantages of using verbal or sound related media is that the speed of communication is fast, and that there is a chance of immediate feed back, the disadvantage being that there is no record. The biggest advantage in using written communications is that there is a record at all times, whereas speed, clarity, immediate feedback cannot be achieved in this mode. The computers capture both advantages of the verbal and written modes but have disadvantages of their own, such as the high investment cost, most staff being computer illiterate etc. In certain situations the best method to adopt might be a combination of media such as verbal and written, e.g. - A guest complains to you about a maintenance problem in his room. You inform the Maintenance Department by telephone in front of the guest, and follow up with a written maintenance work order. Using the telephone Using the telephone is something that every front office staff member should master in order to be efficient in ones day-to-day work. It is based on two everyday qualities, common sense and courtesy. The telephone should be treated as a living being and not as a piece of equipment as there is a human being at the other end of the line to be communicated with. Do; Answer within three rings. Say Good Morning or Good Afternoon or Good Evening as applicable. Speak with a smile, it conveys interest and friendliness. Say How May I Help You? Concentrate on the caller and listen.


Offer to call back, if details will take time to find. Use a message pad to pass on information about the call, to others. Tell the callers name and business to the person to whom you are transferring the call and give the extension (number) and the name of the person to the caller before transferring.

Dont; Dont let the phone ring for ages before answering. Dont say Hello, Yes, Speak when picking up the receiver. Dont say, Can I help you. Dont hold two conversations at a time. Dont leave the phone unattended for any length of time. Dont use scraps of paper or memory for taking down messages. Dont say were all at Lunch, No- Ones here, Please ring back etc. Avoid smoking/chewing/yawning etc. while on the phone.

The message that is carried over to the other side besides its contents is conveyed through your positive attitude and tone as well. For example, if you speak in a genuine friendly tone, the other person will feel, and understand our friendliness. This makes a good guest relationship.

Answering the telephone Switchboard is your hotels invisible reception desk. Answer the telephone promptly Give greetings before hotel name. Sound friendly, speak slowly, clearly and be helpful. Be courteous- use magic words like please, sorry, thank you, have a nice day, wherever applicable.


Avoid irritation or tiredness in your tone of voice. Try to be CHEERFUL always. Answer intelligently If you have an accent, speak slowly and clearly be natural. Listen without interrupting - ascertain callers needs. Develop knowledge of who is responsible for what (product knowledge). Learn the extension list by heart as quickly as possible. If you are putting a caller on hold get back to him at least every 45 seconds or so. Maximum should be 90 seconds (in situation where you are busy) Be up-to-date on what is taking place in your hotel. Under pressure keep you cool. Dont take complaints or remarks as personal criticism.

Telephone Alphabet A Arthur H Harry B Bertie I Isaac C Charlie J Jack D David K King E Edward L Lionel F Francis M Mary G George Originating telephone calls T Tony S Sarah Z Zero R Robert Y York Q Queen X X-Mass P Peter W William O Oliver V Victor N Nancy U Uncle


Be sure of the number you wish to call before dialing. If you are not sure, please refer to your telephone directory or contact Directory Enquiries. Listen for the dial tone before dialing. It is a continuous burr or hum. Commence dialing immediately on hearing this tone. Do not tap the telephone cradle while dialing as you can get a wrong number, or get disconnected. For telephone with rotary dial, do not accelerate or disturb the return motion of the dial deliberately as it may result in a wrong connection. For push button telephones, depress each button gently, one of the following tones will be heard. Tones heard after dialing: After dialing a distant number, one of the following tones wills be heard. Ringing tone: If the lines is free a ringing tone will be heard after a pause. It is a burr, burr. burr, burr if the called subscriber does not answer, the call will be automatically disconnected after a fixed duration. Busy tone: If the number you dialed is in use a busy tone will be heard. It is a beep..beep..beep(interrupted) at regular intervals. Try again, few minutes later. Number unobtainable tone: After dialing a number, if you hear a continuous beep the telephone line may have been disconnected temporarily, terminated or the number changed. In the case of electronic exchanges, recorded announcements will declare the condition of the line. Call directory inquiries. No tone: If after lifting the handset no dial tone is heard, replace the handset and try again. If no tone is heard after a few attempts, report your line as faulty.


Progress tone: A series of pips are heard after dialing, indicates that the Exchange is trying to establish a connection. At the end, you will hear a ringing tone or a busy tone. Always ensure the handset is securely placed on the cradle when your telephones are not in use.

Types of Guest Service Requests The front desk is responsible for coordinating guest services. These services include handling requests for information, equipment and supplies, and special procedures. When a request falls outside the responsibility of front office personnel, it should be communicated to the appropriate person or department. member may be designated to satisfy guest requests. Answering guest questions may require access to rather obscure information. A front office information book may include simplified maps of the areas, taxi and airline company telephone numbers, bank, theatres church and store locations, and special event schedules. Guests may request special equipment and supplies during the reservation process, at registration, or during occupancy. When other departments (such as housekeeping) are closed or otherwise inaccessible, front desk agents should have an alternative method of satisfying requests. Guests may also request exceptions to standard front office producers. Procedural A concierge or other staff

requests may require more time and effort to fulfill, than equipment and supplies requests. Guest account folio requests, if attended to conscientiously, can be easily fulfilled. Other requests may be handled by a concierge.


Complaints and Guest Relations Receptionists are usually the first to learn of guest complaints. They should be attentive to guests with complaints and seek a satisfactory solution to the problem. When it is easy for guests to express their opinions, both the hotel and the guest benefit. The hotel is given the opportunity to increase guest satisfaction, and the guests feel that the hotel cares about their needs. Complaints can be divided into four categories of problems. Mechanical complaints are related to hotel equipment mal functions, attitudinal complaints may be lodged by guests who feel they have been insulted, who have overheard arguing among staff members complain to them. Service related complaints may concern long waits, a lack of assistance, errors, quality problems, or ignored requests. Unusual complaints often involved other circumstances over which the hotel has little or no control, such as poor weather. Hotel management may gain insight into common problems by examining the number and type of complaints received. Front office staff members may be better able to handle frequent complaints courteously and effectively. A review of the front desk log book will enable management to identify recurring complaints. evaluating guest comment cards or questionnaire. In many hotels receptionists are instructed to refer complaints to supervisors or managers. Although there are some general guidelines, learning to deal effectively with complaints requires experience. Front office staff members can practice by thinking about how they might resolve some of the hotels most common complaints. Role playing can also be an effective method in learning to deal with complaints. 5.3 HANDLING OF ROOM KEYS Another approach involves


Introduction The responsibility for issuing and controlling room keys always lies with the Front Office staff. In some hotels the Bell counter or enquiry desk may have this responsibility and in others the receptionist may be responsible. Regardless of who carries out this task there is a need to implement some control system to ensure that the keys are issued to authorized persons only. Key Control and Locking System Most hotels use at least three levels of guestroom key security. An emergency key opens all guestrooms, even when they are double locked (that is locked with both a standard door lock and a device operable only from within the guestroom). Emergency key should be highly protected, and should never be taken from the hotel property. A master key opens all guest rooms that are not double locked. It should be issued to authorized personnel only, and should be secured when not in use. A guestroom key opens a single guestroom if it is not double locked. To ensure that keys are returned, some properties require a key deposit from each guest at registration. Hotel keys should not be taken from the property by employees, regardless of their responsibilities or position on staff. Whenever there is any known or suspected compromise of a key, an unauthorized entry by key, or any loss or theft, every lock affected should be changed or rotated to another part of the property.


In modern hotels an electronic locking system may replace traditional mechanical locks with sophisticated computer based guestroom access devices. Centralized electronic locking systems operate through a master control console at the front desk which is wired to every guestroom door. Micro fitted electronic locking systems operate as individual units. Most electronic locking systems provide several distinct levels of security (corresponding to the key levels mechanical locks) as well as guest safety and convenience features. Many keep track of which key or cards opened which doors, by date and time. Key Systems Most hotels operate either a traditional key system or the electronic key system which is now widely available. The two most common key systems in operation are: (a) Manual keys The Standard manual key system in operation comprises of Master keys Which open all doors and are held by a few senior members of the staff, e.g. Duty Manager and the Housekeeper. Room Keys There are two sets of keys for every room; first set is allocated to the Guest and the second is kept on a duplicate key board which is kept secured and is usually located in the back office or Front Office Managers office, to use in case if a guest lost his room key.

(b) Electronic key cards


This takes the form of plastic key card that have a unique lock combination which is changed with the arrival of each new guest. It creates a secure room without the trouble of replacing lost conventional keys. This system functions through a computer terminal at the front desk. The terminal selects a code, which will permit entry and produces a card for the guests use. Once a new code is entered for a room all previous codes are cancelled and cards issued to previous guests no longer function. The electronic key is placed in a slot type lock on the door to the guests room; when it is correctly placed into the lock, the door will unlock Advantages of the Card Key. It is virtually fool-proof. Claims for theft and losses of valuable from rooms become almost negligible. There is no necessity to replace lost keys or locks. No number is shown on the card. Therefore if found by a would be a thief it is useless for him. More than one card can be issued for a particular room, which is useful for families/joiners/twin room. Guest need not return keys when leaving the hotel saving the receptionists time. Mode of advertising. Integration into property management system (PMS).

Disadvantages Initial cost of installing the system is very high.


Need regular maintenance in adverse weather condition. Room number is not given on the card key. Since card key is light in weight, it can be easily misplaced.

Operational procedure of Room Keys. In many hotels keys and mail are stored on racks located at the Reception Counter. The rack consists of Pigeon holes large enough to hold regular size mail, with a key hook above. Each pigeon hole is clearly indicated by the room number. Keys are issued from here on requests and keys which are not in use remain on the appropriate hooks. Issuing Keys to individuals Room keys are issued to guests on completion of registration process. The room key may be issued to the guest personally or to the member of staff accompanying the guest to the room, e.g. bell boy. At all other times, keys should only be issued to guest on presentation of identification, e.g. the key card.

Issuing keys to groups. For group arrivals and check-in, keys may be organised in advance and distributed to guests in individual envelops.


Key Card Some hotels give a key card to their guests when they are checked in. This is either a card or a small booklet which has the guests name, room number and room rate on it. The Room Key Card is filled and handed over to guests soon after filling the registration card. The information to be filled in the key card is ascertained from the registration card, for the guest to find his way back to the hotel, since it contains a map, for the guest to know his meal plan and room rate, for the guest to identify himself when using credit facilities, for security purposes when handing over the room keys, for the purpose of advertising the hotel facilities.

Controlling Room Keys For the security of both the guest and the establishment the issuing of room keys must be very strictly controlled. The theft, loss or unauthorized duplication of keys could have serious implications. In such cases, immediate supervisors should be informed at once. You can implement a simple system of key control: Guest should be encouraged to hand in keys, if they leave the hotel and recollect them on their arrival. Keys should be always placed on the correct hook. A regular inventory of keys should be carried out and missing or damaged keys reported. The Master key when not in used should be kept under the custody of security personnel. Identification should be sought and verified if necessary prior to issuing a key to a guest.


Unauthorized staff should not have access to room keys. Keys should be retrieved from guests at the time of check out with the help of bell staff.

Prevent the misuse of guest room keys Periodically key inventory including the duplicate keys should be carried out especially during the night shifts with the help of auditors to prevent misuse of room keys.


Front office Security Functions

Providing security in a hotel is the broad task of protecting people - guests, employees, and others and assets. Each hotels security program should reflect its own particular needs. The responsibility for developing and maintaining a propertys security program lies with its management. Front desk agents, door attendants, bell persons, and parking attendants have the opportunity to continuously observe whoever arrives at and departs from the premises. Suspicious activities or circumstances involving a guest or visitor can be reported to the hotels security functions or a designated staff member. Front desk agents should never give keys, messages or mail to anyone asking for them without first seeing appropriate identification. Guest may be further protected if the hotel has a policy that prohibits staff members from providing guest information to callers or visitors. Front office employees may also inform guests of precautions they themselves may take. property. The front office may develop methods for protecting guests personal


Surveillance and Access Control A hotel, although open to public, is private property. An innkeeper has the responsibility to monitor and, when appropriate, to control activities of persons on the premises. In the lobby the Receptionist should be able to observe the propertys entrances, elevators, and stairways. Some properties limit access to the lobby and reception area during late night hours, and the decision to admit someone is assigned to the Receptionist. such as closed circuit television. While surveillance typically relies on personnel, it may potentially be enhanced by equipment

Protection of Funds The protection of funds is primarily the responsibility of the accounting division. However, the front desk cashiering plays an important contributing role in protecting certain financial assets. Under a cash float system, at the start of each work shift each cashier is given a small amount of cash that will allow him or her to transact business normally. The cashier becomes responsible for this cash float and for all cash added to it during the work shift. All transactions should be recorded immediately. The cashier should lock the cash register drawer after each transaction. Policy should be established for the placement of currency/change during transaction.

Safe Deposit Employees with safe deposit responsibilities should be trained in proper procedures, and should be aware of the reasons for every rule. Safe deposit boxes should be located in an area to which there is limited access, such as the front desk back of house area.


Strict control should apply to the storage, issue and receipt of safe deposit box keys and locks. A control key should be required to open any safe deposit box. The control key should always be secured. Each safe deposit box should have only one guest key, even when more than one guest is using the same box. The identity of the guest must be established before access is granted. No one should be granted access to the box unless that persons signature appears on the initial agreement. Only guest should place items into or remove items from a box, and the attendant should never be alone with a guests valuables. Space limitations often make it impossible to provide a separate safe deposit box for each guest. If guest choose to share a box each guests property must be sealed in a separate container and the guest key maintained in a secure place. The hotels actions if a guest fails to surrender a box upon check out are governed by law. Under no circumstances should access to a safe deposit box be allowed based solely on telephone or telegram authorization.

Lost and Found While the lost and found may be assigned any of several departments, most guest contact the front office to find their belongings. Clear procedures should be developed to deal with lost and found inquiries. The lost and found employee should request and record a description of the item, estimates of where and when it was lost, and the guests name and address. When a hotel employee discovers a mislaid article, he or she should immediately bring it to the attention of the lost and fond personnel. Some properties require the completion of a form describing the item and stating where it was found, the date, and the employees name. Under no circumstances should an article be mailed to the address on a registration card without the guests explicit permission.


Emergency Procedures It is the responsibility of the management to develop procedures for responding to emergencies and crimes. The front desk may serve as the emergency command center, summoning on-premises security staff and/or the local police as determined by management. A means of communication among employees with emergency duties may also be required. Many hotels keep lists obtained from local association of physicians, dentists, and medical facilities to allow guests freedom of choice in case of a medical emergency; these lists may be held at the front desk. A property may also develop procedures for advertising callers of guests illness, hospitalization or death. Cashiers confronted by armed robbers should try to respond as reasonably as possible under the circumstances. They should comply with a robbers demand, and should not do anything to jeopardize their lives or the lives of others. The cashier and other employees should observe the robber carefully and refrain from touching any evidence. Following the incident the property should notify the police. The front office is often assigned the responsibility of monitoring fire alarms and alert alarm systems. Written plans must be formulated for possible fire emergencies, including escape procedures and routes, procedures to account for all employees, rescue and first aid duties, and other information.


5.5 Safe Deposit

Introduction It is important that each hotel provides the facility for the safe keeping of guests valuables. There should also be a procedure in place for handling guest valuables left for safe custody and this should be undertaken by responsible and authorized persons. Where there are front office cashiers, it is they who handle deposits for safe custody. In some hotels however the responsibility is undertaken by the receptionist. The method of


safekeeping or the procedure may vary in different hotels, so you should always check the house policy before accepting goods, but fairly common system exists in many hotels. Informing guests about safe deposits It is an obligation on the part of a hotel, to inform guests of safe deposits facilities available in the hotel. Many hotels post notices regarding the facility in guest room. Some hotels have prominent notices posted on the back of the room door. Others may have this information provided in a Directory of Services usually kept in guest rooms. At the time of check-in too, a receptionist may verbally inform guests of the facility. Hotels usually do not take responsibility for valuables lost in rooms that are not deposited with the hotels safe keeping, since this facility is given free of charge as a service.

The procedure of accepting deposits for safe keeping The method of securing guests valuables depends upon the type of safe provided. If the hotels has safe deposit boxes similar to those used in banks, the guest places his valuables in a box signs a register of a card and takes the key as a receipt. The guest retrieves the goods by signing the register again (to allow for a comparison of signatures) and presenting the receipt (key). When ever the need arises for the guest to open the safe at any time, he has to sign-in card. Receptionist or the cashier must record time and the date accordingly in the card.

The number safe deposit box is recorded on the safe deposit register and some times on the folio. The receptionists are then able to remind departing guests about their boxes and the notice also alerts the cashier to deposit the refund if a key deposit was required when the box was issued. A lost key requires a locksmith. Not only does the guest pay the locksmiths charges, but he must also satisfy the management that the box and its contents are his and in good order by signing the card.


Sets of these boxes are normally kept behind the reception or the back office. Usually every room should have a safe keeping box. But in practice hotels know how many safe deposit boxes will be in use even at full occupancy and caters only to the necessities of operations. In Room safe locker system This is a relatively a new development where each hotel room is equipped with a small individual safe for the sole use of the guest during his stay in that room. These safes have combination locks so the guest can use a personal code which only he knows to open the safe when ever he requires until such time he leaves the hotel. The combination can be changed as often as the guest wants. Likewise the next guest who occupies this same room can have his own combination number. By any chance if this room safe locker could not be opened by the occupant due to the fact that the guest forgets the combination number or when the guest checks out keeping the safe locked, authorized person (e.g. Front Office manager) has a combination number which can override the existing number to open the locker for the use of the next guest.


This type of safe locker system has added advantages for the guest since he does not require signing any register or card. Also, guest does not require to keep a deposit for the locker key or to pay a locksmiths charges if he looses the key and unable to open the safe box. Further more the combination lockers are more secured.


Room Change and Room Rate Upgrade Procedure

Room changes takes place mostly due to guest dissatisfaction and maintenance problems. When a guest requests a receptionist for a room change, the receptionists should try to find out the cause if it is a factor that can be resolved. The guest must be given the assurance that the problem can be solved and therefore coaxed to remain in the same room. Promises given to guests in this regard should be kept and the receptionist should follow up action to ensure guest satisfaction.


However if it is a problem that cannot be sorted out, a room change must be offered, if rooms are available. The guest must be shown a room or number of rooms that he/she could move (as in the case may be) this would enable the guest to make his own choice which in turn would minimize further guest dissatisfaction. Once the guest has decided on the room change, it is done by first getting a room change notification circulated and then sending a bellman, with the new room key to meet the guest in his room. Instruction to bell men are with the issue of an Errand card authorizing them to transfer luggage from the previous room to the new room .The bellman has to inform the housekeeping staff as well. Moving from the room should be done in the presence of a floor supervisor or an authorized person of the Housekeeping Department. Care must be taken by bellmen not to misplace or damage guest possessions. Moving of guest possessions are done in the presence of the guests, unless instructions to do otherwise has been received from the guest. The bellman moves the possessions (baggage) to the new room while accompanying the guest too and hands over the key personally to the guest, and has to collect the previous room key from the guest and return it to the key and mail rack.


Upgrading Reception Records, Room Status and Guests Documents Immediately after a room change has taken place, the following Front office records should be amended, accordingly. This would avoid confusion and increase efficiency in service to guests. 1) Guest Folio 2) Registration form 3) Reception board 4) Alphabetical index 5) In house guest list/house list /rooming list , 6) Guest history cards/records 7) Arrivals & departures book 8) Reservation charts (optional ) 9) Safe deposit form


The following documents handed over to guests also needs to be altered, 1) Room key card 2) Meal/drink vouchers 3) Temporary club membership cards


Time stamp Dist: Rate change FOC/ALM/DS/file 100 receptionist

Room change FOC/ALM/ laundry file


Room Change and Room /Rate Upgrade Procedure Completing And Distributing Room Change Forms Room changes take place in a hotel operation due to reasons such as when guest room is out of order or when guest desire a better room etc. Before a room change take place the receptionist should check the availability of that room and its status. The room change notification from is written out with the necessary amount of copies and circulated to the relevant departments. Those effecting the room change physically should be handed over the key and instructed to do the room change. Room change should be done in the presences of a floor supervisor or a responsible person of the housekeeping department .care must be taken by them not to misplace or damage guest possessions. Once the possessions are moved and the guest is satisfied the new room key should be personally handed over to the guest the old room key should be obtained without fail and handed over to the front desk. Updating room records /Bills/Alphabetical index Immediately after a room change it is necessary to alter the relevant records. This will avoid confusion and increase efficiency. The room statues record is altered by showing the old room as a vacant /not ready one and the new room as an occupied one.


The reception board slip of the old room is removed from the slot and inserted in the slot for the new room after crossing out the old room number and inserting the new room number on the relevant slip.

Room Changes: reasons for room change requests & hotel policy In any type of hotel, room changes do take place for various reasons. Large hotels tend to have a higher number of room changes and frequently lay down strict procedures on how they are to be dealt with. Occasionally it is necessary to move guests from one room to another. Room changes could happen because of several reasons:a) Room fault A guest may request a room change because of some defect in a fittings, e.g. air conditioner out of order. b) Room reserved sometimes guest do extend there stay, but the particular room may have been allocated to some other guest on that particular day. Therefore, this situation calls for a change of room by the hotel. c) Guest preference guest also may prefer to change rooms for reasons like extra facilities, to be close to friends, and also for reasons like the present room being too close to discotheque and too disturbing at night. d) Joiners room changes may also have to be done when extra parsons join, e.g. man in a single room would have to move over to a double room if joined by his wife part way through his stay. Policies regarding room changes differ from hotel to hotel. The following factors affects hotel policies:-


i. ii. iii. iv.

Inconvenience to other guests. Inconvenience to hotel. Rate of room. goodwill

Apart from an out-of-order room where the hotel is liable to make some sort of arrangement, other room changes are made if circumstances permit but when room changes do occur it is the responsibility of the reception staff to ensure that alterations have been made to all appropriate records and also all departments concerned are informed of it . Room changes are done if and when possible by the receptionist on duty but it is best to inform the head receptionist or front office manager when it happens, so that they are aware of it .

Self Study 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 What are the five steps in the registration process of a guest? What uses can be made of the Registration Record? Explain the uses and advantage of having a front office log book. What are the advantages and disadvantages of verbal and non verbal communications in a front office environment? Why is it important to have a positive attitude when speaking over the phone? Try to think of three reasons for this. What is a three level, key control system? Name three records that needs to be updated in case of a room change



Front Office Operations IV Front Office Statistics

Contents Introduction 6.1 Occupancy Statistics 6.2 Front Office Accounting 6.3 Maintaining day Sheets 6.4 Manual billing Procedure Self Study



The Front office has to provide a variety of facts and figures, dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation and presentation of masses of numerical data. The statistics which are most commonly required from the reception unit by management are those relating to the sales and occupancy of sleeping accommodation. The main reason for compiling statistics in business is to enable management to be aware of facts and performances of their business in order to take decisions, such as Increase or decrease hotel rates, introduce new packages, offer special rates to travel agents, implement marketing strategies, to improve facilities etc. 6.1 Occupancy Statistics

The first and simplest statistics to be kept are those of the number of guests staying at the hotel each night. These figures may be used as a rough guide of the activity of the hotel. It enables us to examine past patterns and also make comparisons.

Bed Occupancy

This is a percentage of the number guest staying in a Hotel for a particular night which could be calculated from the number of beds occupied. This figure, known variously as the bed occupancy, sleeper occupancy or guest occupancy, is calculated as follows: Bed Occupancy = Number of beds sold * 100 Total bed capacity When calculating bed occupancy, twin beds or double beds count is taken as two. However if they are sold for the price of single bed (when no other singles being available), they are included as a single sleeper place in the number of sleeper places sold. In theory this percentage cannot exceed 100, although in practice occasions arise when 100 per cent is exceeded (a person may be


accommodated in an extra bed or elsewhere, or a bed may be sold and occupied more than once in twenty-four hours).

Room Occupancy

The number of occupied bedrooms on a particular night or over a period, is used as an indication of usage rather than the number of beds. This figure expressed as a percentage of the total number of bed rooms sold is known as the room occupancy and is calculated as follows: Room occupancy Percentage = Number of bed Rooms sold X 100 Total bedrooms available for sale Room occupancy could be calculated weekly, monthly or annually, and in whichever way the calculation, the same formula could be used with the appropriate number of days as follows: Total No. of bed rooms sold Room Occupancy % = (for particular number of days) (for particular number of day) In this calculation a particular period (week, month or year) should be considered. * 100 Total No. off Rooms available for sale

Double Occupancy


Double occupancy is a calculation of double rooms which has been sold out from the actual double rooms available. When this figure is expressed percentage wise, the following formula could be used: Double Room Occupancy % = No. of Double Rooms Sold Total Double Rooms available * 100

Occupancy Graphics

Hotel use graphic forms (fig 6.1) to present monthly and yearly occupancy very often. When occupancy statistics are prepared, the occupancy graphs have to be updated by showing the current increases or decreases. These occupancy graphs make it possible to get knowledge of occupancy variations and performance during the given period of time (weekly, monthly or yearly), at a glance. It also helps to make comparisons of occupancy statistics with previous months or years.


100 80 60 40 20 0 JAN MAR MAY JUL SEP NOV 45 35 30 88 96 76 55 57 60 48 45 72 ROOM OCC %



10% 12% 15%

6% 7%


8% 8% 8% 4% 5% 6%



Fig 6.1

Accommodation Income

The Accommodation income which is frequently required is the total income from letting of rooms on a daily, weekly, or monthly basis. This could be calculated by multiplying the number of each type of room let by the appropriate room rate. The turnover from rooms is often reported to management as another indication of the level of business. Highest room income could be achieved if all categories of rooms are sold out for Hotel tariff rate (without any discount) for that particular day. Average Room Rate (ARR)


Where hotels have a range of room prices, there will normally be a tendency for the lower priced rooms to be more popular. Therefore when the occupancy is low it is likely that the average room rate will also be low as a higher proportion of the lower priced rooms will be occupied. If the double rooms are let for single occupation there will be fall in the particular room rate. To workout the average room rate formula could be used as; A.R.R. = Total Room Income Total number of Rooms sold

Information required by the Tourist Board

Accommodation Statistics Monthly report obtained by the Tourist Board from the registered accommodation establishments. Therefore Hotels have to provide following information to Ceylon tourist Board at the end of each and every month under the given form; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Name of the Establishment/Hotel Address Telephone, Fax numbers, E-mail address Month and year Rooms available for sale


a. Number of single Rooms b. Number of Double Rooms c. Number of other Rooms E.g. Suite Rooms d. Total count of Rooms 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Room rates for Single, Double and other Room charges (Room only Total number of rooms occupied by all Guests Total Guest nights Total foreign Guest nights Total local Guest nights. and package rates).


Front Office Accounting

The Night Audit Since Hotels operate twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week, the front office must regularly review and verify the accuracy and completeness of guest and casual guest accounting records. A front office audit process is intended to fulfill this need. The audit is a daily review of guest account transactions recorded at the front desk against the revenue center transactions. This routine helps guarantee the accuracy, reliability, and thoroughness of front office accounting. A successful audit will result in balanced in house and out side guest accounts, accurate account statements, appropriate account credit monitoring, and timely reports to management. An effective audit also increases the correct account settlement.


The front office audit is usually called the Night Audit because hotels generally perform it during the late evening hours. The most convenient time to perform the audit was during the late evening and early morning hours when front office auditors could work with minimal interruption. Functions of the Night Audit The main purpose of the night audit is to verify the accuracy and completeness of guest and casual guest accounts against revenue center transaction reports. Specifically, the night audit is concerned with the following functions: Verifying posted entries to guest and casual guest accounts. Balancing all front office accounts Resolving room status and rate discrepancies Monitoring guest credit limits Producing operational and managerial reports.

6.3 Maintaining Day Sheet Day sheet is a summary of all the guest folios (guest bills) accounts for that particular day. The day sheet (Fig 6.2) should be prepared daily soon after updating all the guest folio accounts and after the transferring of all the guest folio transactions individually to the day sheet. Day sheet consist of columns and rows, and the left side corner column is allocated for headings, which are the same as in the guest folio and each column represent a guest folio account on the same date. Right side corner column is allocated to enter all totals under each and every heading e.g. Room, Food and beverages revenues etc. According to the number of folios used for the day, day sheets may require one or more. After preparing the day sheet (Fig6.3) horizontally and vertically totals should be added in order to check the accuracy and, if there are any discrepancies, individual column totals should be checked. All departmental


totals should be compared with departmental summaries (only credit sales concerned).

Departmental summaries Departmental summaries e.g. Beverages, Restaurant, are prepared by respective revenue outlets in order to have a proper accounting system. In each revenue department, bills (cash and credit) raised during the course of the day should be transferred in to a summary in numerical sequence at the end of the day. Summary totals should be vertically and horizontally added, in order to check for any adding mistakes. Further if any discrepancies occurred, bills should be individually checked against their totals. Checking the summaries in numerical sequence enables to find if there is any bill missed or omitted. These departmental summary


Fig. 6.2





Fig. 6.3


(Filled) 104 3000 00 205 3000 00

DATE 24-04-2005 102 3000 00 214 4000 00 302 3000 00 204 4000



500 1200 1200 1290 410 175 5475 00 00 00 00 200 6100

00 00 00

800 1000

00 00


00 2500 1200 00 00

700 1300 1500

00 00 00

00 00 100 4900 00 00 350 6650 00 00 6700 00 200 7700

00 00











670 500

00 00 00

770 500




1500 100 00

00 100

4000 1002 11024

00 25 75

681 7491 5000 12491

00 00 00 00

539 5929 7200 7129

00 00 00 00

881 9696

50 50

797 8768 1000 9767

00 00 00 00

897 9867 3500 13367

00 00 00

11024 3000

75 00




DEPOSIT LESS COMMISSION LESS DISCOUNT LESS CASH PAID LESS CREDIT CARD PAYMENT BALANCE DUE NO.OF PAX BILL NO: AME/ AGENT 8024 02 11002 Mr/s. Smith 75 12491 02 11008 Mr/s. Galax 00 13129 02 11000 Ms.Andrea 00



9150 03 11003 Mr.Alex


9767 02 10995 Mrs.jack


13367 03 11006 Miss.Kent



& Pty

totals should be compared with the day sheet, under the relevant departments. If the totals are mismatched they will be detected at this stage. By using the Kalamazoo system of billing there is a possibility of updating the day sheet at the same time posting the charges to the guest folios. This is done by arranging all guest folios in order on the day sheet, which makes it easy to copy each and every entry to the day sheet as they are entered in the guest folios. This saves time and also avoids transcription errors. 1. Error of omission: An error of omission will occur when a voucher has gone astray or is not posted for any reason. This will be revealed when the balances in the day sheet are checked against the balances on the bills at the end of the day.

2. Error of commission: An error of commission entails posting a wrong amount (which could be any form of debit, including a brought-forward figure, or any form of credit), or posting the right amount to the wrong visitors account or under the wrong analysis heading. It may even be a combination of these errors. 3. Compensating errors: The day sheet may also balance containing an arithmetical error when another error or errors of the same amount has been made in a compensating manner. For example, one guests account in the day sheet may have been totaled Rs.100.00 too much and another Rs.100.00 less. The total of outstanding bills will be correct. The comparison with the individual bill totals is a useful check here and will reveal the error. However, a similar mistake in the totaling of the analysis columns could well pass unnoticed, as there is no independent check at this stage. Daily Revenue Report The Daily Revenue Report (fig.6.4) is most often prepared by the Night Auditor or the cashier. However, in small hotels this may be prepared by the night Receptionist. The purpose of this report is to have a daily record of the income generated to the hotel from various activities. Management decisions are taken based on the revenue reports prepared monthly for which information is extracted from the daily revenue report. XYZ HOTEL (PVT) LTD DAILY REVENUE REPORT COMPLIMENTRY ROOM NAME OF PERSON ROOM NO: REMARKS

Prepared By

Checked By Fig.6.4

Approved By


Manual Billing

Introduction Guests bill (folio) is a record of financial transaction between a guest and the Hotel. Guest bills are opened during the arrival stage and typically closed during the departure stage. Guest bill (fig 6.5) is opened by the receptionist by simply recording the Guests name, Room no., date of arrival, date of departure, terms and the Guest Signature on it. The necessary information is obtained from the registration card. Vouchers (bills) are documents used to transmit transaction information from the sources of transaction to the XYZ HOTEL (PVT) LTD.
P.O Box 120 124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484 ROOM NO

Bill No: 041684


Name________________________________________________________ Address______________________________________________________ BASIS : RO-BB-HB-FB-AI BASIS - RO/BB/HB/FB Arrival Departure No. of Pax





Fig. 6.5

front office. A common use of vouchers is to notify the front office of guest charge purchases at the hotels revenue outlets generally most of the vouchers are received from the Food and Beverage department. Usually a guest bill (folio) consists of seven columns concerning maximum length of guest stay and each column represents all the charges of a guest or a group for that particular day. Procedure of generating Restaurant and Bar bills. Prior to opening a Restaurant or Bar bill you should raise a Kitchen Order Ticket (KOT) and Bar Order Ticket (BOT) respectively. Kitchen Order Ticket (KOT) XYZ Hotel (Pvt) Ltd



DATE: TIME: CHAIR NO: The KOT (fig.6.6) system is also known as the Triplicate checking system. This comes in book form and has of three three identical copies Fig 6.6


different colours and is serial numbered for control purposes. In the operation of the triplicate check system, the food is issued from the kitchen only when the top copy of the KOT is given to the Aboyeur(barker) and 2nd copy goes to the cashier for billing purposes and third copy remains in the book for reference purposes. It is the duty of the night auditor to check all three copies in order to satisfy that money has been received for food that has been issued.

Bar Order Ticket (BOT) The same procedure is adopted at the Bar where the waiter has to raise a BOT in order to collect beverages from the Bar. Here the barman collects the BOT and issues the beverages (fig 6.7) and the second copy goes to the cashier and third copy remains in the book for reference. The night auditor checks all three copies to ensure the accuracy of the bills. XYZ Hotel (Pvt) Ltd In some cases the same Order Ticket Book is used both for Food & Beverages, and is called the Captains Order Ticket

Fig 6.7







Posting Charges The process of recording transactions from outlet bills to guest folio is called received posting. at the When bills are from reception

different revenue outlets e.g. Restaurant (Fig.6.8), Bar (Fig.6.9), Laundry (Fig 6.10), Telephone bill (Fig 6.11) etc. these should be sorted out department wise and room number order and amounts calculated and transferred to the particular guest folio under the relevant columns.

When processing vouchers they are arranged in room number order for posting. All vouchers belonging to the same category are totaled for each room number and the total is entered under the particular heading of the guest folio. Vouchers should be first checked to see whether the same guest signature appears for the same room number and also should be checked individually and collectively for mistakes in additions. The posting should be done only after the vouchers are checked properly. When maintaining guest bills of resident guests (fig. 6.12) it is necessary to maintain it as a running account. Before posting daily charges the bills of all running accounts e.g. bills passed on from the previous day, are updated by bringing forward the previous days balance. This means that the previous days total is brought forward and entered on the balance brought forward column of the current day. This is usually done late at night as the sales activities are at a minimum level. The entries made on the debit columns should be in respect of charges on the guest, while entries made on the credit columns should be deductions from the guests charges e.g. discounts, cash advances paid etc., the total credits are added at the end of the credit column.



124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484 BILL NO: 9564 ROOM NO: STEWARD NO: TABLE NO: K.O.T NO: CASH/ CREDIT Date





TOTAL SERVICE CHARGE 10% TAXES TOTAL BILL VAT NO: 0000012-7000 . Guest signature

Fig 6.8



124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484 BILL NO: 258 ROOM NO: STEWARD NO: TABLE NO: B.O.T NO: CASH/ CREDIT Date





TOTAL SERVICE CHARGE 10% TAXES TOTAL BILL VAT NO: 0000012-7000 . Guest signature Fig 6.9



124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484 BILL NO: 03564 ROOM NO: DESCRIPTION QTY RATE ROOM BOY: VALUE Date

TOTAL SERVICE CHARGE 10% TAXES TOTAL BILL VAT NO: 0000012-7000 . Guest signature Fig 6.10



124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484 BILL NO: 0023 ROOM NO: TELEPHONE NO: CASH/ CREDIT Date




TOTAL SERVICE CHARGE 10% TAXES TOTAL BILL VAT NO: 0000012-7000 GUEST SIGNATURE --------------------------Fig 6.11


ROOM NO R/C NO. Bill No: 041684 VOUCHER NO CHILDRENS ADULTS Arrival Departure 08-04-05 11-04-05 10-04-05 11-04-05 Basis : R0-BB-HB-FB (3Nts) 304 0224 5012 00 02 No. of Pax 02

124, Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484










1000 2300

00 00

1600 4200

00 00








5700 570

00 00

8300 830

00 00

10800 1080

00 00

1800 180

00 00


00 6000 00

TAX 10 % DAYS TOTAL AMOUNT B/F (Debit) (Credit)

627 6897

00 00

933 10263 1897

00 00 00

1188 13068 12160

00 00 00

798 8778 25228

00 00 00


6897 5000

00 00







4000 1897 00 30006

00 00


Process of Guest Folio Hotels allow in-house guests to sign the vouchers and to settle at the time of departure. These vouchers are called credit vouchers. When the cashier receives these from the different revenue departments they should follow the following procedure in order to process guest folio. 2. Arrange the bills/vouchers department wise e.g. put all room service bills together separating from other vouchers. 3. Sort out department bills room wise in terms of floors e.g.100 line 200 lines starting with 101, 201. 4. Put these bills in pigeonholes especially made for credit bills according to the room numbers. 5. When preparing guest folios take all bills/vouchers pertaining to one floor at a time e.g. 1st floor 100 lines and take out the guest folios from the guest pigeonholes pertaining to that particular floor. 6. Determine the room number and guest signature by comparing the bills/vouchers against the particular guest folio. 7. Check the totals of credit vouchers before posting to the guest folios. Posting guests miscellaneous or sundry charges (fig. 6.13) such as follows; 1. Health club

2. Barber shop 3. Beauty saloon 4. Pastry shop 5. Other banquet charges 6. Secretarial service charges 7. Postal charges 8. Laundry XYZ HOTEL (PVT) LTD. P.O Box 120 124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484 BILL NO: 0023 ROOM NO: NO. ITEMS OF CASH/ CREDIT Date SUNDRY SALES




TOTAL SERVICE CHARGE 10% TAXES TOTAL BILL VAT NO: 0000012-7000 . Guest signature Fig 6.13

Once all credit vouchers are posted to guest folio, calculate all credit vouchers individually and the total figure should tally with the guest folio. And the total credits are deducted from the total debits and the balance remains in the forward balance which means that is the net amount that will be carried forward for the next day, e.g. If the guest has paid an advanced deposit it is considered as a credit and should be entered in the credit column and should be deducted from the total debits and balance should carried forward to the next day or should be settled by the guest on that day. The charges to the travel agent in respect of facilities provided to a group will be presented on one guest bill irrespective of the number of rooms sold. The amounts charged depend on a prior agreement between the hotel and the travel agency. The charges are posted in a similar manner as for individuals. However, charges to be paid by the travel agency/company, should be checked with the given contract rates. When guest bills are prepared for a group this is referred to as a group bill. When group clients make use of facilities not paid by the travel agency they have to be charged to the respective guests personal accounts. These bills are referred to as extra bills as they are outside the normal group arrangements. Travel agent bills When hotels deal with travel agencies, hotels have to negotiate, for rates for season and off season periods. These contracts may have a validity period and after that the hotel can review the rates according to hotel standards. When guest bills are to be settled by travel agents, all bills should be prepared according to the given instructions e.g. meal plan, extra charges etc. Travel agents send vouchers (fig 6.14) by indicating all the billing instructions and the guest bill should be forwarded along with the copy of the travel agent voucher to the respective travel agency for settlement. Finalizing Guest bills for night departures As all guest accounts must be settled at the time of check-out the guest bills for night departures should be presented before the end of the day.

When the night departure is known, steps should be taken to check the bills of departing guests before the other bills. This prevents the guest being undercharge or overcharged. In both instances the hotel may be the loser; it will either lose the money or the customer. By finalizing the bills beforehand, lesser time will be consumed at the time of departure. When presenting bills for night departure, make sure to collect all the bills or credit vouchers from the outlets.
XYZ HOTEL (PVT) LTD. P.O Box 120 ROOM NO R/C NO. VOUCHER NO Bill No: 041684 CHILDRENS ADULTS Arrival Departure 204 0223 0012 00 02 No. of Pax 02

124, Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Telephone 081-65416548484 Name : MR/MRS. A.Paz


08-04-05 09-04-05 Basis : R0-BB-HB-FB













Discounts Hotels may have various discount schemes. Discounts are considered as credits, which have to be deducted from debits in order to get the balance due. Discounts may be granted only for rooms or beverages or food or may be for all charges. 1. Discount could be deducted prior to the calculation of sub total, then it will not affect the service charge or tax calculations, e.g. 1) If the room charge is given as (fig.6.15). BALANCE DUE 4356 00 Rs. 4000.00 and discount granted 10% on room then the calculations are as follows SUB TOTAL S/C 10% 3600 360 00 00 ROOM CHARGES 3600 00


396 4356

00 00

Fig 6.15


Discount could be deducted after adding the service charge and tax, then the

discount for the room has to be calculated for room, food, beverage or all charges and for that discount amount service charge and tax should be added and then deducted from the grand total, e.g. 2) method of calculation shown (fig. 6.16) & (Fig. 6.17) as for the same room charge and discount given in e.g. 1. In the both occasions after deducting the discount final amount to be settled will be the same.





4000 400

00 00


440 4840 484 4356

00 00 00 00 ROOM CHARGES REST BAR 3000 1000 2000

Fig- 6.17 00 00 00


6000 600

00 00


660 7260 726 6534

00 00 00 00

Net Rate

Net rate means that the rate consists of service charge and tax. It may be Room only or BB or HB or FB or All-inclusive rate. If the FB rate is given as a net rate and you need to get the gross amount (without service charge and tax) method of creating a formula is stated below. In order to derive a formula, always the unit price is considered as Rs 100.00, and service charge and tax percentages could be taken according to the given percentages. If the service charge is 10% and tax is 10% following formula could be worked out to get the gross rate from any given net rate. Unit price Add Service charge 10% Add Tax 10% Total = = = 100.00 10.00 110.00 11.00 121.00 121/100 1.21

Gross rate

Net Rate / 1.21

Any given net rate (according to the above given SC and Tax percentages) should be divided by 1.21 in order to get the gross rate (Net rate/1.21) Subsequently this method could be adopted to get the gross rate for any given net rate even if the service charge and tax percentages are varying.

Receiving settlement of guests bills

When receiving settlement of guest bills the amount of cash required if paid in foreign currency should be first changed to local currency. The normal procedure should be adopted as when handling foreign currency encashment. An official receipt with a stamp signed on it is issued for the cash received (Fig. 6.18).

XYZ HOTEL (PVT) LTD. P.O Box 120 124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Date Telephone 081-65416548484

NO: 32645

Received from. .... the sum of Rupees:.. Payments for ............................................. Cashier Signature.
Fig. 6.18

Making cash payments as required The only occasion when cash payments are made out to guests is when the guests request disbursements (a temporary loan paid out). A disbursement voucher is duly signed by the guest when ever such a payment is made. This amount is charged to the guest in the guest Folio. Another occasion cash payments are made on vouchers these may be petty cash vouchers.

Checking Cash Records A cash record originates from a cash transaction. Bills, vouchers, receipts and disbursements vouchers (Fig. 6.19) could be identified as cash records. It is important to check each and every entry made on cash record. The balance indicated on a cash record should represent the actual cash in hand or the net collection of the day. When checking the actual cash in hand is compared with the balance work-out by the cash record. The person handling cash is responsible for any discrepancy detected.

XYZ HOTEL (PVT) LTD. P.O Box 120 124,Srimath Kuda Rathwaththa Mawatha, Kandy. Sri Lanka Date Telephone 081-65416548484 PETTY CASH DISBURSEMENT


Pay toRs. Rupees:.. EXPLANATION Charge to I have received the above amount . Guest Signature. . Authorized by.

Approved by.

Fig. 6.19

Self Study

Explain the calculation of the following a. Bed Occupation percentage b. Room Occupancy percentage c. Average Income rate

2 3 4

Define a Guest Night. What is a Day Sheet? Go through the examples of the forms given carefully. Though you may not be asked to handle financial transactions as a trainee, it is important that an understanding of the paperwork is made.



Contents Introduction 7.1 7.2 7.3 Checking out and settlement Handing over at end of Shift Handling Complaints

Self Study

Introduction Check out and settlement are part of the final stage of the guest cycle. The services and activities of the departure stage are performed primarily by a member of the front office staff. Before the age of computers in hotels, the workload of the front desk staff in

medium and large hotels was great enough that registration and cashier positions were separate. A guest would be checked in by the front desk registration staff and checked out by the front desk cashiering staff. Cross-training of staffs was very rare. Only in smaller hotels did the same person do both jobs. Today, because of front desk automation, most hotels train their front desk personnel on both check-in and check-out procedures. This adds variety to the job, permits more flexible staffing schedules, and provides better service to the guest. Personnel from the front office accounting division may be involved as well. Before departing the hotel, the guest will generally stop at the front desk to review his or her folio, settle any outstanding account balance, receive a receipt of the account statement, and return the room key. This is an important step in the guest cycle as the last impressions may be the ones that guests carry with them out of the hotel. Though the guests may have had a pleasant stay all around, if the last stage was not pleasant, it may be the impression guests may have of the hotel. Many guests will forget all the previous courtesy and hard work of the front office staff if check-out and account settlement do not go smoothly.


Check-out and Settlement

Check-Out and Account Settlement The front office performs at least three important functions during the check-out and settlement process: It resolves outstanding guest account balances. It updates room status information. It creates guest history records.

Guest account settlement depends on an effective front office accounting system that maintains accurate guest folios, verifies and authorizes a method of settlement, and

resolves discrepancies in account balances. Generally, the front office finds it most effective to settle a guests account while the guest is still in the hotel. A guest can settle an account by paying cash, charging the balance to a credit card, deferring payment to an approved direct billing entity, or using a combination of payment methods. Most front offices require a guest to specify during registration an eventual method of settlement. This procedure enables the front office to verify or confirm the guests credit card or direct billing information before he or she arrives at the desk for check-out and account settlement. Pre-settlement verification activities help minimize the guests checkout time and may significantly improve the front offices ability to collect outstanding account balances. Guests may later change their minds and pay by another form of settlement. However, the pre-settlement verification activities ensure that the hotel will be paid for the accommodations and services it provided during the guests stay. Effective front office operations depend on accurate room status information. When a guest checks out and settles his or her account, the receptionist performs several important tasks. First, he changes the guestrooms status from occupied to on-change on the room status report. On-change is a housekeeping term that means that the guest has checked out of the hotel and that the room he or she occupied needs to be cleaned and readied for the next guest. After making the room status change, the front desk agent notifies the housekeeping department that the guest has departed. In hotels with manual or semi-automated systems, the front desk communicates information to the housekeeping department by telephone or through an electronic room status board or a tele-writer. In a fully automated front office, information may be relayed automatically to the housekeeping department when the front desk agent completes the check-out process. Once housekeeping receives the information, a housekeeper cleans and readies the room for inspection and resale. To maximize room sales, the front office must maintain the current occupancy and housekeeping status for all rooms and must exchange room status information with the housekeeping department quickly and accurately.

Check-out and settlement also involves the creation of the guest history record that will become part of the guest history file. Because a hotel can gain a valuable competitive edge in the hospitality marketplace through the proper analysis of guest history data, guest history files can provide a powerful data base for strategic marketing.

Departure Procedures

Check-out and account settlement can be an efficient process when the front office is well-prepared and organized. The departure stage of the guest cycle involves several procedures designed to simplify check-out and account settlement. These procedures include. Inquiring about additional recent charges Posting outstanding charges Verifying account information Presenting the guest folio Verifying the method of payment Processing the account payment Checking for mail, messages, and faxes Checking for safe deposit box or in-room safe keys Securing the room key Updating the rooms status

The procedures used will vary among front offices, depending upon the hotels level of service and degree of automation. The amount of personal contact between the guest and front desk staff may also vary, since some front offices offer automated or express checkout services.

Check-out affords the front office yet another chance to make a positive impression on the guest. A guest approaching the front desk should be greeted promptly and courteously. The receptionist should check for any messages, faxes, or mail awaiting guest pickup. The receptionist should also verify that the guest has cleared his or her safe deposit box or in-room safe and returned the key. To ensure that the guests folio is accurate and complete, the receptionist should process any outstanding charges that need posting. In addition, the receptionist should ask the guest if he or she incurred any recent charges and make the necessary postings to the guests folio. Before computers became common in hotels, guests used to call the front office before coming to the front desk to check out. This notice allowed the cashier to find any unposted charges and prepare the folio so the guests would not have to stand and wait while the charges were identified and posted. Since most hotels today are automated, guests expect their folios to be accurate and ready for them when they approach the front desk to checkout. No matter what degree of automation at a hotel, the guest may leave with a poor impression of the property if the bill is not up-to-date and accurate when he or she is ready to checkout. Traditionally, at check-out the guest is presented a final copy of his or her account folio for review and settlement. During this time, the receptionist should confirm how the guest intends to settle the account, regardless of which method of settlement the guest specified during the registration process. This request is necessary because many front offices require the guest to establish credit at check-in, regardless of how the guest eventually plans to settle the account. A guest may establish credit by presenting a credit card at check-in, and then decide to settle his or her account balance by cash or check. Guests noted as very important (VIPs) or special guests of a group or corporate account should not be asked for settlement if their account is marked that all charges are to be direct billed. After determining how the guest will pay, the front desk agent should then bring the guests account balance to zero. This is typically called zeroing out the account. A guests

account balance must be settled in full for an account to be considered zeroed out. As long as the hotel has received full payment or is assured full payment, the account will be settled with a zero balance. For example, if the guest pays cash, the account is brought to a zero balance. If the guest settles using a credit card, the hotel will get an approval from the credit card company for the amount due. The credit card company guarantees payment to the hotel for the amount approved, so the account can also be brought to zero. Hotels are usually paid by credit card companies within a day or two of the settlement transaction. Because of this guarantee, the hotel assumes payment in full and closes the folio. If the account is to be paid through direct billing by the hotel, however, the account is not brought to a zero balance because it must be transferred to the city ledger and billed through the accounts receivable system.

Procedure of Conveying Luggage, Observing Check-Out, Times & Presenting Bills The front office instructs the bellmen to bring guest luggage down to the lobby when the bills are settled, and the guest is ready to depart. Some hotels observe control. Procedures such as luggage pass in order to make sure that no luggage is removed from the floors without the proper authorization of the Front Office. The check-out time defines the official end of day in hotel terms. Theoretically all departing guests should leave their rooms before this time.

The hotel is not liable to assign rooms to incoming guests before this time. It is the duty of the front office staff to observe checkout times when dealing with departures. However, it should be carried out very tactfully. Whenever possible the guests next destination and address should be recorded on the space provided in the registration card at the time of departure. This helps to answer inquiries after the guest departure, and gives a clue as to the guest whereabouts in case it is needed. If the guest is expecting mail, a mail forwarding card filled by, the guest will be filed. When guest bills are presented the front office person has to take care not to make the guests last moment unpleasant. Before presenting the bill it is important to check if there are any errors, whether any wrong credit vouchers have been attached and if all credit vouchers up to the day are included. Also check if breakfast, last minute telephone calls & mini bar consumption have been posted, to prevent loss of revenue.

Finally the bill should be presented in the right manner. The attitude of the receptionist when presenting the bill should, reflect a sincere appreciation of the guests stay at the hotel.

Dealing with last minute problems Most last minute problems that arise during departures could be avoided, if proper procedures are followed at the time of check-in. The last minute problems may be due to,

a. Third/party settlement, which the Front Office is not aware. b. Mistakes in the bill c. Guest demanding a discount due to dissatisfaction. d. Guest wishing to settle the bill, by a mode not acceptable to the hotel. Most of these problems may have more than one solution.

Disposing of Luggage

Hotels treat guest luggage as a lien on the credit charges. The guest luggage may not be released until the guest pays his/her bill. Errand card procedures are used to control the movement of guests luggage.

Collecting Keys & Key Card

Make sure that keys and key cards are collected before guest departure, to prevent misuse. It is the responsibility, of the bellman handling the departure to collect these, and return to the cashiers.

Employing future selling techniques

It is important to use a lot of care, in handling guest departures. It is the first and last impression that counts most. Always acknowledge guest presence, maintain eye contact, smile and be helpful. Ask the guest if he has enjoyed his stay, if he has make sure to say that it would be good to have him/her back. These are statements to motivate guests to come back to your hotel, or to the chain of hotels, when he travels next time. Improvements to the hotel, and forthcoming events

could be highlighted to accomplish this. It is necessary to conclude with a very sincere farewell, which shows your interest in having the person as a guest once again. Most hotels follow a standard procedure, which ensures that all aspects are covered. Departures can be either announced or un-announced. In an unannounced departure the guest is usually in a hurry to check out, and the Front Office staff has got to be fast to get all credit checks collected & posted then to collect all dues from the guest as well as his key & key card etc. In an announced departure (which is much more frequently than the former) the receptionist has time to inform the cashier to be ready with the guest account. Luggage is loaded to the guest vehicles only after the guest settles his account and returns the room key to the cashier who then stamps/sign the errand card hands over to bell staff.

Express Check-Out Some front office performs pre departure activities. Most front office experience many guest departures between 7.30 and 9.30 a.m. A common pre departure activity involves the production and early morning distribution of guest folios for guests expected to check out that morning. The folios may be quietly slipped under the guestroom doors between 2.00 and 4.00 a.m. so that no one outside the room can tamper with them, included with a pre departure folio. The front office normally distributes an express checkout front as in the specimen below. A guest selecting the express check out option completes the form and approves transferring the outstanding account balance to an already imprinted credit card voucher (created at registration). The guest then leaves the express checkout from at the front desk on his or her way out.

Express checkout forms may also include a note requesting the guest to notify the front desk if there has been a change in departure plans. If the guest does otherwise the front office will assume the guest is departing by the hotels posted checkout time. This procedure usually encourages guests who have changed their departure plans to quickly notify the front desk before check out time. Although the guest leaves the hotel after depositing the express checkout form, the front office must complete the guests check out by transferring the outstanding folio balance to a previously accepted method of settlement. In order to use an express checkout system effectively, the front office must be well organized and obtain appropriate guest settlement information during registration. The front office must also take extra care to update room status as soon as the guest departs and the express checkout form is received. When guest departure is speeded up, both the hurrying guests and the busy staff from office benefit.

Self Check-Out

In some hotels, though not yet practiced in Sri Lanka, guests can check themselves out of the hotel by accessing self check-out terminals in the lobby area or by using an in-room system. Self check-out terminals or in-room systems are interfaced with the front office computer and are intended to reduce check-out time and front desk traffic. Self check-out terminals vary in design. Some resemble automatic bank teller machines, while others possess video and audio capability. To use self check-out terminals, the guest accesses the proper folio and reviews its contents. Guests may be required to enter a credit card number by using a keypad or by passing a credit card through a magnetic strip reader attached to the terminal. Settlement can be automatically assigned to an acceptable credit card as long as the guest presented a valid card at registration.

Check-out is complete when the guests balance is transferred to a credit card account and an itemized account statement is printed and dispensed to the guest. A self check-out system should then automatically communicate updated room status information to the front office computer. The front office system, in turn, relays room status information to the housekeeping department and initiates action to create a guest history record. In-room folio review and check-out usually relies on an in-room television set with a remote control device or guestroom telephone access via an in-room television set. The guest can confirm a previously approved method of settlement for the account since the in-room television is connected via computer to the front office computer system. The front office computer directs the self check-out process. Generally, guests can pick up a printed folio copy at the front desk on their way out. Similar to other self check-out technologies, in-room self check-out automatically updates room status and creates guest history records. Another advantage of in room folio review is that guests can look at their folios at any time during their stays without having to stop by the front desk Computer system. The front office computer directs the self check-out process. Generally, guests can pick up a printed folio copy at the front desk on their way out. Similar to other self check-out technologies, in-room self check-out automatically updates room status and creates guest history records. Another advantage of inroom folio review is that guests can look at their folios at any time during their stays without having to stop by the front desk.


Handing over at the end of the shift

Reception can very often be a 24 hour a day job and therefore certain duties and responsibilities need to be handed over at the end of each shift for follow through and completion by other staff members. Therefore there is a need to record and relay all the relevant information accurately and in sufficient detail, to allow the other staff member to carry out the duties effectively.

Unfinished work There is a need for continuity and consistency in staff of performance and work standards, if the hotel is going to operate smoothly. The receptionist therefore needs to ensure that any unfinished work is handed over in a form that can easily follow and acted upon by another staff member. Examples of unfinished work are: Following up on a guest enquiry Allocating rooms for a V.I.P. arrival the following day Organizing room keys for an early morning group arrival It is not enough to just tell someone what needs to be done. All handover information should be written down in a special handover book kept for this purpose. The information should be clear with enough detail so that the reader understands what he needs to be done and why, and the handwriting needs to be legible. Special requests If guests have made any special requests which for some reason were not actioned during the course of the day, theses requests should be noted and hand over to a member of staff coming on duty. The responsibility now lies with this person to see that the guests request is complied with. Examples of special requests include:

A copy of a specific news paper only available from the main news agent A tour of the kitchens The use of a laptop computer for a few hours

Late arrivals and departures It is important that details on late arrivals and departures are clearly highlighted as several departments need to know this information and it has implications for work loads. For example, if a particular room is going to be a late departure a number of departments need to know this: The room may be required for another guest therefore housekeeping will need to service the room and this may involve keeping staff on duty after the shift has finished. The room may have been allocated for a V.I.P arrival and so the receptionist will have to allocate another room and tell housekeeping about the change. If the guest requires transport, the porter will need to know at what time the luggage is to be taken from the room and when to order the transport. Urgent Messages Urgent and important messages need to be given a high priority at the time of handing over duties. Very often guests complain that messages left for them were not passed on, and so it is very important that all messages taken are [passed on to the guest promptly. Urgent messages should always be actioned as a matter of priority. Special incidents

Information on any special incident which occurred during the shift should be noted and brought to the attention of the next shift. It is important that the receptionist is aware and up-to-date on the days activities so any queries regarding the incident can be answered. For example, consider a situation where the hotel is overbooked and a guest has been booked out to a nearby hotel. The important details to record for handover include: Guest name Name & Telephone number of the hotel where the guest has been sent Day What/if any acknowledgement is the hotel going to make to the guest as a form of apology, etc

Think what the implications of not reporting this incident in the handover book would be: Messages or telephone calls for the guest would not reach him and what if there was an urgent message? The hotel would lose business in a number of ways, in the short term by the guest not returning the following day and in the long term by the guest deciding never to stay in your hotel again. The hotel is not given the opportunity to apologize to the guest and to regain its goodwill. Tidying up The end of a shift is in some ways the same as the beginning of a shift in that certain tidying up and organizing needs to be done, e.g. all equipment & supplies should be checked and everything should be left clean, tidy, replenished and in working order.

Always try to adopt and put into practice this motto: if this is practiced by all staff it would be possible to achieve a greater degree of productivity and efficiency throughout the hotel. Handover Each hotel will have its own procedure for handing over at the end of the shift. It is usual to have a quick meeting with the takeover staff and to verbally go through the unfinished work etc. This ensures that everything is clear and any queries arise can be addressed. A written record of all of this is in the handover book which is left at reception. DO: Dont Rely on verbal messages Forget to leave your messages clear, legible and easy to understand Leave your work area in a mess Write it down Keep a record of any unfinished work Record special requests Make a note of expected late arrivals and departures Pass on urgent and important messages as a priority Write down details of special incidents or problems Use the handover book at all times Check equipment and supplies before you leave Tidy up


Handling Complaints

No matter how efficient a hotel operation is, at some point a guest may register disappointment or find fault with something or someone. Hotels should try to anticipate guest complaints and plan strategies to deal with them as they arise. The high visibility of the front office means front desk is usually the first to learn of guest complaints. Receptionists should be attentive to guests with complaints and seek a satisfactory resolution. Perhaps nothing annoys guests more than having their complaints apparently ignored or discounted. While front office staff generally will not enjoy receiving complaints, they should understand that few guests enjoy complaining. They should also realize that guests who find no opportunity to tell the hotel of their complaints often tell their friends, relatives, and business associates instead. When it is easy for guests to express their opinions both the hotel and the guests benefit. The hotel learns of potential or actual problem areas and is given the opportunity to resolve guest complaints, thereby increasing guest satisfaction. The guests have more problems resolved and feel that the hotel cares about their needs. From this perspective, every complaint is welcome. Remember that guests who leave a hotel dissatisfied may never return. Complaints Guest complaints can be divided into four categories of problems mechanical, attitudinal, service related and unusual. Most guest complaints are related to hotel equipment malfunctions. Mechanical complaints usually concern problems with climate control, lighting, electricity, room furnishings, ice machines, vending machines, door keys plumbing, television sets, elevators, and so forth. Even an excellent preventive maintenance program cannot completely eliminate all potential equipment problems.

Effective use of a front desk log book and maintenance work orders may help reduce the frequency of mechanical complaints. Attitudinal complaints may be lodged by guests who feel they have been insulted by rude or tactless staff members, or who have had staff members complain directly to them. The hotel should take precautions to ensure that guests do not overhear staff arguing or complaints. Internal hotel problem which result in dissension should be brought to a supervisors attention, not the guests. This is especially critical to maintaining sound guest relations.

Service related complaints may concern long waiting times for guests, a lack of assistance with luggage, untidy room, telephone difficulties, wake up call errors, food or beverage quality problems, or ignored requests for additional supplies. More service complaints are likely to arise when a hotel is operating at or near full occupancy.






example, the absence of swimming pool, a lack of public transportation, early lounge closing times, the harshness of the weather, and so on. Many such unusual complaints involve circumstances over which the hotel has little or no control. Nonetheless, guests typically seek hotel resolution of such problems. Difficult situations may arise if the

front office has not anticipated receiving such complaints. Identifying Complaints All guest complaints deserve attention, even though they differ in nature and importance. As excited guest who loudly demands immediate attention at the front desk will appreciate a quick resolution, while a guest who comments in an offhand manner may invite a different type of response. Hotels that systematically identify their most frequent guest complaints may well be able to improve guest relation. If the hotel is able to isolate frequent problems, then corrective action can contribute to improving overall guest satisfaction. A review of the front desk log book if it has been property used will enable management to identify recurring complaint. Another identification approach involves the evaluation of guest comment cards or questionnaires. Guest questionnaires may be distributed at the front desk, placed consciously in the guestroom, or mailed to guests following departure. By examining the number and type of complaints received, hotel management may gain insight into common and less common problems. Front office staff members may be better able handle frequent complaints courteously and effectively, especially if they know the problem cannot be corrected immediately.

Handling Complaints

Ignoring a guest complaint is usually counterproductive. In many hotels, front desk agents are instructed to refer complaints to supervisors or managers. This may not

always be possible, especially if the situation warrants immediate attention. The hotel may wish to develop a contingency plan in case such a situation arises.

The front desk may receive complaints about food and beverage operations in the hotel, regardless of whether those operations are under the same management as the hotel. Unless procedures for complaint referral are established between the hotel and the food and beverage operators, guests may continue to be upset and the hotel will receive the blame. The hotel and its revenue outlets should maintain close communications and develop procedures designed to satisfactorily resolve guest complaint.

The following general warnings should be considered in handling guest complaints:

guests may be quite angry. Staff members should never go alone to a guestroom to investigate a problem or otherwise risk potential danger.

staff members should never make a promise that exceeds their authority. If a problem cannot be solved, staff members should admit this early and honesty is the best policy.

Some guests complain as part of their nature, and may never be satisfied. The front office should develop an approach for dealing with such guests.

Learning to deal effectively with complaints requires experience. Front office staff members can practice by thinking about how they might resolve some of the hotels most common complaints. By anticipating complaints, planning and practicing responses, and receiving constructive feedback, staff members should be better prepared to deal effectively with guest complaint as they arise. Have you noticed that some employees seem to handle complaint situations with ease- while others seem only to add fuel to the fire? When you study employees who are successful at handling complaints, you will find several common features in their techniques: They respond to the complaining persons feelings by accepting and agreeing. They keep their own feelings under control. They do not take the criticism policy. They listen and help the complainer express the complaint clearly so they know They take action on the complaint immediately. They maintain a cheerful, helpful attitude throughout the encounter.

They take care of feelings first.

exactly what is being asked or demanded.

At the heart of the matter are the complainers feelings. Once you learn to handle those without dragging your own feelings in, you will have unlocked mystery of handling complaints. Even in the best hotel there are customers who have complaints to make. There are many wrong and only one right way to handle a complaint.

Complaint handling guidelines


Listen with concern and empathy Dont interrupt boredom or annoyance. 2. Isolate the guest if possible, so that other guests wont overhear 3. Stay calm. Avoid responding with hostility or defensiveness. Dont argue with the guests. Try to filter out the customers feelings(anger, annoyance, frustration and embarrassment) 4. Be aware of the guests self esteem. Show a personal interest in the problem. Use the guests name frequently. Take the complaint seriously. 5. Give the guest your undivided attention. Concentrate on the problem, not on placing blame. Do NOT insult the guest. 6. Take notes. Writing down the key facts. More important, the fact that a hotel staff member is concerned enough to write down what theyre saying is reassuring to guests. 7. Dont blame others or give stupid excuses.The guest is not interested in your problems; he is only interested in his problem. 8. Tell the guest what can be done. Offer choices. Dont promise the impossible, and dont exceed your authority. 9. Do not send people around; from department to department, from person to person, you either handle the complaint yourself, or you call for the person wanted or you bring the customer to this person.

10. Set an approximate time for the hotels actions. Be specific, but do not underestimate the amount of time it will take to solve the problem. The customer wants action, not just words. 11. Monitor the progress of the corrective action. 12. Follow up. Even if the complaint was resolved by someone else, contact the guest to see if the problem was satisfactorily solved. Report the entire event, the action taken, and the conclusion of the incident. Remember if you can satisfy an unsatisfied customer you have achieved a lot.

Self Study 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Name three important functions carried out by the front office during the checking out procedure. List 10 steps involved in the departure procedure What is Self Checkout? Provide three examples of un finished work during a shift handing over. List four types of complaints found in Front Office. List at least five important steps in the process of handling complaints

Volume 2


_______________________________________________________________________ _


Contents Introduction 1.1 The organizing of the Housekeeping department 1.2 Functions of Housekeeping personnel 1.3 Importance of Housekeeping 1.4 Types of Rooms 1.5 Room Status Review Questions

_______________________________________________________________________ _ Introduction: The Housekeeping department in a hotel is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance and aesthetic upkeep of the hotel.

Objectives At the end of the unit you should be able to, 1. Describe the organizing of the housekeeping department. 2. Outline the general duties of the main Housekeeping personnel. 3. Understand the importance of the housekeeping department. 4. Describe the Types of rooms found in a hotel. 5. Describe the Rooms status and its importance. Executive Housekeepers Office of department Layout the Housekeeping 1.1 Organizing the Housekeeping Department The of

This is the main administrative centre for the department. It must be an independent cabin to provide the Executive Housekeeper with a quiet atmosphere for her to plan out her work, provide the privacy to counsel her staff or hold departmental meetings. It should preferably have glass paneling, so as to give her a view of what is happening outside the office. This office is usually preceded by a cabin for the secretary who would control movement onto the Housekeepers office. Desk Control Room

This is the main communication centre and all information is sent out and received concerning the department. It is the nerve centre for coordination with the front office, banquets, food & beverage department etc. It usually has more than one telephone and a large notice board to pin up staff schedules, day to day instructions etc. Desk control room is the point where all Housekeeping personnel report at the beginning of a shift. Linen Room This is the place where all laundered fresh linen is stored before being dispatched to the respective sections. Linen room should be large, airy and free from heat and humidity. Entrance to the linen room is through a stable type of a door to prevent unauthorized personnel, and as the counter to exchange linen. . Uniform Room

This room stocks the uniforms in current use by all uniformed staff of the hotel. Smaller hotels may have the uniform room with the linen room. It should have sufficient space to hang all uniforms as it is the best way to maintain high standards

Flower room This should be an air conditioned room to keep fresh flowers. Depending on the size, basic facilities such as working tables, sink with running water and cold cupboards should be available.


Medium and large hotels will have on premises mechanical laundry services .this may be a different department or a sub department or with close coordination with Housekeeping.


Functions of Housekeeping personnel Job descriptions describe all the duties that one has to perform when an employee takes over a job. Given below are the general duties of the main personnel attached to the Housekeeping department. Executive Housekeeper 1 Developing plans, actions and standard operation of the department. 2 Organizing the housekeeping department using the Housekeeping team concept. 3. Developing budgets for the department to ensure that it operates within established costs while providing maximum service. 4. Establishing a training program, this will enable staff to have promotions within the department. 5. Be constantly alert for new methods, techniques, equipment and materials that will improve a more efficient operation at reduced costs.


Stimulate within all employees a friendly and cheerful attitude, giving proper emphasis to courtesy in contact with guests and other employees.


Maintain strict inventory and purchase control over all controllable items.

8. 9.

Conduct employee performance appraisals on time. Maintain control over linen rooms, store rooms and cleaning supplies, ensuring adequate security to supplies.


Coordinate with personal department regarding pre-screening of employees, indicating staffing needs and personnel necessary to staff the department.

Assistant Housekeeper 1. Take charge of personnel assigned as Senior Section Housekeeper and organize them into teams for various jobs assigned. 2. Prepare for and oversee the interviewing, screening, hiring, orienting and training of all assigned personnel to accomplish assigned tasks. 3. Ensure the proper and systematic reporting of work completed, when 4. appropriate.

Ensure the orderly flow of information to and from assigned personnel.


Develop and execute an inspection program that will ensure the maintenance of guestroom areas, room cleanliness, sanitation and standards.


Oversee the day- to- day scheduling of assigned personnel, ensuring the right number of people required, on any given day.


Control the expenditure consistent with the targeted assigned rooms per attendant per day.


Assist in budget preparation with regard to funds required for maintenance within the department.

9. 10.

Evaluate and appraise employee performance. Preparing written personnel plans related to specific responsibilities.

Floor Supervisor 1. Secure keys and work sheets for assigned floor/floors, on reporting to duty. 2. Proceed to assigned floor/floors and check all vacant rooms to make sure they are up to standard for prospective clients. Any discrepancies to be noted and notified to the housekeeper. 3. Report all departures and other information such as early wakeups and as soon as possible rooms to room attendants.


Make a visit to assigned floor/floors, checking for items in need of immediate attention such as burnedout bulbs, ports on carpets or walls, trash in stairwells etc.


Check all floor room attendants supplies and equipment, to be sure they are in working condition.


Spot-check and inspect rooms completed by the floor attendants in the section and make sure that standards have been properly met in rooms being cleaned and that rooms are ready to be sold for occupancy.


Keep a record of all guest rooms deep cleaned in each floor so that rooms are periodically deep cleaned on a rotating basis.


Report any damage to guestrooms, corridors or equipment seen or reported by attendants.


Report to engineering department, using a maintenance work order, and any defect or equipment failure that cannot be corrected by housekeeping personnel. Periodically contact housekeeping office to advice them on fall ready rooms and to receive check-out rooms. Inspect linen and store rooms in assigned floors for cleanliness and adequate supplies and make sure linen rooms are secure and locked when not in use . Deliver the room check reports to housekeeping office at specified times. Any room not serviced for the day, refused service, or requesting late service by night staff will be reported to the housekeeping office.

10. 11.



Report persistent complains or remarks by employees about working conditions or any other matter to the executive housekeeper. Periodically report to the housekeeper, on the quality of the performance of each person he/she supervises. Complete any special assignment as directed by the housekeeper.

14. 15.

Public Area Supervisor 1. Check with the housekeeper which areas need special attention information pertaining to functions, VIP arrivals etc. to be obtained from the desk. Be responsible for the signing in of master keys from the daytime section housekeeper and senior housekeeper. Proceed to lobby and check entire area for any apparent problems requiring immediate attention. Check each of the public washrooms to be sure the floors are cleaned and there are adequate supplies of toilet paper, facial tissues etc. Check the main entrance inside and out and make sure the area is immaculately clean. Check if the glasswork on entrance doors and associated areas are spotless. Check in elevators to be sure they are clean. See that ashtrays are empty and clean. Check the carpeting in the lobby and corridors are clean. Check if all public telephones including floors and glass doors are clean. Check if all chairs and sofas are vacuumed in the lobby area. Before the end of the shift, make a final round of all public washrooms to make sure they are clean and presentable and that there are adequate supplies of paper and soap.

2. 3. 4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.


At the end of the shift, turn in the master keys to the housekeeping office.

Linen Room supervisor 1. 2. 3. Make daily assignments of teams to ensure all sections are properly assigned. Check housekeeping logs for any special requirements for the day. Be responsible for the issuing of equipment such as irons, heating pads and hair dryers to guests, and making notation in the guest receipt book. Also be responsible for returning of these items from the guests. Record in the appropriate housekeeping record log the issuance of such items as bed boards, rollaway cots and foam pillows. Section floor supervisors will be advised of the room locations of these items and will be responsible for their return. Should be responsible for orderliness and cleanliness of the main linen room. Be in charge of lost and found operation. (In most hotel, unless this is handled by the housekeeping desk person/girl be thoroughly familiar with complete lost-and-found procedure in accordance with company policy and standard operating procedures). Assist in preparation of main linen room inventories. Handle any special assignment as directed by the housekeeper.


5. 6.

7. 8.

Room Attendant 1. 2. Reports to the housekeeping office in uniform at the time the shift begins. Receives keys and work assignments to perform function for the day.

3. 4.

Check with section supervisor for any special instructions. Clean guestrooms and public areas such as elevators, corridors, stairways, lobbies etc. according to the work procedures prescribed by the housekeeper Proceeds to assigned area and determine if any supplies are needed to carry out the work. Tours and inspects the entire area assigned, looking for items requiring immediate attention. Maintain cleanliness of guest areas by removing trash from linen carts and floors according to the stipulated schedules and instructions. Notify supervisor/desk attendant regarding maintenance required, guest loan items, lost & found items, emergencies, guest complaints etc. Removes all soiled linen from the carts and deliver them to the laundry, according to the stipulated procedure. Re stock floor linen rooms with linen needed and arrange carts for the next days work. Takes care of equipment and ensure that all mops are clean, vacuum cleaners are properly put away and locked up at the end of each day When requested or required by the supervisor, takes item such as rollaway beds and cribs that have been requested by guests, to guest rooms. Make special set-ups in guestrooms when requested. Removes all trash from linen carts and take them to dumpster area for discarding, according to stipulated schedules. Assist supervisors to maintain par stock of linen, mini bar supplies and guestroom supplies issued to the floor. Stationery, linen, cleaning agents should be used with responsibility. Performs any other functions assigned by section supervisor

5. 6. 7.


9. 10.


12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Public Area Attendant /Houseman 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Report to the housekeeping department at the specified time in uniform. Check with public area supervisor regarding any special area needing special attention. Sign in for the keys. Proceed to lobby and check entire area for any apparent problems requiring immediate attention. Check each of the public wash rooms to be sure the floors are clean and there is an adequate amount of supplies. Check the main entrance inside and out. Sweep mop and/or vacuum clean the area so as to make it immaculate. Clean glasswork in entrance doors and associated areas. Sweep and damp mop all tile floors. Be sure that caution signs are up when floors are wet. Check the elevators to be sure they are clean. Empty and clean ashtrays, vacuum carpeting, and dust the inside of each elevator as necessary. Clean the public washrooms thoroughly. Clean toilet bowls, urinals, all stainless steel, wash basin mirrors and floors. Empty all trash and make sure that there are sufficient sanitary supplies. Vacuum all carpets in the lobby and corridors. Dust light fixtures, pictures, walls and all areas requiring daily dusting Make frequent rounds of the entire assigned area, emptying ashtrays, straining ash urns and picking up any debris that may have accumulated on the tables or floors. Clean all telephones in public areas. Dust and vacuum all chairs and sofas in the assigned areas daily.


11. 12. 13.

14. 15.

16. 17. 18.

Report to the supervisors any area requiring special attention that cannot be handled personally. Several times during the day, return to the main entrance to be sure its condition remains up to standard. Before the shift ends, make a final round of all public washrooms to be sure that they are clean and presentable and that there are adequate supplies of paper, soap etc.

Linen and Uniform Room Attendant 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Dispense supplies to authorized personnel from the main linen storeroom. Inventorise guests and cleaning supplies using the supply inventory form, at specified intervals. Receives, checks and store goods for the housekeeping department. Maintain orderliness and neatness in the storerooms. Clean the outer area of the main linen room, including the store room, cart storage area and locker area. Issues and receives all staff uniforms according to prescribed procedures. Coordinates closely with the laundry on linen issues and receipts.

Desk Control attendant The following duties are generally handled and coordinated by a desk attendant in a large housekeeping operation: 1. 2. 3. 4. Dealing with guests special request. Dealing with reportable matters unusual behavior of guests etc. Dealing with emergencies. Coordinating assignments to room attendants.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Handling the telephone. Communications with other departments. Dealing with security and key control procedures. Handling lost and found items. Keeping housekeeping records such as staff duty rosters etc. Any other duties of secretarial nature assigned by the executive Housekeeper.

Florist 1. 2. 3. 4. Attends to all types of flower arrangement requirements in the hotel. Supplies flowers and flower arrangements to guestrooms, on requests. (The guests are charged for these services). Supplies flower and flower arrangements to banquets and special function held in the hotel, in request (these services are usually charged for). Co-ordinates and initiates requisition for flower requirements.

Seamstress 1. 2. 3. 4. Attends to mending of staff uniforms. Attends to mending and minor sewing of hotel linen. Tailor staff uniforms, on assignment basis. Attends to mending of guests articles.


Importance of Housekeeping

Housekeeping is the biggest physical area in many hotels. The main function of housekeeping is to ensure cleanliness and comfort in a safe environment. Housekeeping is not just cleanliness. It includes keeping work areas neat and orderly, maintaining halls and floors free of all waste materials. Good Housekeeping is also a basic part of accident and fire prevention. When guests walk into a hotel they have previously not visited they form instantaneous impressions. These impressions are enhanced or diminished as the guest moves from the registrations desk to the elevator and down the corridor towards a room that he is approaching with either mild anticipation or trepidation When the guest enters the room however all prior impressions are immediately supplanted by a virtually total response to the room itself. Rooms are the heart of the hotel. Unless their dcor is appropriate, air odor free, the room itself is spotlessly clean the hotel will loose guests as potential repeat guests. Effective Housekeeping system is an ongoing operation. Regardless of the size and structure most of the Housekeeping departments in hotels will be responsible for cleaning the following areas: Guest rooms Corridors Public areas, such as the lobby and public rest rooms Patio areas Management offices Employee locker rooms Linen and sewing rooms

In addition to all above areas Housekeeping departments of star class hotels will be responsible for cleaning the following areas:

Restaurants Banquet rooms Hotel operated shops Games rooms Health center /exercise rooms

Since housekeeping is responsible for cleaning a large area within the hotel it is essential to establish good communication. The methods used for communication may differ from one place to another, but mostly used will be memos, telephone, paging systems, pre-printed forms, lights and computers.

What does a room mean to a guest?

Comfort Hotels spend lot of money in ensuring the quality of beds, mattresses, temperature controls, hot and cold water etc. The comfort means it must be regularly maintained and functioning. Convenience A guest is provided with entertainment, food and beverage services telephone services etc. The guest is thus free to spend all the time towards fulfilling his purpose of travel. The housekeeping personnel must ensure

that all literature regarding the facilities is provided in the room for the convenience of the guest. Safety and Security Safety and Security of the guest has to be ensured to the guest by checking and maintaining. Entrance is only through one door and it should be able to double lock from inside; strict control of room keys and master keys; precautions in the room to ensure all electrical wirings concealed and smoke detectors and fire alarm system in proper working order etc. Privacy All rooms are provided with curtains, some with separate light day curtains and heavy dark night curtains. The entrance to the room procedure is well defined to ensure the guest privacy.

Health and Hygiene All housekeeping personnel are well trained in using correct usage of cleaning agents, equipment, and methods for benefit of the guest and the staff themselves.


Types of Rooms There are many types of hotel rooms .the different types are meant to attract different types of guest to hotels.

Single bedded room This room is meant for single occupancy, usually given out to tour guides on complimentary basis, a room with one single bed. Double bedded room For double /single guest occupation .consists of two beds placed together with bedside tables on either sides or a room with one large bed. Twin Bedded Rooms A room with two single beds with a bedside table in between can be used for single or double occupancy.

Interconnecting rooms/family rooms Two standard double rooms with a common door in between rooms generally kept locked and can be given as to separates rooms. Give families extra privacy as one can avoid walking through the corridor. Cabana A room which is built on stilts and away from the main building. Chalets A room which is built on a hillock or on a mountain and away from the main building

1.5 Room status

It is an indication of the condition of the room. This gives an indication to the housekeeping personal as to how much work has to be done in a guestroom. It also indicates to the reception the length of time necessary for a room to be made ready for sale. The different statuses of rooms are: Vacant /ready room (VAC) A room which is ready for sale .there is no definite booking for this room.

Arrival room (ARR) A room which is ready for occupation and which has a definite booking/reservation. Occupied room (OCC) A room which has been given be out to a guest. Check out room /Departure room (DEP) The guest has checked out of from this room and is usually very untidy. Sleep out room (S/O)

This is an occupied room in which the guest has not slept the previous night. The guest may or may not have informed the hotel of his sleeping out. Day room A room let for few hours as changing room for bridal parties or for special functions. May be given on complimentary basis. Out of order room (OOO) When guest rooms have defects and cannot be sold it is termed as O.O.O. these defects have to be attended to immediately as it is a loss of revenue to the hotel.

DND/make up my room The room occupants either do not want to be disturbed or wants the room to be cleaned early.

Review Questions 1. Outline the general duties of an Executive Housekeeper. 2. Why is Housekeeping important to a hotel. 3. What does a room mean to a guest.

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Contents Introduction 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Reasons for Cleaning Types of Soiling Material Results of soiling Methods of Cleaning Cleaning Equipment Electrical Equipment Cleaning Agents


Non Cleaning Agents

Review Questions _______________________________________________________________________ _ Introduction: There are many reasons why a hotel should be kept clean. Firstly it prevents the spread of infection, diseases and the accumulation of dirt. Secondly, a hotel should be made a socially acceptable environment. Other reasons are safety and the preservation of fabric, furnishings, fixtures and fittings.

Objectives At the end of this unit you should be able to, 1 2 3 4 2.1 5 State the importance of cleaning. Understand the soiling of material. Describe the methods of cleaning. Identify the cleaning equipment. Describe the cleaning agents. Reasons for Cleaning

Prevention of the spread of infection and disease By providing a methodical cleaning service the spread of germs and their growth on unclean surfaces is minimized. The use of disinfectants, which kills harmful germs, is a key factor. Dust control Dust particle settles and accumulates day by day as they are present in the air. The accumulated dust on surface when not wiped clean, becomes dirt.

Provision of socially acceptable environment Cleanliness of any place speaks for health and hygiene. An unclean person or place is not welcome in any civilized society. In the same manner an unclean room or environment in a hotel will keep customers away. Safety Safety goes hand in hand with security. A safe and secure room will give confidence, satisfaction and moreover a peace of mind for a restful nights sleep. Preservation of the Fabric, Furnishing, Fixtures and Fittings. Regular cleaning of all surface is part of a long-term maintenance plan, provided that the correct method and cleaning agent is used having the surface to be clean in mind. The accumulation of dirt will attract bacteria fungi (mildew) and other harmful insects such as silverfish, cockroaches etc. It also expedites natural chemical reactions, which erode surfaces, e.g. corrosion. 2.2 Types of Soiling Material Fumes and odors Caused by gases, they may enter a building through doors and windows and may arise in a building due to certain activities. Dust These are fine particles of different material, which may enter a building through doors, windows, on cloths and footwear .dust is one of the most

important agents for the transferring of bacteria .generally dust cannot be seen unless it is settled on a surface. Grit These are large particles than dust and may enter a building on footwear, clothing etc. This consists of mineral material and therefore, causes much damage to a surface. Fats, oils and greases These are light or heavy organic materials which may be brought into the building on footwear, equipment and may arise as a result of food preparations. Industrial waste This will include any by-product of a manufacturing process. Litter These include any large debris, for example paper, cigarette ends, cartons etc. 2.3 Results of soiling Stains These may arise from spillage on floors, upholstery, carpets etc. Tarnishing

Silver will react with a sulfide in the air to produce a dark discoloration of silver sulfide .copper and brass reacts with oxygen and produces a garnish discoloration. 2.4 Methods of Cleaning Sweeping This method is used to remove loose dust particles mixed with litter and is always done from the further end of the area. This is carried out with the aid of a common broom, an ekel broom or a dust control mop. Dusting Dusting is done to remove loose dust that is not stuck to a hard or semi hard surface. Daily dusting is done to stretch level. There are two methods of dusting. Dry Dusting Dry dusting is done carefully with the aid of a dry cloth known as a duster, so as not to disturb the dust particulars, as they may settle again on another surface. Damp Dusting Damp dusting is done with the aid of water as moisture on a cloth and wiping the surface as not to disturb the dust. Mopping

Mopping is done to free the surface of dust and dirt. There are two ways of mopping. Single solution mopping Mop the surface with the aid of water only. Single mop bucket with a mop is used. Double solution mopping Mop surface with the aid of water and cleaning agent. Double mop cart with two mops are used for cleaning. Scrubbing Scrubbing is done to remove the embedded dirt from a surface. Scrubbing machine is used with appropriate attachments of the machine for this purpose. Suction cleaning This is the most efficient and effective method of cleaning as it does not disturb the dust and is not transferred to any other area and also it removes the embedded dust from the corners, ledges and the high reaching areas. This could be done with a Back Pack machine. Polishing/Buffing Removes scuff and restore the shine of a surface with the aid of polish or otherwise. Scrubbing machine with polishing brushes and pads are used for this purpose.


Cleaning Equipment All manual equipment found in the housekeeping department can be categorized as follows: Tools Containers Trolley and carts Cleaning clothes These are used during day to day cleaning in any organization. They need to clean after usage at the end of the shift for longevity of the equipment and for better function. Tools This can be further sub divided into:

Brooms and brushes Common coir broom Hand brush (whisk broom) Cobweb brush (Turk head broom) Toilet bowel brush Kidney brush Deck brush Scrubbing brush Floor/window squeezers Mops

Dusting mops consists of a head made from soft twisted cotton yarns or synthetic fabrics, attached to a handle. Most are now designed with looped ends (to prevent yarns from untwisting). Containers Buckets and pails Dust pans Dust bins Sanitary bins Waste bins Buckets and pails They are normally made out of plastic because they are lighter in weight and much easier to clean. These are used for variety of purposes in cleaning operations. Dust pans Dust pans are used in conjunction with the hand brush to collect dust and dirt from floors after sweeping. Dust bins Dust bins are often kept in the back stairs or in room attendants service pantry. Usually disposable garbage bag is dressed to the bin in order to prevent the surface becoming dirty.

Sanitary bins Are small containers with a lid kept in a toilet to collect used sanitary towels. Waste bins Waste paper bins are kept in offices to collect dry waste. Care and cleaning containers As they are plastic they can be easily washed with detergent mixed with cold water, rinse with disinfectant added cold water, wiped dry and piled upside down.

Trolleys and Carts A variety of trolleys and carts are used in housekeeping operations. Most frequently uncounted items on this category include room attendants trolley and mobile linen trolley, which are used by the laundry. Cleaning clothes Duster Rugs Swabs Scrims - use to taking off dust /debris from surfaces. - use to apply polish or storing cleaning agents. - are used for wet work above the floor level. - loosely woven cloths for highly absorbent purpose.

Chamois leather- use for wet cleaning on mirrors and glasses.


Electrical Equipment All electrical equipments that are found in the housekeeping department used for cleaning purposes need to be cleaned after use at the end of the shift. They can be categorized as follows: Dry suction machine Wet and Dry suction machine All purpose floor maintenance machine Dry suction machine Removes surface dust and small pieces of debris from walls, floors, ceilings, soft furnishings and furniture. Flexible hose extensions are used for far reaching areas. Dust bags must be clean and check wheels and oiled periodically.

Wet and Dry suction machine Same as the dry suction machine but has the advantage of removing water. Care must be taken to remove the filter when using on water. After use should be thoroughly dried and kept for a while to expose to the air. All purpose floor maintenance machine

This machine is able to handle most of the functions required in the operation of the housekeeping department such as Stripping, Scrubbing, Polishing, Buffing, and Shampooing. Correct attachment and the brushes should be used for different functions. At the end of the use remove fluff from the brushes and the flex cleaned to be free of dust, dirt and polish. 2.7 Cleaning Agents Importance of cleaning agents Cleaning is removal of soil from any surface of a building. The term includes all fixtures, fittings and furnishings. Soil can be removed by physical or chemical means involving the use of cleaning agents. Cleaning equipment will dislodge and removal soil from a surface and bring the cleaning agent into contact with the surface. A cleaning agent is any chemical, including water, that will bring about or assist either physically or chemically the removal of soil from the surface. Disinfectants are not cleaning agents and should never be used for cleaning. Cleaning agents are classified according to their composition. The principal classes are: Water Abrasives Detergents Acid cleaners Water

Water is a poor cleaning agent when used alone. It has many limitations such as high surface tension and ability to hold soil in suspension and is not capable of breaking up fats and oils. Despite these disadvantages, water is the most important cleaning agent used. These disadvantages can be overcome by using a cleaning solution along with water. The two methods of cleaning with water are high- pressure cleaning using hot or warm water The advantages of using water are: simplest cleaning agent, comparatively cheap, good solvents and no smell. Abrasives The cleaning actions of abrasives depend on presence of fine particles which when rubbed over a soiled surface removes stain or tarnishing and surface scratches if properly used. There are two types of abrasives: Hard surface abrasive cleaners Metal polishers Hard surface abrasives should only be used on hard surfaces and if the soiling is heavy. Metal polishers should be used only where soiling is heavy, tarnishing, or severe surface scratches are visible. Regular use of metal polish will tend to remove the surface metal. Detergents

In the past, the term detergent was applied to any cleaning agent. The term detergent is now restricted to those cleaning agents containing quantity of a group of chemicals known as surfactants. Detergents come in solid, creams and liquids. Some detergents are acidic while others can be neutral or alkaline. A good detergent should have the following properties 1. Should reduce the surface tension in water. 2. Should dissolve in cold water. 3. Should be effective in hard water. 4. Should not harm the user and the surface been cleaned. 5. Should be easily washable (rinseable) 6. Be economical. 7. Should be able to break up soils and fats. 8. Should easily suspend soil in the cleaning solution. Acid Cleaners (toilet cleaners) They are acidic. Toilet cleaners should never be used on any surface other than the W.C pan and the acid will corrode any metal parts or any other equipment. When using toilet cleaners it is advisable to flush the W.C and sprinkle the acid cleaner into the pan. Leave the acid cleaner for 10-15 minutes for it to be more effective. Use a toilet brush and brush the area and flush. Never use two acid cleaners together. Basic rules in cleaning agents Do

Use correct type of cleaning agents for the task to be performed. Dilute correctly in water of a suitable temperature. Dissolve the agent thoroughly before use. Apply the agent methodically to avoid the patchiness. Use correct cleaning equipment and wash away all traces of the agents after use. Rinse thoroughly when necessary. Store the cleaning agents in stable shelving in a dry, well- ventilated store. Label all containers clearly and when necessary. Use cleaning agents on FIRST IN FIRST OUT basis. Use dispensers and measures where necessary. Wipe up spillage immediately to avoid wastage and accident. Be aware of the correct dilution and the method of application before use.

Dont Do not mix two different cleaning agents together. Do not use dirty equipment and containers to make the dilution. Do not use excessive amounts of cleaning agents to remove soil. Do not top up in to any container with left over. Do not store cleaning agents with linen.


Non Cleaning Agents Disinfectants

Disinfecting is the destruction of potentially harmful micro organisms. These are used right after the cleaning process. Germicides A general name for anything that kills bacteria. These are used after the cleaning on corridors, surfaces, drains, etc. It should be remembered that for a disinfectant to be effective the area should be clean and free of soil. germicides: The surface and the equipment should be clean. Cleaning should have taken place just before disinfecting. Containers must be clean. Dilution must be correct. Do not top up into any container with left over germicides. Do not mix different germicides. There should be contact time. Never leave clean equipment to stand in a disinfected solution Protective clothing should be worn if necessary. Antiseptics These too are used in the control of bacteria and other organisms. Antiseptics can be safely used on human body. Deodorizers This is an agent that overrules smells, and maybe used in wardrobes in toilets and in rooms. And it should be used in small quantities. Points to remember when using

Review Questions 1. Make a list of the methods of cleaning. 2. What are the manual equipment found in the housekeeping department. 3. What are the DOs and DONTs of using cleaning agents.


Room Service - Bedding Types and Bed Making

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Contents Introduction 3.1 Types of Mattress 3.2 Types of bedding 3.3 Bed Making 3.4 Cleaning Bathroom and Toilet 3.5 Health and Safety aspects in Housekeeping

Review Questions _______________________________________________________________________ _ Introduction: In a hotel you will find that various types of linen are used for various purposes and it the responsibility of the housekeeping department to keep these clean and tidy and also to ensure the safe handling of these linen.

Objectives At the end of this unit you should be able to, 1. Explain the Types of Mattresses. 2. Describe the Types of Bedding. 3. Outline the method of Bed making. 4. Describe method of cleaning a bathroom. 5. Understand the importance of health and safety aspects in Housekeeping 3.1 Types of Mattress 1. Coir 2. Cotton 3. Form Rubber 4. Rubber/Coir 5. Water 6. Air 7. Upholstered Coir a) b) c) d) Tends to loose its shape. Uncomfortable Not durable Difficult to clean

e) f)

Breeds bugs easily Dust gets accumulated g) Cotton Not suitable for hotels

a) b) c)

Expensive Comfortable Used for children & infants beds/cots Foam Rubber

a) b)

Highly resilient Uncomfortable in hot climate

Rubber/Coir a) b) c) d) Resilient & porous Durable Do not get out of shape Suitable for hotels i. Water a) b) c) Air a) Filled with air Filled with water Gives a floating effect Not used in Sri Lankan Hotels.

Upholstered a) b) c) Care of Mattress Mattresses have to be rotated to avoid wearing them in one area. Removable mattress covers should be used to prevent the mattress from soiling. Pillows Pillows are filled with cotton, feathers, foam, poly fill etc. 1. Common Pillows 2. Bolster pillows Care of Pillows a) Shake well daily to disperse the filling evenly. b) Repair splits/tears in ticking immediately. c) Protect with under/inner pillowslip d) If possible sun dry to loose absorbed moisture. Suitable for hotels Very expensive Comfortable


Types of bedding Mattress Protector

Used on top of the mattress to prevent it from soiling. The protector is held down by elastic bands. These are quilted to give more comfort. Made out of absorbent material

Sheets and Pillows Cases Polyester cotton is commonly used in Sri Lanka as it facilitates fast drying Other types of material used area) Cotton b) Linen c) Nylon d) Silk e) Polyester All sheets have to be at least 10 long on all sides. Sheets and pillowslips used on King Size or queen sizes beds will be larger than those used on standard beds. Blankets Used to keep warm They are made of1. Wool 2. Cotton 3. Synthetic Used on beds of all air-conditioned rooms.

In non-air conditioned rooms blanket will be provided on request.

Bed Spreads Are used to cover the bed during day. Should be easy to clean and should have the ability to withstand regular laundering, tear, soil resistance and good shape. Coverlet Generally short and does not touch the floor. Quilt 3.3 Bed Making 1) Dust the bed head, foot end and around the bed base. Consist of a filling held in between two layers of cloth stitched together in channels. Filling will be natural e.g. Down duck feathers or synthetic (polyester) Quilts are designed to be used in place of blankets and as such should have good thermal insulation properties. Polyester filled quilts can be washed or dry-cleaned Natural filling must be dry-cleaned. It adds elegance to the room. Commonly used fabrics - Brocade, Satin, Candlewick, taffeta It adds elegance to the room

2) Check the mattress, mattress protector.(Change the protector if soiled). 3) Lay the lie upon sheet with the fold in the centre of the bed standing at the foot end. 4) Lay the covering sheet with the fold in the centre wrong side up and should reach edge at the bed head (extra sheeting towards foot end). 5) Place the blanket 2 below the bed head. 6) Lay the crinkle sheet, same as the covering sheet, but the correct side up. 7) Tuck in all the sheets at the foot end to make a firm grip. 8) Miter both foot end corners and proceed towards the head board. 9) Straighten all sheets from the head end. 10) Tuck in the lie up on sheet & miter the corners. 11) Fold the crinkle sheet into the edge of the blanket. 12) Fold the covering sheet over the blanket and the crinkle sheet. 13) Measure 03 spans from the head end, and fold all 03 sheets down. 14) Tuck in the fold from both sides. 15) Go round the bed and give a final glance. Casing and placing pillows 1) Shake pillows well. 2) Case with clean pillowcases 3) Place bed, open ends at the middle if the beds are together r open ends away from the main door if beds are kept apart. Laying bed spread 1) Place bed spread on the bed

2) Ensure that it is straight, bottom is even, corners arranged neatly and overhanging ends (at pillow) are neat. 3.4 Cleaning Bathroom and Toilet 1) Remove soil linen, shake out and place in the soil linen hamper. 2) Empty waste and sanitary towel bin. 3) Bring in the caddy and sprinkle toilet cleaner into the W. C. 4) To clean the bathroom, start with the wall tiles. Use an allpurpose cleaner and scrub. 5) Remove all hair from the bath area (tub/shower area) and clean with a sponge and correct cleaning agent, paying special attention to taps, plug, chain, shower head and pipe, overflow, grab handles, shower curtain and rail. 6) Rinse bath area with clean hot/warm water. 7) Clean the W. C. preferably wearing rubber gloves. Use the toilet brush to scrub the bowl, inside and under the rim and bend of the W. C. Clean the cistern, handle, seat cover outside and inside, seat hinges, outside and behind the toilet bowl. Use a disinfectant if it is the house policy. 8) Wipe toilet roll holder. 9) Clean exhaust if necessary. 10) If there is a bidet, wearing rubber gloves, use sponge and appropriate cleaning agent, wash bidet inside and outside. 11) Close the door ajar

Work hygienically Use separate cloth to clean the toilet Check the towels before folding-replace if worn/stained

If the guestroom, is occupied be careful when moving guest belongings Ensure that the safety bath mat is clean Do not mix toilet cleaner with any other cleaning agent which may result in giving out poisonous fumes.


Health and Safety aspects in Housekeeping Safety Rules for rooms and housekeeping areas 1) Observe all general safety rules carefully. 2) Keep work areas and storage facility clean, neat and orderly. 3) Do not place supplies on top of lockers, hampers, boxes or any other movable items and containers at a height where they are not visible from floor. 4) Tools, equipment, machinery and work areas to be maintained in a clean and safe manner. Defects and unsafe conditions shall be reported to your supervisor. 5) Return tools and equipment to their proper places after use. 6) Keep glass out of linen. 7) Keep cords out of pathways. 8) Never smoke in the elevators. 9) Do not overcrowd the elevators. 10) Use caution when pulling containers on and off elevators. 11) Use the correct cleaning equipment for the job. 12) Do not leave room service trays in guest hallways. 13) Walk on the right side of the corridors. 14) Carry pointed objects with the sharp end down away from

you. 15) Never use a box as substitute for a ladder. 16) Put broken glass and metal waste in the proper containers. 17) Correct tripping and slipping hazards immediately. 18) Use handrails on stairways. 19) Report defective wiring, plugs and appliances to your Supervisors immediately. 20) Check the cord and plug of any electrical appliance before plugging in. Do not use faulty appliances. 21) Look for broken glass before kneeling on carpets or bathrooms tiles. 22) Report any evidence of careless smoking in guestrooms. e.g. burnt carpets or bedspreads. 23) Do not use bare hands to pull trash out of cans. 24) Be careful in the placement of luggage in guestroom and public areas. 25) Never attempt to carry more weight than you can handle safely. 26) Pick up any foreign matter/ object that guest may throw on stairs and floors. 27) Know the procedures for dealing with guests injuries and illnesses. 28) Be careful when emptying ashtrays. 29) Adequate lighting to be provided for the protection of both employees and guests. 30) Ensure hands are dry before handling electrical equipment.

Review Questions

1. What are the types of mattresses generally found in a hotel and what are the peculiarities of each. 2. What are the various types of bedding. 3. What is the procedure for cleaning bathroom and toilets.


_______________________________________________________________________ _ Contents Introduction 4.1 Guest room supplies 4.2 Stocking and arranging room attendants trolley 4.3 Entering the Room

4.4 Room Cleaning 4.5 Evening Turn down service 4.6 Cleaning toilet Review Questions _______________________________________________________________________ _ Introduction: Apart from the main function of making the bedroom and cleaning toilets there are other aspects that you will have to look into in the hotel environment. This unit will focus on these aspects.

Objectives At the end of this unit you should be able to, 1. Understand the difference between guest supplies and amenities. 2. Method of stocking and arranging the work trolley. 3. Describe the method of entering the room. 4. Correct system of guest room cleaning and the order. 5. Prepare a guest room for the evening. 4.1 Guest room supplies

Guest room supplies can be broken down into two main categories. 1. Guest giveaway - These are items that the guest is either expected to use up or take away upon departure. 2. Guest essentials - These are items that are essential to the guest room but that will not normally be taken away when the guest is leaving.

List of Guest Give Away 1. Matches 2. Laundry bags 3. Laundry lists (laundry and Dry Cleaning) 4. Stationery 5. Pens 6. Note pads 7. Postcards 8. Magazines 9. Plastic utility bags 10. Disposable slippers 11. Tent cards 12. Individual packs of coffee 13. Candy mints 14. Toilet tissues 15. Toiletries 16. Facial tissues 17. Sanitary bags 18. Soap 19. Shower caps 20. Sewing kits 21. Razor Guest essential items 1. Linen 2. Ash trays 3. Water tumblers 4. Coat hangers 5. Flasks

6. Telephone directories 4.2 Stocking and arranging room attendants trolley For the professional room attendant, the set of tools to do his/her job come in the form of the various cleaning supplies and equipment, linen, room accessories and amenities that are necessary for preparing guests room. In a sense, the Room Attendants cart could be regarded as a giant tool box stocked with everything necessary to do an effective job. A well organized and stocked cart is a key to efficiency. It enables the room attendant to avoid wasting time looking for a cleaning item of making trips back to the linen room for more supplies. The specific amount of items loaded into a cart will vary according to the types of rooms being cleaned, the amenities offered by the property, and of course the size of the cart itself. A room attendants cart is generally spacious enough to carry all the supplies needed for the days room assignments.

How to stock a caddy and a trolley Stock caddy if separate, or caddy style trolley top, with cleaning agents and materials according to house policy. The caddy usually contains the following items. Cleaning agents according to house policy. Bottle brush. Cleaning cloth and sponge. Items carried on a trolley

Linen- Single and double sheets, pillow slips, towels, spare blanket, mattress protector etc. Guestroom supplies such as toilet paper, shampoo, shower gel, soap, matches, stationery etc. Floor map/broom Upright vacuum cleaner

Stock trolley with room supplies according to the house policy and linen according number of departures, plus some extra to allow for changes or damages

Stock the linen on trolley with folds facing outwards. This makes it easier to count and remove linen Attach clean bag for soiled linen to one end of the trolley and refuse bag to other When in use place trolley outside, in front of the room where you are working (not across in corridor)


Entering the Room Prior to reporting on a floor a room attendant already knows the status of a room in her given area of work. The room attendant should prioritize the rooms to be cleaned on the basis of immediate needs. However the normal practice is to clean the vacant rooms first and then departure rooms, make up rooms, and finally occupied rooms. For occupied rooms check for any Do not disturb signs on the doorknob. Knock at the door firmly with the index finger knuckle announcing clearly Housekeeping. If, no answer

from the room repeat the action, and after a few seconds open the door announcing your entry. The room attendant has to keep in mind not to enter occupied guestrooms until the guest has asked him/her in. It is very important to remember the guests privacy is the most important aspect and the room attendants have to keep in mind when entering a room. Therefore, the room attendant should knock on the guest room door, using the knuckles of the fingers softly. This also prevents any damage to the door, and also does not disturb the guests. . It is important too that the room attendant announces housekeeping. The room attendant has to keep in mind not to enter occupied guestrooms until the guest has asked him/her in.


Room Cleaning Systematic approach to guest room cleaning. Enter the room Switch on lights Air out the room Switch off lights while checking the fused off lights. Remove food trays / empty bottles Remove ash trays / waste bins Strip the bed Make the bed Clean the bath room Dust the furniture and fittings Replenish the guest supplies give always

Report maintenance defects Final checking of the room Deodorize the room Return used linen Make the room status.

Order of Cleaning Rooms A) Arrival Room 1 Arrival rooms are normally serviced before vacant, checkouts and occupied rooms, as the guest is expected to arrive any time during the day. 2 A thorough cleaning is not necessary, but should check on the bed linen (to make sure that no one had used the room) and toilet (for the same reason). 3 The lights and other electrical appliances to be checked and faults to be reported and ensure that they are put in order before the guest arrive. 4 Dust all surfaces. 5 Lock the room and fill in the room status report correctly. B) Vacant Room 1.Vacant rooms are normally serviced before checkouts and occupied rooms, as they will be sold by the front office. 2.A thorough cleaning is not necessary, but as check on the bed linen (to make sure that no one had used the room) and toilet (for the same reason).

3.The lights and other electrical appliances to be checked and faults to be reported. 4.Dust all surfaces. 5.Lock the room and fill in the room status report correctly.


Departure Room The departure rooms must be completely serviced for the arriving guest. 1. Place trolley with room cleaning equipment, clean linen, stock of guestroom supplies, cleaning agents etc. outside the room. 2. Knock on the door and enter according to the correct procedure. 3. Switch on all lights, as departure guestrooms are very dark on entry. 4. Open the night curtain (thick curtain) and day curtain (sheer curtain) to let in sunlight. 5. Now switch off all lights, air conditioning/heaters, while checking for fused bulbs/defects in the room and in the toilet and inform the supervisor or desk attendant according to the hotel policy. 6. Check for left behind property and report if any. 7. Remove food trays and empty bottles from the room before opening window and actual cleaning is carried out. Methods adopted by different hotels are as follows: i. Call room service to clear up food trays/ used cutlery and crockery. ii. Remove empty bottles and food trays to the service area of the floor and inform room service to collect them from

there. These should not be left on corridors, as it is unsightly, as well as may cause accidents. 8. Empty waste bins and ashtrays. 9. Open windows to air room if it is the policy of the hotel. 10. Defrost mini fridge if necessary and clean thoroughly paying attention to ice box, shelving, undersides and exterior. (If defrosting is necessary disconnect it as you start cleaning the room.) Emptying and Cleaning Waste Containers and Ash Trays 1. Pick up any loose soil. 2. Check for any lighted cigarette ash in waste container/bin before placing any inflammable material. 3. Remove soil to dust bag in room attendants trolley. 4. Check and clean waste container duster. 5. Replace container according to hotel policy. Ash Trays 1. Check for cigarette butts. 2. Cover used ashtray with a fresh one before picking it up if the guest is in the room and the fans are on. 3. Remove ash to a given to a given non-inflammable container, never in to a bin with paper and other waste which might catch fire. 4. Replace clean ashtray according to hotel policy. (wash, wipe dry and replace according to policy.) Checking and tiding furniture

1. Check for damages, stains etc. 2. Every item should be free of dust 3. Brass, silver caving on furniture should be well polished 4. Arrange as per house policy.

Notifying Discrepancy Inform supervisor / desk attendant regarding any item needing repair. Over night damages, articles missing from rooms and left behind property etc. to be brought to the notice of the supervisor.


Occupied room 1. Place the trolley with the room cleaning equipment, clean linen, stock of guest room supplies etc. outside the room 2. Knock on the door and enter according to the correct procedure. If the guest is in the room, apologize and say you will come back later or ask permission to clean the room. 3. 4. 5. Switch on all lights, as occupied guestrooms are very dark on entry. Open the night curtain (Thick curtain) and day curtain (Sheer curtain) to let in sun light Now switch off all lights, air conditioning/heaters, while checking for fused bulbs and defects in the room and in the toilet.


Remove food trays and empty bottles from the room before opening the windows and actual cleaning begins. Methods adopted by different hotels are as follows: a) Call room service to clear up food trays, used cutlery and crockery. b) Remove empty bottles and trays to the service area of the floor and inform room service to collect them from there. These should never be left on the corridors, as it is unsightly, as well as may cause accidents.

7. Open windows to air the room if it is the policy of the hotel. 8. Empty waste bins and ash trays. 9. Guest night cloths to be folded neatly and placed in a pre arranged place as per the standard procedure of the hotel. If wet, on the cloth line in the bathroom 10. Strip beds: Remove pillow cases and place pillows on a chair. Pick up a crinkle sheet, shake out, and place on a chair. Pick up blanket, shake out and place on a chair. Pick up covering sheet (2nd sheet), shake out. Pick up lie upon sheet (1st sheet), shake out. Remove mattress protector if soiled. Place soil linen in the soiled linen bag in the Room attendants trolley. 11. Collect fresh linen from the trolley to make the bed. Place on a clean surface. 12. Make beds. 13. Leave the dust to settle in the room and clean the bathroom.

14. Damp dust all furniture. Start from the door, and then move in a clockwise or anti clockwise direction, dusting every item in contact with the wall, then all the furniture in the center of the room WITHOUT disturbing guest belongings. 15. Check and replace used guest amenities. 16. Replace clean waste bins and ashtrays. 17. Close windows, adjust the curtains. 18. Clean the floor according to the type of the floor. Ensure that under the furniture is well cleaned. 19. Take a last look at the room. 20. Fill-in the room status report. Guest supplies will only be replenished when required. Tidy all guest clothing, and other belongings. Do not open closets and drawers. Excuse yourself if guest returns and ask for permission to continue or ask whether to return later. Do not dispose any newspapers, magazines unless they are in the waste paper bin. Do not use any item belonging to a guest. Do not use any guest room facility.


Evening Turn down service It is the term given to the service of a guest bedroom in preparation for a good nights rest? This service is offered in all star class hotels. It should be done in the evening from between 6.30p.m.when the guest is out of the room at dinner.

Procedure most often followed is i. Wheel the trolley to (evening arrival and occupied) room door. ii. Knock, announce housekeeping iii. Enter according to the correct procedure. If the guest is in the room, ask for permission to clean the room or say you will come back later. iv. Empty wastepaper bins and ashtrays. v. Call room service to clear food trays and empty bottles if any or remove them to the service area. vi. Remove potted plants to the balcony or tag and remove them to the service area vii. Remove bed cover- fold and place on a pre arranged place. viii. Turn down- Crinkle sheet, blanket and covering sheet at an angle of 90 from the side the guest is most likely to get in to bed or it may be done according to the hotel policy. ix. Place nightclothes on fold and slippers beneath x. Place breakfast card, good night tribute on the pillow or as per hotel policy. (in some hotels a flower is also placed with the good night card wishing the guest a good nights sleep) xi. Use mosquito net if available or use vapor mat/coil as hotel policy. xii. Check and wash water tumblers refill fresh water. xiii. Replenish Used guest supplies and give a ways xiv. Close both sheer and heavy curtains, remember to check and latch windows, balcony doors. xv. Switch on bedside lamps, fans, air-conditioners or heaters, according to the hotel policy.

Any doors with Do Not Disturb card and return the status report to the housekeeping desk before you go off duty.

Most star class hotel place digestive chocolates on the bedside table as a good night tribute.


Cleaning toilet 1. Flush the W.C. 2. Wash and clean wash basin and wipe dry the surrounding area. 3. Wipe dry bathtub and surrounding areas including the shower curtain 4. Wet towels to be replaced with dry towels 5. Replenish toiletries such as soap, toilet paper, and face tissues if necessary.

Review Questions 1. Make a list of 15 items of guest giveaways. 2. What is the systematic approach to cleaning a guest room. 3. What do you mean by an evening turndown service and when is it done. What is the procedure followed.

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Introduction 5.1 Housekeeping Guestroom Inspection 5.2 Areas guest will notice and may complain 5.3 Introduction to Cleaning Public Area 5.4 Housekeeping Desk 5.5 Handling of keys in the Housekeeping Department Review Questions _______________________________________________________________________ _ Introduction: This unit deals with the housekeeping functions of other areas not covered in the earlier units.

Objectives At the end of this unit you should be able to, 1. Outline the Guest room inspection. 2. Describe the areas of Special interests. 3. Learn the methods of cleaning public areas 4. Understand the work carried out at the Housekeeping desk. 5. Handle Floor Keys.


Housekeeping Guestroom Inspection Rooms should be inspected in order to maintain standards. Room inspection not only help to identify ordinary problems with cleaning but

also helps to identify areas in the room needing deep cleaning or maintenance. A checklist should be planned for the rooms being checked. This is then taken by the supervisor in to the room where he/she makes note of any faults. The list is then handed to the room attendant concerned, who corrects the faults. The supervisor returns and rechecks the room before approving and giving the front office as ready for sale. Whether you are a supervisor responsible for a large section of rooms or a room attendant responsible for checking your own rooms, it is essential that the guests comfort is your main concern. When guests are away from home, the bed and the bathroom facilities are very important. 1. Work systematically around the room from the door, checking everything for cleanliness, presentation, maintenance and required supplies. 2. Maintenance requirements should be reported. 3. Inspect checkout rooms as soon as possible after they have been put in order. A checkout room should not be out-of order over an hour after a guest departs. 4. At least every hour during the shift, pick up list of checkout rooms to be made up. 5. Inspect bathroom using an appropriate checklist. 6. Inspect bathroom as in a vacant room. 7. Inspect beds to see that linen has been changed and beds properly made. Lift spreads and blankets to determine this. 8. Inspect carpet and windows for cleanliness. 9. Inspect walls and ceilings to see if they need washing or have cracks. Check pictures to see that they are clean and hung straight. 10. Check lamps to see that they are dusted, in working order, their shades in good condition, and bulbs are of correct wattage.

11. Inspect clothes closet to see that walls are free of baggage marks, shelf and floor are clean, clothes pole is dusted, lining paper clean, pants hanger attached to wall or door and not bent out of shape, closet has standard set of hangers and laundry bags. 12. Inspect the mini bar and restock if it is house policy. 13. Metal fixtures on all furniture such as drawer handles, doorknobs etc. should be checked. 14. Inspect night table for memo pad, breakfast menus, etc. Check telephones to see that it is working properly, inspect mouthpiece for cleanliness, and check radio to see that it is working. 15. Check if telephones are disinfected and telephone directories properly placed. 16. Inspect all areas to ensure that they are correctly supplied. 17. Inspect wastebaskets. 18. Inspect all furniture. 19. Check vents to see they are clean and working 20. Ensure all lights are turned off during day. 21. Inspect thumb bolt on connecting doors to see that they are safely locked. 22. Check that the thermostat is set according to hotel policy. 23. In an occupied room-inspect room to see that it is generally neat in appearance and the bathroom are supplied according to standard, and guests belonging are not disturbed during inspection. If the guest has adjusted the thermostat, do not reset. 24. Long staying guest has their own routing which must be respected. For example if the guest has requested for extra towels the supervisor should ensure that the requested quantity is supplied daily. 25. Give room a final check before closing the door, making sure that no items are disturbed during checking. In order to maintain set standards of cleanliness the attention to detail is vital. 5.2 Areas guest will notice and may complain

Dirty linen and towels Missing essential supplies such as ashtrays, soap, glasses, coat hangers, stationery Toilet blocked, very dirty and defective Dripping taps Faulty drapes Burnt out bulbs Defective plug bases Television not working properly Areas guest may not notice, but housekeeping should see Scale on tiles and sanitary fittings Insides of waste bin dirty. Small maintenance defects Dust Badly folded and presented towels and guest supplies Litter under beds and in corners Literature missing (Room service menus, advertising material etc,) Crushed stationery Drapes not hooked up Notepad written on Bed making not neat Cobwebs Cushions and chairs badly presented Unclean surfaces in the toilet (shower cubicle/ curtains, tile grout, mirrors, soap holders, vanity shelf corners etc.)


Introduction to Cleaning Public Areas The public areas- the lobbies, corridors, elevators, function rooms- of any hotel are always on stage, being scrutinized by residents and visitors. They must look their best at all times, lest onlookers infer from one visit when the lobby was littered or a chair back loose, that the whole establishment suffers from inadequate housekeeping and maintenance. Establishing and maintaining housekeeping procedures in public areas is just as important as it is in guestrooms. The housekeeping needs of public areas vary considerably from hotel to hotel, because of architectural differences, lobby space allocations, activities and guest traffic. Same basic principles for cleaning bedrooms apply to cleaning public areas. Guest may be present while you are cleaning. Therefore take necessary measures to disturb them as little as possible.

Front-of-the- House Areas The following areas are generally considered the Frontof-the-House Areas in hotels: 1. Entrance 2. Lobby 3. Public corridors 4. Elevators 5. Stairways 6. Public wash rooms 7. Food and Beverage outlets 8. Meeting and banquet areas

9. Swimming pool area 10. Health club and sports centre Heavy cleaning in most of these areas is done late at night or early in the morning, in order not to disturb guests and to avoid traffic periods. Cleaning Front of the House Areas Cleaning out sand urns and emptying ashtrays is a continual job in these areas. Keeping the rugs and floor mats clean is another on-going process. Except in emergencies, however, these two activities are the only major cleaning operations that are done during the day in a hotel lobby. Heavy cleaning, maintenance and repairs usually go on late at night when few guests are around to be inconvenienced. The common nightly lobby jobs in a hotel are: 1. Sweeping, Vacuuming, buffing or mopping floors. 2. Dusting furniture and window ledges 3. Emptying and wiping out ashtrays and wastebaskets. 4. Damp wiping all plastic laminate surfaces. 5. Removing stains or spots on walls and woodwork. 6. Spot cleaning glass and metal surfaces. 7. Removing all foot and hand marks from doors. 8. Cleaning brass door knobs or push handles. 9. Cleaning telephone booths and disinfecting telephones 10. Spot shampoo carpets when stains occur or shampoo carpets if heavily soiled. Jobs to be done on a frequent basis daily or every 2-3 days in front-of- thehouse areas include:

1. Polishing wooden furniture. 2. Spring cleaning of telephone booths 3. Vacuuming louvered doors. 4. Dusting ceiling vents. 5. Vacuuming base boards. 6. Vacuuming upholstered furniture and draperies. 7. Polishing lamp bases and any decorative items. 8. Cleaning all glass surfaces on a higher level 9. Cleaning door closers.

Light Switches Damp wipe, wipe dry and buff with a soft cloth. If there are stains use an appropriate cleaning agent. Mirrors Dust or damp wipe the surface. Buff with soft lint less cloth. If necessary, wash using minimum cleaning solution. Dust or damp wipe frame. Ensure that back of the mirror is not wetted. Notice Board Dust or suction clean depending on nature of surface. Care must be taken not to disturb notices. Periodically frame may require damp wiping, washing or polishing according to the type of material. Paintings and Pictures

Dust off suction clean frame. If required, damp wipe. Only clean frames of oil paintings. Glass covered pictures may be cleaned by dusting and buffing with a lint less cloth or by damp wiping if necessary. Any over wetting of glass frame may result in wetting of pictures, which must be avoided. Public and Circulation Areas Corridors, reception areas and lobby require high standard of cleaning and maintenance, the standard achieved reflecting directly on the establishment. Foyers, reception areas and waiting rooms can be subject to considerable soilage. This can be reduced by the use of dust control matting. 1. Start as early as possible or whenever the least number of people are around. 2. Collect all equipment required for cleaning. 3. Empty waste bins and ashtrays and damp wipe or wash as necessary. 4. Ventilate rooms. 5. Check for maintenance faults and left behind property as you work. Deal with according to house policy. 6. Dust or damp wipe moveable furniture. 7. Spot clean walls, particularly around doors and switches. 8. Dust or damp wipe moveable furniture. 9. Clean floors according to agreed method. (Sweeping mopping, vacuuming, buffing etc.) 10. Remove spillage and check clean floors as necessary. Periodic tasks 1. High dusting

2. Suction clean upholstery, radiators and curtains. 3. Scrub or strip floors and reapply polish. 4. Wash furniture, fixtures and fittings as necessary. 5. Deep clean upholstery and carpets. 6. Replace curtains if necessary 7. Wash walls, windows, blinds, ceilings and light fittings. 8. Preventive maintenance, e.g., application of polish to furniture. Pay attention toUnder chairs and tables Behind curtains Under cushions Inside flower vases and plant boxes When cleaning is completed, check Furniture is in proper positions Cushions are plumped and arranged neatly Pictures are leveled Lamp Shades straight with seams out of sight Sufficient ashtrays are placed Curtains hanging straight No dead flowers/plants


It is essential that stairways are safe. This will include ensuring that they are not likely to be slippery and nothing is left that will cause falls. When carrying out wet cleaning methods, clean half the width at one time and leave to dry before commencing other half. Care should be taken to ensure that cleaning solutions do not splash over the edges on to lower surfaces. Daily routine 1. Remove all litter. 2. Dust or damp wipe banisters and/or hand rail. 3. Clean string and spindles as necessary. 4. Spot clean walls, particularly around light switches. 5. Sweep or suction clean hard floors and damp mop. 6. Suction clean carpets. 7. Damp dust skirting boards or clean according to the type of surface. 8. Remove spillage as necessary. Periodic tasks 1. High dusting 2. Jogging of stair carpet. 3. Deep clean carpet. 4. Wash walls, windows, blinds, ceilings and light fittings. 5. Polish stair rods if fitted and if necessary.

Report any loose hand rail or torn floor covering Start at the top and work down Lifts

Lifts should be cleaned when traffic is lightest and not all at one time. Daily routine 1. Damp wipe and buff areas around signal button. 2. Dust, damp wipe or wash outer door as necessary and buff with a dry cloth. 3. Call lift and switch off. 4. Check for maintenance if all lights are working, carpet/floor covering in order, mirrors glass display not damaged. 5. Empty and clean ashcan. 6. Clean inner surface of door. 7. Clean tracks/grooves either by scrubbing with a damp brush or suction cleaning. 8. Dust or damp wipe all interior surfaces including control button panels as necessary and buff all metal surfaces. 9. Clean floor according to agreed method.

Cleaning Public Toilets 1. Assemble all necessary cleaning equipment and cleaning agents. 2. Place a signboard outside door, redirecting guest to other toilets if necessary. 3. Put on gloves and spray each toilet/urinal with toilet cleaner, allowing time for the chemical to work. 4. While chemical is working, damp dust air vents and light covers. 5. Empty and wash ashtrays. Empty and clean waste bins and sanitarybins. 6. Ventilate the area if possible.

7. Using neutral detergent, wash walls and doors. Pay attention to door tops and edges. 8. Using toilet brush, scrub area inside the bowl and under rim. 9. Clean toilet seat on top and under, flush and wipe dry with clean dry cloth 10. To avoid risk of infection, pay special attention to cistern handles and cubicle door handles, as they are touched before washing hands 11. Clean toilet roll holder and outside of disposal unit if available. 12. Wipe all taps free of water and buff to a shine 13. Clean each cubicle until all are completed 14. Replace toilet paper, making sure it unrolls to the front. 15. Using the toilet brush scrub each urinal. Work brush up under edges, around drain, outer surfaces and surrounding wall surfaces. 16. When all urinals and surrounding walls have been scrubbed, attach hose to tap and rinse all washed areas thoroughly. 17. Wipe dry all surfaces 18. Clean wash basin with neutral detergent and use small brush to clean around the taps, overflow and plug hole. Rinse with clean water, dry off with clean cloth. Polish taps. 19. Clean vanity counter surrounding wash basin and wipe skirting boards 20. Use a cleaning solution to clean dry cloth until smear free. 21. Replenish hand towels and soap etc. 22. Damp dust any wall cabinet or dispensing machines, replacing supplies if necessary 23. Clean floor according to surface. 24. Before leaving the toilet, do a final quality observation check.

Nightly cleaning Jobs in Dining Areas 1. Pull out tables and chairs.

2. Remove crumbs on seats with whiskbroom. Crevice tools on vacuums take considerable longer to do the same job. 3. Pick up large pieces of debris around each table before vacuuming to save wear and tear on vacuums. 4. Vacuum around each table. 5. Clean out tufted upholstery-on booth backs, especially those made of fabrics. 6. Wipe window ledges or other horizontal surfaces, table posts, legs and metal floor vents with a cloth dampened with allpurpose cleaner. 7. Wash vinyl booths or seats, bar stools and bar front with appropriate cleaner. 8. Clean telephones with appropriate cleaners. 9. Dust and polish metal chars. 10. Polish wooden chairs. 11. Polish foot rail and metal trim on bar. 12. Spot clean walls and if there is a counter, the front of it should be wiped.

Cleaning Executive / Administrative Offices The executive/administrative offices that require cleaning by housekeeping in a hotel are: 1. General Managers Office. 2. Resident Manager/Assistant General Managers Office 3. Rooms division managers office 4. Sales & Marketing Office 5. Director finance and Accounts Office 6. Food & Beverage office/Banquet office

7. Personnel Department 8. Engineering Office 9. Security Office 10. Executive Housekeepers office Most offices are in use during the day, so they must be cleaned early in the morning or at night. Offices can be cluttered with papers, files etc., thus making it difficult to maintain a high standard of cleanliness. The procedure for cleaning an office is similar to that for cleaning an occupied room. 1. Do not touch occupants belongings 2. Remove all rubbish, empty bins and ashtrays 3. Remove trays, cups and glasses 4. Open windows or turn on air-conditioning to ventilate room 5. Check for maintenance faults as you clean 6. Damp dust all surfaces, starting at the door and working your way around the room to the door again 7. Disinfect telephones 8. Polish any surfaces requiring any special attention 9. Clean all upholstery , using vacuum attachments 10. Clean floor according to the type 11. clean any adjoining toilet and wash room area 12. Close windows and doors before leaving area


Dust off, damp wipe tops, sides and legs. Do not disturb paper and files left on desks. Interior surfaces including drawers require suction cleaning, damp wiping or washing when desks are vacated. Other forms of maintenance are dictated largely by construction materials and type of surface. Leather coverings require periodic application of conditioner. Polish should only be applied occasionally and sparingly to appropriate wood finishes. Telephones Disinfect telephone paying special attention to mouth-piece and earpiece. Ensure it is dust and smear free.

Computer Room In computer rooms it is essential that dust levels, humidity and temperature remain within specific limits. Noise, vibration, electrical interference and build-up of static electricity should be avoided. Floors may have conducting properties and be anti-static. There are, therefore, a number of rules, which should be followed. 1. No dry dusting or sweeping. Dust should be removed by suction cleaners and damp, impregnated or static mops and mittens. 2. Dust control equipment must be cleaned elsewhere. 3. Unless specifically agreed with user, floor polishes should not be used. There are polishes specially formulated for conducting

floors, but their value is limited. The required conductivity of the floor must not be significantly affected. 4. Aerosol polishes containing silicones must not be used. 5. Wet cleaning should involve a minimum of water. 6. Detergents should leave no resinous deposit on the floor and should be used in minimal quantities. 7. Suction cleaners must be filtered, suppressed and silenced to required standards. 8. Scrubber polishers must be suppressed and should be fitted with a suction unit. Daily routine 1. Remove waste bins and empty elsewhere. 2. Dust or suction clean walls, ceilings, partitions, light fittings, air conditioning grills and unpolished furniture. 3. Remove heavy soiling by damp wiping with a detergent, which includes a cationic surfactant. Surfaces, furniture and fitting are checked in exactly the same way as for rooms, but because of the very large areas involved a detailed checklist should be used.


Housekeeping Desk In a small hotel operation, usually the entire housekeeping operation is centered on the linen room. Which is in addition, is used as Housekeeping office. Often, the Housekeeper occupies a section of the linen room, as his/her office.

However, in a modern and larger operation, the Executive Housekeeper would occupy an Executive office, from which he/she controls the operation. In such an operation, there is usually a Desk Control Attendant, who performs as a communicator and a coordinator of all housekeeping activities, who also performs the job of a secretary to the Executive Housekeeper. In a large operation the desk control operation is an important activity, as almost all Housekeeping activities are coordinated and controlled through this office. All or most of the following activities are coordinated by desk operation, in large hotel. a) All housekeeping personnel report to this office. b) Supervisors, room attendants and all other housekeeping staff members receive their station assignments, work orders and pass keys in this office. c) All housekeeping telephone calls are received and relayed through this office. d) All check-out and ready rooms are processed through this office. e) All rooms not cleaned by the specified time have to be reported to this office. f) All cleaning supplies and guest room supplies are issued from this office. g) All housekeeping passkeys are kept and controlled in this office. h) Lost and found records and items are kept in this office i) All dealings with guests such as requests for special services or items are channeled through this office.

j) Any reportable matters or emergencies are channeled through and coordinated by this office. k) Purchasing of housekeeping supplies and other materials are co-coordinated through this office. 5.5 Handling of keys in the Housekeeping Department There are different types of keys in hotels. They are1. Guest Room Keys 2. Duplicate Keys 3. Floor Section Keys 4. Floor Master Key 5. Master Key 6. Grand Master/Emergency Master Key 1. Room Keys Room Keys are given to guests on registration. This Key is usually on a key tag and only one key per room is available at the reception. 2. Duplicate Keys The duplicates of all room keys are with the Front Office Manager. They are kept under lock. In large hotels these keys are kept with the chief financial controller. 3. Floor Section Key

Used by the room boy/attendant to ease room cleaning. This key opens a section of rooms on a particular floor. The room attendant has this key round his/her should/ waist while on duty and will return it to the housekeeping desk at the end of the shift. 4. Floor Master Key The floor master key is used by the supervisor. This can open all guest room doors on a particular floor. This key too is handed in to the housekeeping desk end of the shift. 5. Master Key The Master key is handled by the Executive Housekeeper or the Deputy Housekeeper. This key will open all the guest rooms in a hotel.

6. Grand Master Keys This key is usually kept under lock with the General Manager and the Chief Engineer. This key can open all locks in the building. Key Control Maintaining a strict key control is one of the important aspects handled by the desk attendant. Each day keys should be sub-

custodies to employees who have a need for them by acknowledging the signature; they should be properly receipted for when turned in at the end of each workday. A key register will be maintained for this purpose. Keys must be properly accounted for at all times. Sample Key registerDate Key No. Time Out Taken By Time In Returned by

Card Key System Many Hotels use a Card Key System. This type of room locking mechanism uses regular door locks and special plastic cards that act as key to unlock doors. The plastic cards look like credit cards and have a magnetic strip. The system uses a computer, which codes the cards to lock and unlock doors. A card key system is initially expensive to purchase, however if a card is lost or stolen, the procedure for re-keying is quick and inexpensive, rather than re-keying the door locks, computer is used to create new room lock codes for each room. Master key may be created and destroyed and through the computerized card system. If a room attendant is responsible for cleaning rooms on more than one floor. The employee only needs one master card key rather than several floor masters.

Key Pouches

Room attendants are provided with a strap round key pouch to attach keys to their person so that they need not be unattached while being used. The section master keys are usually on lanyard (leather belt) with a slip ring that is attached to a key pouch. The key can be slipped in to the pouch when not in use. The section number can be marked on the pouch. When the key is worn, the lanyard is placed around the waist with pouch at the back. A pelican hook is attached to the slip ring allowing the keys to be carried in the pocket until they are needed.

Key Inventories The entire issue of department keys should be sight inventoried at the end of each day. The loss or misplacement of a section master key must be immediately reported to the management. Left behind Guest room Keys Guest Room keys left by departing guests and subsequently found by room attendants who are cleaning the rooms, must be returned to the front office according to the hotel policy. Such keys should not be kept on top of the room attendants trolleys due to security reasons.

Dos when handling keys

1. Sign the key register when receiving & returning keys to & from the desk. 2. Have keys attached to self by using the Key pouch while at work. 3. Keys left by guest in departure rooms to be handed over to the reception without delay. 4. If a key is lost or misplaced inform your immediate superior without delay. 5. Ensure identification before you open rooms for guests. 6. All keys should be sight inventoried on daily basis. 7. If a key is damaged inform your immediate supervisor. Donts when handling keys 1. Do not keep keys on the room attendant trolley 2. Do not exchange or hand over keys to another on guest room floors 3. Do not use keys to knock on doors 4. Do not use damage keys to open doors. Review Questions 1. Outline the guestroom inspection procedure. 2. What are the Front of the House Areas and what is the Procedure for cleaning it. 4. What are the activities coordinated by desk operation in large hotels.


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Contents Introduction 6.1 Linen room 6.2 Dealing with left behind property 6.3 Waste Disposal 6.4 Pest Control Review Questions _______________________________________________________________________ _ Introduction: In the previous units you learnt about the various areas that come within the responsibility of the housekeeping department. There are yet a few other areas that housekeeping has to look after and in this final unit we will learn about them.

Objectives At the end of the lesson you should be able to, 1. Understand the Linen Room operation 2. Dealing with Left behind property 3. Disposing waste and garbage. 4. Learn the methods of eradicating and controlling pests.


Linen Room The linen room is the central depot for all linen and from it sufficient clean linen, in good condition, are distributed throughout the hotel. It is far more than a place to receive and issue linen. It is the housekeeping headquarters and is considered the heart of the housekeeping department. Some of the activities that take place there are All housekeeping personal report to the linen room. In hotels which does not have a desk control office, all staff receives their work assignment/keys etc. from the linen room All housekeeping telephone calls, messages are received and relayed through the linen room. (In the absence of a desk control office) All check out rooms and ready rooms are processed through this office. (In the absence of a desk control office) All supplies are stored and issued from the linen room. Handling laundry Handling staff uniforms Handling lost and found Handling guest loan items All working records are maintained in the linen room.

Requirements for a linen room Room should be large enough to accommodate all linen used in the hotel /shelves.

It should be closer to the laundry or if the hotel uses the facility of a laundry off the premise, loading /unloading area should be closer to the linen room. It should be a room, which can be a cleaned easily; floor should be able to resist the effects of movement of heavy trolleys. Normally linen rooms will have non porous floors, walls and surfaces. Good lighting, ventilation, and adequate heating are a necessity. A tailoring section should be available with one or two sewing machines for mending and tailoring uniforms and hotel linen. Stable type door to enable easy exchange of linen and to prevent unauthorized personnel into the L/R. Work carried out in a linen room Exchange of linen 1. This may take place by soiled linen being directly exchanged for clean over the counter by maid, steward, kitchen porter etc. 2. Collected by the linen porter at the floors at a set time each day and the clean linen delivered to the floor later during the day. 3. Dispatched down a linen chute by the linen room attendant in the presence of the floor supervisor/ room attendant and the floor stock of clean linen made up later in the day by room attendant or linen porter. Dispatch 1. Whatever the method used the soiled linen should be sent to the linen room as soon as possible to prevent misuse. 2. If it is left lying in damp condition, ironmould and mildew can occur. (These stains need special treatment for their removal)

3. Badly soiled linen should be sent to the laundry separately from other soiled linen so that thy may receive special attention. 4. A list of soiled linen sent to the laundry is given to the laundryman and a duplicate is kept in the linen room. When receiving clean linen it should be checked against the list. Inspection 1. Clean linen is removed from the baskets soon after it is delivered. 2. Linen should be counted and if there is a discrepancy, not and inform laundry without delay. 3. Linen should be inspected for damages for repairs Stains Very bad creasing Articles belonging to other hotels Worn out/light linen 4. Linen room attendants can inspect large articles alone by holding them up to the light, by placing them flat on a table. 5. Regular inspection of linen will help maintain high standard of linen throughout the establishment Linen storage 1. Storage area should be dry and well ventilated 2. Storage shelves should be firmly fixed ,slatted to help adequate air circulation, clearly marked for each type of linen, preferably to reach the ceiling and space at the bottom for easy cleaning . 3. All small items of linen are stored in bundles of ten, and large bulky items are stored in bundles of 5. Bundles should be placed on the shelves fold facing outward for easy counting.

4. Linen is generally rested on shelves once they are returned from the laundry and before being used, as it is believed that this prolongs the life span of linen. 5. Linen storage should be done with due consideration to health and safety aspects.


Dealing with left behind property All articles left behind or apparently lost are normally directed to the housekeeping office, in a hotel where they are listed in a lost and found book/register maintained for this purpose. The left behind log book / register All items turned in to housekeeping department for safe keeping well be logged in a lost & found book/ register, containing details such as date, serial number, description of item, where found, by whom, department, signature and remarks . When an item is found during the day it will be directed to housekeeping office and during night shift it will be handed over to the duty manager or the front desk for custody control, which will then be directed to the housekeeping office subsequently. 1. All items turned into housekeeping department will be entered in the log book/register with the information indicated above. The entry will be assigned the same serial number indicated in the lost & found articles slip. Usually there are three copies and are serialized for easy reference. ( with the modern concept of computer system there is a possibility of records being maintained, and information retrieved by the

front office as and when necessary, where the housekeeping need not be contacted for information regarding every inquiry.) 2. The item will then be placed in an opaque bag and the first copy of the lost and found slip will be attached. (Hotels, which do not use a slip, may write the serial number on the bag) 3. The item will then be placed in the lost and found store room /cupboard 4. In a large hotel, the desk attendant will be responsible for making all entries, maintaining records, of the lost and found store room /cupboard. In a small hotel, the linen room supervisor usually performs this duty. 5. The person responsible will ensure that at the end of the day, the lost and found register is locked and kept. Left behind inquiries All enquiries about items lost or missing will be referred to the housekeeping department. Any inquiry made from any employee in the hotel about a lost item will be referred to the desk attendant or the linen room supervisor. Disposition of items Upon the inquiry of a guest about a lost item, the desk attendant will first check the lost & found book/register. If the item is recorded, he/she will proceed to the lost & found storeroom or cupboard and actually locate the items. Once the attendant has the

item in hand, he/ she may then inform the guest that the item is in the hotel. If the guest is in the hotel after ascertaining the rightful ownership of the item, the guest will be required to sign the lost & found book/register, as to having received the item. The name, address and other particulars pertaining to the identity of the guest will be recorded in the register. If a guest makes any inquiries at night, the duty manager will make a log entry regarding the same, so that the housekeeping can follow up the inquiry, during operational time. Disposition of items not claimed The length of time that the items are held in the housekeeping department varies from one hotel to another, depending on the policy of the hotel. Usually the items maintained in the lost & found will be held for 3-6 months. If at the end of this period, the items have not been claimed by the rightful owner, it will be offered to the finder, or auctioned as per hotel policy. If the finder desires the item, the executive housekeeper authorizes the removal of the property from the hotel and will issue him a gate pass. Disposition will be noted in the lost & found book/ register.


Waste Disposal What is waste? Waste is substance or material, which are considered to be unusable. Waste disposal is of paramount importance as it helps maintain a clean environment that is safe in all respects and which

is pleasant for both guest as well as staff and also to minimize unnecessary storage space. Waste disposal must meet five basic requirements. Security Safety Hygiene Salvage Environment Types of waste 1. Domestic and commercial 2. Clinical waste 3. Industrial waste Domestic and commercial Waste Type of waste (a) wet Example Food Methods of Disposal May be sold as swill /fodder or incinerated (b) Dry Paper, cardboard, Rags May have a salvage value. May be stored and sold separately or incinerated. (c) indestructible (d) aerosols Bottles, cans Metal cans May be sold or salvaged Must not be incinerated.

Clinical waste

Such as dressing, swabs, disposal scalpels, syringes etc. Should be considered infected and therefore handled with care. All sharp instruments (syringes & scalpels) placed in a sharps box to prevent infection. All waste should be placed in sealed sacks and incinerated. Industrial waste Includes any material arising from industry. These will include poisonous chemicals and radioactive byproducts. There are strict laws regarding the disposal of such waste. Methods of collection The general methods of collection will depend on a) The type of waste b) The type of establishment Kitchen waste Includes wet, dry and indestructible waste. a) Wet waste Can be passed down disposal units or placed in large plastic bins which are kept covered at all times. b) Dry and indestructible waste

May be placed in plastic or waterproof paper sacks .The lids of these bins should be kept closed. When of the bin is full should be removed to waste storage areas. All cardboard and paper items should be removed separately as they are recyclable. Hospital waste All clinical waste should be placed in coded sacks and incinerated. General waste Arising in areas of the hotels such as rooms, public areas, offices etc., Usually deposited in metal / plastic bins. These bins may/ may not be lined. Emptied into larger plastic/ paper sacks. These will be sealed when full and removed to waste storage areas. Frequencies of waste collection Should be removed at least once per day or more frequently if necessary. Wet waste (food) should be not left overnight but should be removed to the waste storage area immediately after completing work at the end of the shift.

Waste Disposal Equipment

Bins and sacks Chutes Disposal units (for wet waste) Compactors Glass breakers Storage of waste Storage areas must be Clean at all times Well ventilated Cool Dry inaccessible to vermin A tap should be provided out side the waste storage area and provision made to drain water in to an external gully. Traps used Grease trap in kitchen to prevent discharge of grease in to sewers. Water traps in toilets to prevent foul odors entering a room. Points to remember 1. Never use bare hands in a waste container. 2. Hands should be washed after transferring waste 3. All bins should have lids 4. All sacks should be removed when they are full

5. Waste containers should be emptied at least once a day. 6. Containers should be washed; rinsed and dried (a disinfectant can be used in the last rinse). 6.4 Pest Control Pests are insects/animals harmful to plants, humans, food etc. Although living standards have improved; the closed atmosphere of todays hotels provides ideal conditions for the breeding of pests. Some pests are carried by people or their pets, others fly in through open doors and windows none is welcome. The sight of a pest will give most people a bad impression, suggesting poor standards of cleaning and maintenance. The ideal conditions are Moisture Warmth Food Time Commonly found pests are Insects Rodents Fungi Fumigation Should be carried out by experts/experienced personnel Usually done on contract basis

Procedure All linen will be removed from the room. All curtains will be removed from the room Carpets will be covered with newspaper or polythene, as chemicals may cause colour to run /fade Place carpets will be removed. All drawers, closet doors will be opened Window, doors will be locked properly A/C or heaters will be switched off Poisonous gases will be sprayed in to the room

After fumigation the rooms will not be sold for approximately for 5 to 7 days. Thorough cleaning will be done, before the room is put back in order. Review Question 1. What are the requirements of a linen room and what type of work is carried out in such a room. 2. As a hotel staff, what would you do if you find any articles left behind by a guest. 3. What is waste and what are the different types.

Volume 3




Contents Introduction 1.4 1.5 1.6 The Role Food & Beverage Operations and its Importance Types of Restaurants Restaurants in relation to other Departments in a Hotel

Self Study

Objectives We will discuss the role of the food and beverage department in relation to the other departments in a hotel. Remember here, that the main products that are sold by a hotel are rooms and food and beverage. In this sense, the food and beverages department and the front office/reception acts as the sales departments, and the Kitchen and Housekeeping departments as production departments. Introduction Food and Beverage reflects the image of the hotel more than any other department. Rooms are quite standardized in hotels and it is the Food and Beverage operation, which makes each of the hotels different from one another. The food and beverage operation is where one finds the most amount of guest/staff contact. Thus the service standard of a hotel is judged primarily through its food and beverage operations. Food and Beverage makes or breaks the reputation of hotels. The image of the hotel is based on what the guest sees, and the most noticeable aspect for residents as well as the non residents is the standard of food and beverage operation.

The Food and Beverage operation is more complex and important than any other service provided in a hotel in the context of obtaining publicity and creating an overall image. People want to stay in hotels providing good food. In hotels likewise it has been the food more than anything else that has created hotel and hoteliers reputation.

1.1 The Role of F&B Operations and its Importance Through most of the first half of the 20th century Food & Beverage occupied a minor position of importance in the minds of many hotel operators. In some cases it was treated as a necessary evil - A service to be available in case some guest should desire it. From an economic standpoint it was important to attempt to break even, with emphasis on the rooms, because this was where the money was. As long as one could fill the guest rooms, the profit figures of Food & Beverage was relatively unimportant. The concept changed gradually towards 1960s. Hoteliers started wondering whether there were profits to be made in Food & Beverage. The answer appeared to be affirmative. After all restaurants, whose only source of income was Food & Beverage sale, had made profits for years. Even in big cities, where eating out has been famous for many decades, hotel restaurants were often considered as too expensive. Most hotel guests too used to go to individual restaurants in big cities instead of patronizing the hotel Food & Beverage outlets. Improving profits and standards, cutting down costs, and marketing the Food & Beverage outlets in five star City hotels seemed extremely difficult. In fact it is still a difficult task. It was established that the limited managerial ability of the traditional Catering Manager, Head Cook and the restaurant Head Waiter who came up the ranks, seemed to be insufficient to face the new trend and demands of the Food & Beverage operations, which indicated high complexity in all the aspects. The concept Food & Beverage Manager combining the management skills with the technical know how proved to be a satisfactory alternative. This new concept was accepted by leading hotels all over the

world. Today the F&B Manager, who coordinated all operations relevant to F&B activities from purchasing up to billing stage, has become an accepted feature of the majority of hotels.


Types of Restaurants

In many large hotels today there are several Food and Beverage outlets featured for the convenience of guests. These often include a restaurant offering an elaborate menu based on continental cuisine as well as specialty restaurants, often a Grillroom, Coffee shop, Night Club or a Discotheque. We also see a variety of Restaurants such as National, Specialty and fast food serving units.

Categorization can be broadly based on the type of food served, its standards and the type of restaurant. Coffee Shops
Most modern hotels have incorporated the American style coffee shop for Breakfast, Lunch, Dinner and any other snack meal. Usually a coffee shop in a hotel is situated closer to the lobby area, where the guests access in a hurry. Dcor will be very bright and colorful. A quick service is offered. Mostly it is the plated service, which is practiced. A coffee shop is normally opened round the clock [24 hours]. The type of food offered in a coffee shop needs minimum time for preparation. There will be an ala carte menu throughout the day together with a table dhote menus/buffets for Breakfast, lunch and dinner (we will discuss these terms in details a bit later on in the unit). Mostly patronized by business clients who need a snack in a hurry and those who work in and around the city location. More recently, some big hotels have introduced different theme nights featuring the specialty cuisine in coffee shops, such as Sri Lankan night, BBQ night, Seafood night etc.

International food festivals/promotions organized by some 5 star hotels are sometimes held in coffee shops.

Pool Side Terrace Snack Bars

Found in open areas around swimming pools meant for relaxation and leisure. Mainly snack type of food and beverage offered.

Fine Dining Restaurants

The genuine continental style of cuisine confined to the higher-class restaurants. These restaurants usually attract affluent class of guests who are high up in the social ladder. All details with regard to food, beverage, service, dcor, equipment, lighting etc. will be given the finest care as possible. Therefore, we call them as Fine Dining Rooms/Restaurants. A traditional feature in this type of restaurant is the usage of authentic ingredients and an elaborate menu to go with it. An extensive wine list with a fine range of wines is usually found here.

Supper Clubs
These are exclusive food and beverage outlets somewhat similar to night clubs as they provide live music for dancing with a small dance floor. As far as food is concerned these are much more elaborate than a night club. As far as the quality of food, its selection and the service is concerned supper clubs are closer to the fine dining standards. There may also be a well stocked bar where guests could sit at the counter and consume drinks.

Grill Rooms
These specialize in meat dishes such as grilled steaks, chops etc, and mainly operate during dinner time. Usually a salad counter is available where guest can pick up their salads of choice to go with the meat dishes chosen. These are exclusive restaurants with exclusive service and wines.

Residential Clubs
These clubs usually offer an exclusive membership within a hotel to its resident guests as well as outside guests. These usually function during set times of the day or night according to the needs of guests. An elaborate menu and a beverage choice are offered. The member guests may keep their own bottle in the bottle bank/safe in the club.

Night Clubs
These are operated during night, and usually feature a live band or a DJ that provides music for dancing. There could be guest artists or special entertainment. The food service method will depend on the type of menu offered. Most nightclubs offer snack type of a menu with an elaborate beverage choice. It will have a well stocked bar with a full range of liquor. The decor is dark in color and mostly dim mood lighting.

This is a place where the music for dancing is provided by a disc jockey, which would be prominently placed on a higher location with a wide selection of records around him. There is a dancing floor with an illuminated floor with dim lighting provided for dancing. Generally food is not promoted much. It would have a well stocked bar probably with a sit-down counter around it. Young people who are attracted by the kind of music provided generally patronize it. The dcor is generally of contrasting colours. Furniture and fittings are generally of the less expensive types due to rough usage that it could be subjected to.

Specialty Restaurants
These are restaurants where a particular food specialty is featured. They may be Sri Lankan, Chinese, Indian, French, and Seafood etc. The authenticity of the specialty featured is of utmost importance and often the staff employed, particularly in food preparation is from the country of origin of the specialty or experts in that branch of cuisine.

Ethnic Restaurants
In modern times, it is now becoming possible to eat food based upon the specialties of almost any country. This could be due to the fact that big cities in the world have become increasingly cosmopolitan and also due to the increase in world tourism. These restaurants specialize in serving typical food of that country through the style of dcor and service offered.

Chinese Restaurants
These are very popular throughout the world. Emphasis has been laid out mainly on the food angle with a variety of dishes. There are some very fine first class Chinese restaurants where dcor, food, service and standards match performance of any other ethnic restaurant. The reason for the above statement is due to the fact that the ever increasing number of Chinese restaurants have sprung up mainly on commercial basis and neglected standards.

Italian Restaurants
These evolved from the pasta restaurants and now specialize in all types of Italian food. The distinctive style of service, often characterized by family type co-operation has probably been as big a factor in their sustained success as any gastronomic reputation. Service is given to please and is generally cheerful and swiftly attentive. An authentic pizza oven made out of bricks and visual cooking in front of the customer are the new trends seen. Other ethnic restaurants such as Japanese, Korean, Thai, German, Indian, Greek are also becoming very popular and gives the public a chance of having a variety as well as chance of tasting food of different nations and also being briefly introduced to the traditions and the customs of that particular nation through the service, dcor and atmosphere in the restaurant.


Other than the normal food and beverage facilities offered by a hotel, all the private functions such as weddings, luncheons, dinners, dancers, cocktail parties, conferences, meetings etc. are held in the banqueting areas. Service will vary according to the type of the function. Banqueting in a large hotel is a vast and specialized operation, as it would cater to a large number of guests. There may be a number of banquet areas found in a large hotel, such as ballrooms, smaller function rooms, boardrooms and meeting rooms to cater to various functions.

Out Side Catering

A food and beverage operation, which is done in premises outside the hotel, is called as this. This is usually handled by the banqueting department. A specialized transport system to carry food, equipment, and staff is an important part of this operation.

Restaurants in Hotels In Relation To Other Departments Again, when one looks at the food and beverage operations from a point of view of the total hospitality industry, we need to look at how it related to other departments in a hotel. However, keep in mind that there are stand alone restaurants (That are NOT a part of a hotel), and their operation does not have to relate to departments in a hotel).

Restaurant & bar operation in a hotel largely depends on many other departments for its effective and efficient functioning. Therefore the smooth coordination amongst these departments is vitally important. As the name suggests the food & beverage department comprise mainly of Food Production Department produces food Food Service Department sells food

The Reception will distribute the House Count to the restaurant. This will give the restaurant an idea of how many people are staying in the house, indicating a possible number of guests to anticipate for a meal. This is especially useful in a resort. The information found in the House Count are The number of guests in-house, Double occupancy, Name of guest, duration of stay, Meal plan, Special likes or requests by guests. This is a guideline for the restaurant indicating to whom credit facilities are to be extended, what number is expected to dine at the restaurant, who are entitled to meals etc. In computerizing hotels this information is usually available to restaurants via the computer. In this instance it would be the responsibility of the restaurant cashier to check credit facilities. It is the responsibility of the restaurant staff to hand over the duly signed credit bills to the reception/restaurant cashiers without delay. A delay could result in the guest checking out of the hotel without the bill being settled. The Housekeeping Department carries cleaning of the restaurant and bar areas. (Polishing of floors, vacuuming of carpets, cleaning of window/door panes etc.) The linen room which is a sub department of the housekeeping department will issue all linen required for the restaurant (tablecloths, slip cloths, napkins etc.) as well as staff uniforms. It is a must to keep in mind to avoid misuse of linen and uniforms at all times. The linen room will also depend on the restaurant to return soiled linen on time depending on the policy of the hotel. Handling of floral arrangements too is the duty of the housekeeping department.

Self Study 1. 2. 3. 4. List four types of restaurants and describe them in your own words. Read 5 10 advertisements for restaurants in the Sri Lankan newspapers. Try to ascertain the restaurants advertised by type. Why is it important for the food and beverage department to liaise closely with other departments in a hotel? Write a short paragraph. Re read the lessons, correct your answers if necessary.


Introduction 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Restaurant Equipment Heavy Equipment Glassware in Restaurants Table ware Chinaware in Restaurants Restaurant Linen Importance of equipment hygiene

Self study

Objective Now that we have an idea of the role of the food and beverage department and restaurants in the overall tourism and hospitality industry, let us start looking at the restaurant in detail. We will start the basic layout of a restaurant and then the equipment found in a restaurant.

Introduction Of course there are no typical restaurant layouts. The layout of a restaurant will depend much on the type of restaurant and the levels of service offered. Some of the main factors that influence the layout of a hotel are; What type of a restaurant is it the operation, and in turn, the layout of a deluxe restaurant will differ much from a fast food restaurant. For example a fine

dining restaurant may have more seating and floor space per guest than a fast food restaurant. What type of service is in operation A restaurant serving buffet style will have a different layout than a restaurant having full service. What type of guests frequent the restaurant Different clients may look for different types of dining experiences. So the restaurant needs to cater to the types of clients they are aiming at. The location The layout and design of a city restaurant will differ from a resort restaurant. Architecture and interior dcor This has a big influence on the layout of a restaurant. Remember, that the important fact is that the layouts will differ from one restaurant to another. 2.1 Restaurant Equipment

The types of equipment needed are small or large and will mainly depend on the type of restaurant to be equipped. There are many factors to be considered when selecting equipment for a food and beverage service area. 1. Flexibility of use 2. Type of service to be offered 3. Type of customer 4. Design 5. Colour 6. Durability 7. Ease of maintenance 8. Stackability

9. Cost & funds available 10. Availability in the future 11. Storage 12. Rate of breakage 13. Credit facilities extended 14. Discount offered 15. After sales service 16. Availability of spare parts 17. Finis 18. Eye appeal 19. Satisfy safety requirements 20. Material it is made out of 21. Productivity 22. Trends in the future 2.2 Heavy Equipment of a Restaurant The heavy equipment in a restaurant comprises mainly of furniture and trolleys or wagons. Side Station

Side station is also referred to as SIDE BOARD or DUMMY WAITER. It is a cupboard used to store equipment (cutlery, crockery, glassware, silverware, linen and other small material) needed by restaurant staff for the smooth operation during a meal service. The number of side stations found in a restaurant would vary with the number of covers. Generally each station would have its own side station.

A combined Open & Close Side Station

The design of side boards would vary from one restaurant to another depending on the type of operation, dcor etc. It is essential that the side board is of minimum size so that it does not take extra space which could be used to seat more guests. The material used for the side board should complement the overall atmosphere as this equipment is situated in guest view. The size/design usually depends on the following factors. The style of service and menu offered. The number of service staff working from one side station. The number of tables to be served from one side board. The amount of equipment it is expected to hold.

The height of the side board should not exceed 4 for the ease of usage of the top. The depth should not exceed 2. Length would depend on the above factors. The work surface should be made of heat resistant/washable material. In certain side stations electric hot plates are fixed on to the work surface in which case the hot plate top should level with the work surface. The top drawers are used to hold cutlery. Each

drawer should be partitioned for different types of cutlery and lined preferably with felt to prevent scratching of cutlery whilst removing. The cupboards/shelves should be lined with kitchen paper before placing any equipment. There could also be provision to hold dirty linen in which case it would be in the form of a bin with an automatic closing lid. Some side stations would be fixed on to castors for mobility. There are two main types of side stations; each has its advantages and disadvantages. 1. Close cupboard style requires much opening and closing of doors during service, and it requires more space. It does not however expose its interior to the guest and it is more complementary to the dcor of the room when not in use. 2. The Opened shelves style facilitates the service but at all times it should be maintained neat and tidy as this is in guest view. It is the duty of the entire restaurant brigade to clean and stack the side board before commencement of a service shift. The Station Head Waiter/Captain would be in charge. During the shift it is the duty of the staff working from the side station to keep it tidy. A well equipped side station saves many trips to the kitchen. Extra plates, glasses etc. can be brought on return trips from the kitchen and the side station could be re-arranged and re-stocked while the server is not engaged in serving the guests. The equipment would vary but as a rule the side station would have the following Menu Cards Folded Napkins Condiments Glassware Server Check Pads Doilies Coasters Cutlery Ash Trays Tooth Picks Crockery

Carving Trolley Found in exclusive fine dining class restaurants. It could be one of the expensive items depending on the type and design. As such great care should be taken in maintenance and usage of this trolley to ensure that it functions correctly.

As other trolleys this too enables staff for suggestive selling as the food to be sold is brought to the guest for his selection. The trolley has a container to hold hot water, under which a spirit lamp is placed in order to keep the water hot. There is a steam outlet in the water container, which should at no time be covered or blocked for safety reasons. There are usually places for containers for accompanying sauces. The shelf is used to carry plates and other condiments. On the side of the carving trolley a place to place a plate is found for ease of service.

Flambe Wagon

A flamb wagon is used for flavoring and flaming food in front of the guest in luxury restaurants. In this type of food preparation the aim is maximum eye appeal. The flamb wagon consists of a heating device which helps to flame dishes, drawers for cutlery, a compartment to hold bottles of liquor and a shelf to hold other necessary items. The heating would be with the aid of methylated spirit or gas. The flamb wagon is fitted on castors in order to be wheeled around the restaurant. Pastry Trolley

A trolley used to hold and carry pastries and sweets offered as desserts in a restaurant. It has a transparent top so that the food is visible without opening. It also has provision to hold cutlery and crockery that is required for the service of the item available.

Salad/hors doeuvre trolley

This trolley is used to display and serve salad from. Like for the pastry trolley it comes with a transparent cover. The main container is made with the provision to hold ice, and the salad ingredients are placed in containers (Ravieres) and placed on ice. This enables in retaining the freshness of vegetables for a long period of time.

Gueridon Table

This is a cart or small table, same height as the guests table, fitted with castors for easy moving aground. These types of tables are used in luxury restaurants where gueridon service is practiced. In this type of service the meal is served by, the waiter operating from the gueridon table. Liquor Trolley

Used in luxury restaurants to present liquor and mainly liqueurs to guests at the table.

Mechanical Equipment in a Restaurant Rechaud

A device used to keep food platters warm in restaurant. There are heating plates with suitable stand on which food platters are kept. The pre heated heating plates gives off heat for a while, keeping the food platters warm during service. Rechaud comprise of rectangular steel heating plates, which could be inserted into a steel casing. The casing has an electrical heating device operated with a thermostatic temperature control and a pilot light. Plate Warmer

This is an electrical device used in the restaurant to warm up plates to serve warm food. Like the rechaud this too comes in different capacities 12, 24, 36, 60 plates etc. The casing has an electrical heating device operated with a thermostatic temperature control and a pilot light. Plates are placed inside the plate warmer as a part of the pre preparation of the restaurant operation and the heating device warms the plate up to an acceptable level. The plate should be warm enough to keep food warm but not hot enough to burn a guest accidentally. By raising the top of the plate warmer, an automatic slide unlocks two vertical openings, thus creating easy access to plates. The plates should be thoroughly cleaned and wiped before placing in the plate warmer.

Hot Cupboard

This is the counterpart of the plate warmer to warm other service equipment of Platters, Tea Pots, Coffee Pots, Milk Jugs, Tea & Coffee Cups etc. This equipment is mainly found in the food pass of the kitchen. It too like the plate warmer has a thermostatic temperature controlled electrical device. Modern hot cupboards have hot air circulation fans for even distribution of heat. Other Mechanical Equipment Ice Maker

Large industrial grade ice makers that makes, and stores ice cubes for use in a restaurant. The capacity would depend on the size of the restaurant and the demand.


Industrial refrigerators that are more durable than household equipment and are designed to withstand frequent opening/closing. Bottle Coolers

Can be either display type where the bottles can be seen by guests, or the storage type, which are usually chest style in design. The latter are located mostly behind bars or in service areas.

Blenders & drink dispensers

Again, industrial models than are heavy duty and can make or store large amounts of juices at a time. Coffee Makers

There are two main types in operation. Cona machine as shown in the first fig. A coffee percolator with a (usually) glass jug that can be kept warm on a hot plate thats a part of the machine. Expresso Machine the 2nd fig. An espresso is a small, concentrated coffee

beverage, served in a demitasse (small coffee cup) cup. It has both a liquid and a foam element. It is made on a specialized machine that forces hot water through finely ground coffee that has been compacted that leaves a foam layer on the coffee.


Glassware in Restaurants

It must be noted that glassware also contributes to the appearance of the table and the overall attraction of the restaurant. There are many patterns of glassware available for selection. Except in certain Special Restaurants or high class establishments where Colored Glassware or Crystal-ware is used hotel glassware is usually plain but varies in shape and size. The commonly used glassware are

Water Glass

Red Wine Glass

White Wine Glass

Champagne tulip

Champagne saucer

Beer Goblet

Beet Mug

Beer Pilsner Glass

Old Fashioned Glass

Juice Glass

High Ball Glass

Cocktail Glass

Martini Glass

Sherry Glass

Liqueur Glass

Brandy Balloon

Care of Glassware Glassware should be washed in a mild detergent and rinsed in mild soda solution (1/2 tea spoon to a gallon of hot water). It is advisable to rinse glassware in warm water. Allow to dry and give a final buff dry with a glass cloth making sure that there are no traces of soap. Most modern food and beverage service areas now have dish/glass washing machines that washes and sanitizes glassware automatically.

Sort-out the glassware and store them on kitchen paper lined shelves. In storage, do not stack on inside another. Line them up from the back of the shelf to the front with the glasses turned over to prevent dust falling in. As for crockery it is advisable to have the chinaware covered with a dry cloth to prevent dust and germs setting on them. All glassware should be polished after they are washed and before being placed in racks on shelves. One should use special glass cloths for polishing, that does not leave lint on the surface of glass.

The alternative to this is the storage of glasses in plastic coated wire racks made specially for the purpose of stacking and sorting glassware (these containers have individual compartments for the storage of glasses). Remember to use a clean glass for each drink/use. Using the correct glass for drinks is very important. It will look better and professional, consistent, and the taste would be better. Hot drinks should be served in warm glasses and cold drinks in cold glasses. Always handle glasses by the stem or the bottom, and never the rim. The rim gets in

touch with guests mouth and its not nice, nor hygienic for that area to be touched. This goes for all glassware, whether clean, dirty, full or empty. Remember that all cracked or chipped glasses should be discarded immediately. 2.4 Table ware in Restaurant

The types and styles of tableware available are vast as each manufacturer competes to create a unique style and design to market his product. These would be available in various base materials. Gold, Pure silver, Plated silver, Steel, Stainless steel. These are sometimes imitated in aluminum and plastic or melamine ware. The price range too would vary according to the design and base material used. The type and the class of the restaurant have to be considered in purchasing same.

Tableware could be divided into

Cutlery Flatware Hollow ware

The cutting equipment used on the table All forms of spoons & forks These consist of items apart from cutlery and flatware made with silver or stainless steel such as tea pots, milk jugs, platters, sugar bowls, etc.

Meat\Menu\dinner Fork & Knife Fish Fork & Knife

Dessert Fork, Knife & Soup Spoon Spoon

Common flatware & cutlery Specialty Item Oyster Fork Grapefruit Spoon Corn on the cob Holder Table Spoon Tea, Coffee Spoon Butter Knife Cake Fork Iced Tea Spoon Service Fork or Spoon Steak Knife & Fork Cheese Knife Fruit Knife & Fork Pastry slice\ Server Grape Scissor Nut Cracker Lobster Pick Caviar Knife Snail Dish, Tongues, Fork Asparagus Tongues Lemon Press Care of Table ware If corrosive food chemicals are not removed by proper soaking, washing and rinsing procedure, table ware will loose its luster. Careful handling and cleaning of these items would prolong the life and its luster. Take particular care in removing items like lemon, vinegar, butter, ice cream, cheese, milk and table salt directly after use. These items could cause corrosion if left for too long.

These could be pre soaked immediately after removing from the table. Use a mild detergent in pre soaking. It is important that you use a plastic container for this operation as the steel will scratch the tableware. NEVER USE ALUMINIUM as this will result in discoloration on table ware. Do not pre soak for a long period of time. Wash with a sponge or plastic wool. DO NOT USE STEEL WOOL. Rinse in warm running water. Buff dry and sort the table ware. The ideal place for storage of cutlery flatware are in boxes or drawers lined with felt to prevent items sliding about and becoming scratched. Hollowware should be stored on shelves lined with kitchen paper.

Equipment Asparagus Holder Pastry Slice Oyster Fork Pastry Fork Corn on the cob Holder Lobster Pick Butter Knife Caviar Knife Fruit Fork\Knife Nut Cracker Grape Scissors Lemon Press Grapefruit Spoon Ice cream Spoon Sundae Spoon

Use Use to hold asparagus spears when eating Used to serve portion of gateau Shellfish cocktail\Oysters Afternoon tea Corn on the cob-one to peas each end Extract flesh from lobster claws Has a short broad base used for spreading caviar Dessert-Fruit basket To break or open nuts To cut open or hold grape Press wedge of lemon Grapefruit halves Used for ice cream served in coupe For sundaes and ice cream served in tall glass

Snail Tongues Snail Dish Snail Fork Cheese Knife Skewers 2.5 Chinaware in Restaurants

Used to hold the shell of snail A round dish with two ears and six indentations Extract flesh from the snail shell Cut and pick cheese off a cheese board Used for kebabs

Crockery or Chinaware is an important item in the presentation of a restaurant table. It must blend with the general dcor of the restaurant. A hotel generally uses one design and pattern of China but when a hotel has a number of different food service areas it is easier from the control point of view to have a different design in each outlet. Crockery could be divided as

Ceramic ware Porcelain ware Fine Porcelain ware Earthenware

e.g. Coffee shop/hard warring Finer kind of ceramic/easily breakable Expensive/Breaks easily. Toughened ceramic ware suitable to be used for Cooking, e.g.clay pots of all types for rice & curry.

The common types of Chinaware used in restaurants are,

Side Plates Sweet Plates Fish Plates Meat/Joint/Menu Plates Show Plates Soup Plates Tea Cups/ Underlines Salad Plates Tea Pots Milk Jugs Sugar Bowls Care of Crockery

6 in diameter 7 in diameter 8 in diameter 10 in diameter 12 in diameter Soup Cups/ Underlines Coffee Cups/ Underlines Egg Cups Coffee Pots Hot Water Jugs Butter Dishes

Washing up procedure is same as for Silverware. Chinaware should be stored in shelves lined up with kitchen paper. Sort up according to the type and store in piles of approximately two dozens. They should be stored at a convenient height for placing on and removing from the shelves without fear of accidents occurring. It is advisable to have the Chinaware covered with a dry cloth to prevent dust and germs setting on.

2.6 Restaurant Linen Restaurant table linen was traditionally woven in Damask. It has a better appearance than cotton ones. They are crispier, smoother, have a natural sheen and better defined folds but are of course more expensive. The double damask weave is used to create patterns to add attractiveness to table linen. Today table linen could be brought in various colors to suit the dcor or theme of the restaurant. They come in various finishes, e.g. Cotton, Polyester, Polyester-cotton, Handloom, etc. In hotels where there are many restaurants, it is usual to have different colors of linen to suit individual dcor which incidentally also helps for ease of control.

Common linen found in restaurants Table Cloths Due to the various size differences of tables it is difficult to lay down a standard size for the tablecloths. As a general rule, once the table is covered the fall of the tablecloth should be touching the seat of the chairs or approx. 8 of fall from all sides. Tablecloths

come in various shapes Square, Rectangular, Round, Oblong to fit different shapes of tables. Slip Cloths These are smaller size cloths as the name suggests slipped over the tablecloth in a diagonal manner. It has two main functions; 1. Enhances the overall layout of the table 2. Prevents the tablecloth getting dirty through spills etc. As for tablecloths is it difficult to lay down the size of the slip but generally 6 (inward) of the tablecloth should be seen after placing the slip.

Table Napkins These usually match the other table linen but in some cases they are in contrasting colors. The standard sizes are 20x20 or 16x16. Tray Cloths These are made according to the inner size of the restaurant and bar trays. They are usually made with cotton - which is non slippery.

Waiters Cloth They are generally made with cotton. It is used by the waiter to protect his hands and uniform during service. It is approx. 20x20 or 20x24.

Glass Cloth It is used to wipe glassware hence it is a must that glass cloth is made with a lint free material. Glass cloths are easily identifiable as GLASS CLOTH is printed in the center. The sizes are same as the waiters cloth. Buffet Frills These cloths are used to frill the side of the buffet table. Mainly made with a shiny finish cloth (satin), the length of these cloths are approx. 6 12 but could be longer depending on the requirement. Present day buffet cloths come permanently pleated, e.g. Silk, Chamois, velvet in printed and designed.

Gueridon Cloths Many restaurants use slip cloths as the Gueridon cloth as it is approximately the same size. Dusters Checked cloths of waiters cloth size used to wipe tables, chairs, Gueridon tables, side stations equipment. Moultons These are thick cloths placed over the table before placing the tablecloth to deaden noise and prevent the tablecloth slipping off the table. Moultons are slightly larger than the etc. It should be noted that these cloths should not be used to handle service

table with a

cord round, to firmly fit it onto the table. Originally, these cloths were

made with felt but due to the cost it is now made with thick handloom. Present restaurant tables have the padded finish which eliminates the necessity of a Moultons. Place Mats These are mats used in the center of the cover to protect the table. They are mainly used on high polished tables with a decorated top. They could be made with cloth or other material such as reed, paper etc. Even on a tablecloth, a place mat could be used to enhance the overall appearance of the table. Due to the high laundry costs and concern for high standards of hygiene tablecloths, table napkins, tray cloths, Gueridon cloths and place mats could now be purchased with paper as base material. These disposable paper products could be purchased according to the class of establishment. They are produced in various qualities and colors printed ones. Linen Control including

Linen is perhaps one of the most costly items within overheads; therefore strict control is very important. Restaurant is issued with the original stock of clean linen on receipt of a requisition. This par stock depends on its individual requirement and operation. The procedure of linen exchange is Clean for Dirty. That is when a dirty tablecloth is given to the linen room it is exchanged for a clean one. This is the simplest method of operation. After each shift it is the duty of the staff to bundle dirty linen. Napkins are bundled in tens nine are held and tied with the tenth. It should be noted to return dirty linen to the linen room without delay. Linen should be stored on paper lined shelves. They should be stored according to the type making bundles of tens. This facilitates stocktaking.

If extra linen is required, e.g. special functions, it could be done so with a special requisition duly signed by the restaurant manager and should be returned once the requirement is finished.


The Importance of Equipment Hygiene

Here are some pointers about proper equipment upkeep and hygiene. We will be dealing with hygiene in a bit more detail later on in the unit but as this is a very important aspect of your work a small section is produced here for you to read. It is essential that all food service personnel are aware of the fact that all foodservice equipment must not only appear to be clean, but also be hygienically sanitized before being used. Points to remember, All equipment used such as glasses, silver, china must be properly washed, rinsed and polished before being brought in to use, and must not be used if chipped or cracked in anyway. Remember that chips and cracks can result in injuries as well as they can harbor germs. All storage space for such equipment must be scrupulously clean. Refrigerators and other such storage space should be given special attention, as these can become breeding areas for germs and bacteria. The correct items of equipment should be used for the service of Food (never the hands.) All services and equipment used must be thoroughly cleaned and sanitized after the service is finished. Any left over food must be stored in the correct manner.

Cleaning of small equipment In most large hotels for cleaning small equipment such as cutlery, crockery and glassware, various types of dish washers are used. Usually with the exception of bar-type glass washer, cleaning is achieved by loading the items to be cleaned into a tray on to a conveyor and subjecting them to jets of hot cleaning solution and rinsing water as they pass through the machine. Usually with most of these machines, provisions can be made to five distinct operations, depending on the type of machine. 1. Pre-rinse with water and detergent at 40 50 degrees centigrade, to remove all debris. 2. Wash with water and detergent at 50 60 degrees centigrade. 3. Power rinse with water at 70 80 degrees centigrade 4. Hot rinse with water at 82 100 degree centigrade 5. Air drying Note that lower rinse temperatures are required for glass washing.

Hand Washing of Small Equipments 1. Remove the scrapes from cookery with the scraper. 2. Wash in water at 60 degrees centigrade containing a detergent. 3. Place in wire baskets and immerse them in water at 82 degrees centigrade for at least 2 min. 4. The hot utensils will air-dry without the use of drying cloth

5. Both washing and sterilizing water must be kept clean and at the correct temperature 6. As a rule all metal equipment such as cutlery should be scraped off of food particles and grease and be immersed in hot detergent water immediately after use. Then thoroughly clean with a hard bristle brush or soak until this is possible, and then rinse in water at 77 degrees centigrade. Equipment Storage and Service area Remember that cleaned equipment must always be stored in thoroughly clean storage area, may they be cupboards of shelves. When using them, they should be checked for cleanliness. Every piece of equipment should have its own set position, and at all times must be put back in their correct place, so that they are easily located when required. At the end of every service, the service area must be left clean and tidy. Work and service tops must be wiped down with a damp cloth and washed with diluted detergent if necessary. The floor of the work area must be swept and then washed. Equipment should be locked away out of service hours, where possible, and an inventory of equipment should be taken on a regular basis.

Food Poisoning Food poisoning can be defined as an illness characterized by stomach pain and diarrhoea and sometimes vomiting, developed within 1 36 hours after eating the affected food. Food poisoning result when harmful foods are eaten. They may be harmful because, Chemicals have entered foods accidentally during growth, preparation or cooking of the food.

Bacteria Bacteria are minute, single celled organism, which can only be seen under a microscope. They are everywhere in our surroundings, and as most bacteria cannot move by themselves they are transferred to something by coming into direct contact with it. Some bacteria can withstand high temperatures for long period of time (even up to 6 hours) and on return to favorable conditions they continue to live normally. Most bacteria are harmful and some are useful, for example, those used in cheese production. Basic sanitation Rules for Food Service Staff Wash your hands frequently with warm water and soup, especially after using the toilet. Wear clean, fresh uniforms and comply with all recognized standards of personal hygiene Do not use your uniform as a towel. Always have a towel. Always have a clean service cloth handy, but never use it on silverware and dishes. Do not smoke while on duty. Never smoke in places where food is prepared. Never invert clean glasses over bottles of beverages. The bottle top will not be sterile and contaminate the glass. When carrying or storing cups and glasses, invert them on the tray or shelf. Do not stack the glasses to carry them, hold them by the stem or base. Never touch that part of a cup, glass or dish that will come in contact with the guest food or mouth. Handle and store silverware so as never to touch any part but by the handles. Always provide yourself with a clean handkerchief or tissue to cover your coughs and sneezes. Use a hair net or head band at all times while on duty. (Females)

Never allow your finger nails to become too long, and keep them clean. Se sure that silverware is clean and spotless. Hold them by the handles when you lay them in places or store them. Serve butter, cheese and cut lemon with a fork. Also serve relishes, pickles and olives with a fork or spoon, not with fingers.

Self Study 1. Look at the two layout examples given below; try to compare them and see how they are different, or similar to each other.

1 2

List 5 types of glassware found in a restaurant and try and draw their shapes. Refer back to the notes and compare the results. What are the uses of the following cutlery items? Menu Fork Fish knife Lobster pick Grapefruit Knife

What are the sizes and uses of the following linen? Tray Cloth, Buffet Frills and Moultons.

Write a short paragraph on why equipment cleanliness is important in Food and Beverage Service.

UNIT 3 Restaurant Organizational Structure and Personnel

Introduction 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 Organizational Structure of a restaurant Duties of a food and beverage service person Attributes of food and beverage service staff Social and Interactive skills required by food and beverage staff

Self Study _____________________________________________________________________

Objectives This unit deals with the people working in a restaurant. It will discuss the designations found in a restaurant situation and their relationships to one another. We will start with the historic, classical organizational structure of a hotel and then look at some modern day versions to get a better understanding of the type of jobs in a restaurant.

Introduction It must be noted that todays restaurants can trace back their origins to the 1700s in Europe. History records that the origins of modern day restaurants can be traced to a soup vendor in Paris, France who in around 1796 ran soup restaurants. They were called restoratives, meaning a place to eat or restore oneself. The eating places available before that were mostly taverns, where the most important product on sale was beverages rather than food. From those beginnings, restaurants grew to be more and more elaborate. Towards the latter part of the 19th century, and early 20th century in Europe, restaurants were elaborate and complex establishments serving discerning customers. 3.1 Organizational Structure of a Restaurant

The organizational structure of a restaurant has a lot of relationships to those hey days of the restaurants. As such we take a look at the olden days classical restaurant brigade and try to understand the different roles played by each individual worker, which can be identified with modern day distribution of work in a restaurant.

Restaurant Manager Directere de Restaurant

Head Waiter Maitre dhotel

Wine Waiter Chef de Vin Sommelier

Station Head waiter Maitre dhotel de carre

Carver Trancheure

Station waiter Chef de Rang

Junior Station Head waiter Demi Chef de Rang

Asst Station waiter Commis de Rang

Trolley asst waiter Commis de Wagon

Cleaning Asst Waiter Commis Debaracheure

Apprentice Apprentice

Classical Restaurant Brigade (French terms are in italics) General Duties of Personnel in the Restaurant
The number of staff in the restaurant and their duties depend on the size and the exclusiveness of the restaurant. In a large restaurant, whether belonging to the hotel or a non-residential establishment, the Restaurant Manager and a Head Waiter will be necessary for the smooth operation.

Restaurant Manager (Directeure Du Restaurant)

In a hotel he will be responsible for a service area (Restaurant). Depending on the size of the service area sometimes he would be responsible for more than one restaurant. In this instance a Head Waiter would be directly in charge of each restaurant area. The restaurant manager is in charge of all persons connected with the restaurant. His main duties would include maintenance of standards, sales promotion, staff morale and staff discipline.

Head Waiter (Maitre dhotel)

He is responsible for the smooth operation of a particular shift of the restaurant. His main duties include table reservations, supervision of pre-preparation of the restaurant, staff allocation, briefing, maintenance of cleanliness standards, receiving and seating guests, VIP order taking, supervision of service, bidding farewell to guests. The head waiter should have years of experience along with public relations skills. He would also draw up the duty roster and maintain all restaurant documents (Log book, Requisition book, Guest Comment Cards, Sales analysis etc.)

Station Head Waiter (Maitre dhotel De Carre)/Captain

Responsible for the smooth operation of a section (Station/Rang) of a restaurant. He carries out similar functions in his own area as those of the Head Waiter. In an emergency he would be called upon to serve the customer. Depending on the size of the restaurant and the number of station head waiters in the bridge he might be responsible for 2 or more stations. He would be assisted by various junior staff depending on the number of seats to be served.

Wine Waiter (Chef Vin/Sommelier)

Takes orders for all beverages, but mainly, in charge of wine orders. In large hotels a wine waiter is responsible for recommending and selecting wines. In such a hotel he may be termed as a wine taster. He may have a commis to assist him. A wine waiters position in a restaurant brigade could be in line with the station head waiter. He could be identified by his uniform, which includes a long apron and wine tasting cup on a chain. Wine waiter may be also assigned to control and supervise the work that is done in the cellar.

Carver (Trancheur)
Fine dining restaurants may have a carver who will attend to all carvings at the table. He could be identified by his uniform which may be a chefs uniform or a white jacket, black bow tie and a white apron. In modern restaurants, this duty is carried out by a member of the kitchen brigade.

Station Waiter (Chef de Rang)

He is in-charge of serving food and beverage to guests within his section. He could be one of the senior waiters who is competent on all food and beverage services.

Junior Station Waiter (Demi-Chef de Rang)

This is a post usually found in the continent and in most hotels this post is eliminated. His duties are similar to the station waiter.

Assistant Station Waiter (Commis de Rang)

There are several types of junior assistants who are called commis. They are responsible in handing over the food orders to the kitchen and bringing dishes to various stations. They may be asked to clear used cutlery and crockery from tables. They may be asked to serve only in an emergency.

Trolley Assistant Waiter (Commis de Wagon)

A junior waiter or commis who is assigned to trolleys. His duties would be maintenance of the trolleys (keeping in mind the correct temperatures) and replenishing all items for sale. He would be called upon to push trolleys to various stations.

Cleaning Asst. Waiter (Commis Debarasseur)

One of the junior commis in the brigade. Duties are mainly clearing used plates, bringing food to the station and carrying heavy equipment. He holds the post only for a short period of early training.

Apprentice (Apprentis)
In apprenticeship young waiters work up through the assistant post and even work in the pantry, wash up and doing polishing work.

Modern Restaurant Brigade Restaurant Manager Hostess Senior Captain Captain Waiter/ Steward Asst. Waiter/ steward Trainee

Job title

Duties of a Restaurant and Bar Waiter/waitress

:Restaurant and bar Waiter/Waitress :Food and beverage :Head Waiter / Captain :Responsible for serving food and beverage to guests according to prescribed service procedures.

Department Reports to Job summary

Duties and responsibilities

1. Reporting for duty

1.1 To report for duty on time and in the manner specified, e.g. Well groomed, Clean uniform, etc. 1.2 Smoking and the consumption of food and beverages [alcoholic and non-alcoholic] during duty hours is strictly prohibited. 2. Sets table, spreads clean linen and places crockery, cutlery and glassware on the tables. 2.1 Sets table with clean crockery and polished cutlery and glassware ensuring that these are spotless at all times 3. Assists Captain or Hostess by seating guests 3.1 Greets guests upon arrival with utmost courtesy and a friendly smile. 4. If no Captain or Hostess is available, presents menu to guests. If called upon, suggests food and beverage items from menu and answer questions regarding their preparation. 4.1 Take note of host. 4.2 Present menu to guests [Ladies first] 4.3 Where called upon, take orders and suggests menu / drink items to guests, without referring to the menu 4.2 Never force, or let it appear so, but help the guest in choosing their own menu as well as trying to sell additional menu items. 4.3 Refer complaints if any, to the Captain, or other higher authority [do not ever argue with guests.] 5. Places orders with the kitchen and collects prepared meals to be served to guests. 5.1 Gives order chits to respective kitchen for preparation. 5.2 Collects prepared meals and serves to guests taking into account swiftness of service and Service procedures.

6. Requires familiarity with all the daily special and proper order-placing procedures
6.1 Must know the chefs special, daily special promotions, etc, and all information related to them. 6.2 Must know service procedures and presentation of these specials. 7. Refills all condiments and station supplies as assigned 7.1 Refills all condiments before leaving for the next shift or the next days service e.g. Sugar, Salt and pepper, Chili sauce, Tomato sauce etc. 7.2 Checks all cutlery and crockery and sees that these are clean and an adequate amount placed in the proper drawers of sideboards 7.3 Ensures that all serving trays are washed regularly and clean during use. 8. Lost property

8.1 Should you find anything belonging to guests, this should be handed to the Captain or restaurant manager immediately. 9. Divulging of hotel information 9.1 The hotel requires that you will not [either during or after your employment] without the hotels written consent, divulge any information concerning the hotel or any of its dealings, transactions or affairs which may come to your knowledge during or in the course of your employment with the hotel. 10.1 To perform any other duties as assigned.


Attributes of Food and Beverage Staff

As a member of the food serving team one must understand and develop on certain human traits to be a successful person in customer contact. These characteristics will help them immensely for their self and career development. These will further help for the organization to see happy customers where the waiter does exactly the right thing towards the guests and therefore contribute to the development of the organization itself.

These attributes in turn could be categorized into three main streams.


Personalty Traits
This means a persons distinctive character. Therefore it would vary from person to person. But there are many traits under personality, which could be changed, developed or learned according to the needs of the industry.

Politeness/ Courtesy
Courtesy is one of the major requirements in our industry as such politeness, pleasing manners, pleasant manner of speech (please, thank you, excuse me, sorry etc.) is of utmost important.

Good Posture/ Carriage

Some people are blessed with good posture, while others will have to acquire this. Good posture will make working easier for a waiter as he is expected to stand and walk briskly throughout his work period. Good posture would convey to the guest an impression of professionalism.

Emotional Stability
A waiter or waitress should not show up their personal problems, likes and dislikes at work be it with guests, colleagues or superiors. Therefore the ability to control emotions such as sadness, hatred, anger, love, aggressiveness etc. is essential in any social environment. An emotionally unstable person who is unable to control his or her emotions may be socially insecure and may find coping with a service job difficult.

Sense of Humor
A waiters role in hotel may sometimes demand long hours of work, which is often tiring. Should a waiter possess a sense of humour, he may find his work pleasant. A waiter who is able to look at his own faults and mistakes with a good sense of humour will go a long way in this business.

Even Temper
A waiter should always have an even temper. Sometimes even if the guest is wrong, he should not try to argue and lose his temper. A waiter should always be in control of him or herself.

Intelligence Traits
This is the mental ability to learn, understand and analyze his/her day to day work situations.

Common Sense

Lots of common sense is necessary for the job of a waiter. A waiter should gauge what is to be done, how and why.

The ability to recall events, ideas, theories, facts, faces, names and information. We may say that anyone who can recall such information quickly and completely has a good memory.

Knowledge of Food & Beverage

A waiter must have a sufficient knowledge on all the items on the menu and the beverage lists to advise and offer suggestions to the guest. He must know how to serve each dish correctly with the correct garnishes and accompaniments etc. and the services of different types of beverages in the appropriate glasses and at the correct temperature.

Power of Observation
A waiter should develop his powers of observation and improve his quality of work. He should observe all requirements of customers, for example, should a guest needs water, the waiter should fill the water glass without having to be asked.

Local Knowledge
In the interest of the guests a waiter should have certain knowledge of the area he works, so that he may be able to advice on the various forms of activities taking place.

This is the way of thinking or patterns of behavior of an individual. Different people see life in different ways. This is to a large extent predetermined by the environment in which a person has been brought up, and to the influence to which he has been exposed to.

He/she should not run down co workers, his/her employer or any others for that matter.

A waiter should always be honest in his work when he is dealing with both customers and management. There should be trust and honesty in the customer, employee and waiter triangle which will result in a pleasant atmosphere for work and will encourage efficiency and good team spirit.

Working in the tourism sector punctuality is of utmost importance. A person who lacks punctuality shows lack of interest in work and disrespect to management.

He should always co-operate with his fellow workers and work as a team so as to get maximum benefit to the establishment.

Sensitivity to Guest Requirements

A waiter should be sensitive to know a guests requirements before hand.

He should be tidy in appearance as well as methodical in his work. This not only increases the efficiency of work but creates self pride on the job completed.

Admitting Mistakes
Rather than covering with false explanation one should admit a mistake if it has been made.


Social and Interactive Skills Required by Restaurant Staff

Food service staff members who wish to progress must attain certain standard of social and interactive skills in dealing with guests. It is most important that the service staff create a good impression on the guests. A word of advice here; remember that the social skills differ from culture to culture. Most of the restaurants and hotels in Sri Lanka are frequented by overseas visitors, who originate from different cultures. As such they would expect social skills that may be different to what is prevalent in Sri Lanka.

The provision of food and beverage services away from home forms a substantial part of the activities of the hotel and catering industry, as it is characterized both by its diversity and by its style. There is not a single member of staff of a hotel whose behavior on the job does not affect the final product, which of course is, service to the guest. In this context, the interaction of the service personnel with guests becomes a vital part of the entire operation. What Are Social and Interaction Skills? Interest in Guests In order to maintain good business relationship with guests, the service personnel must like people, and be willing to serve them. The person, who looks at every guest from a positive point of view as a potential repeat guest, will obviously make a success in his or her service career.

Human Responses People dine at restaurants for a variety of reasons. Some prefer the atmosphere, others favor special dishes. Perhaps they come from locations where they work or live. In interaction with guests, however you will often find that not all guests are courteous and nice in return. It will not be easy to be patient with such people. The First Impression The success of most businesses, and specially the restaurant business, rises or falls on the first impression created in the minds of guests. These impressions are created,

As a guest drives or walks up to the restaurant, by its outward appearance As he or she enters, by its atmosphere, cleanliness, odor and appearance. By his/her contact with the people operating the establishment, the hostess or the manager who greets guests By his/her first contact with the person who is to wait on him/her.

If at this point, a feeling of welcome, good hospitality, and warmth has not been created, then no matter how good the service or food may be, the guest will not be induced to return. So smile, be courteous, be efficient, but above all, be friendly. Be interested in your guests. You will be surprised at the satisfaction you get in return by being courteous and friendly. However, there is one ingredient that appeals to every one; it makes them feel that their visit to their establishment has been something special, this special ingredient is, how you interact with the guest. It is not easy to clearly define reciprocal interaction. It is more than a just a smile on your face, or a friendly greeting. Giving good service to your guests is also important, but interaction goes beyond that. It is a way of thinking about how you treat another person. Further, it ought to be a reciprocal act on each other, and an intellectual feeling of cordiality with each other. A human response to an interactive situation like smiling is a response to an internal feeling. These good feelings are of great value to all humans the world over. When we interact, we send messages through body language and through talking with other persons. Try to put yourself in your guests shoes, learn the proper vocabulary to their conversation, words like thank you, please, sorry should be used whenever the occasion presents itself.

Remember that a human response to the feeling of your guest is the heart of reciprocal interaction. Good social interaction, with good service, keeps your guests happy. Tailor making the service to individual guest Make an effort to understand and tailor your service to the guests desire. If people want to be left alone (lovers for example) let them be. Offer minimum service but be available, in case they require any service. Developing guest pleasing personality The service personnel must develop what is known as a guest pleasing personality. Personality is not static and inherited quality that never changes. It can be developed, trained and moulded. One should try to devote as much time and energy as to developing and improving ones personality, as one does to learning a trade or a skill.

A healthy personality can be recognized by traits such as, Friendliness Cheerfulness Self confident Tolerance Emotional stability Sense of humor Ability to take criticism Initiative Resourcefulness

Energy and enthusiasm Dependability

Sensitivity to guest requirements The food service personnel must see that the guests have all what they require and are completely satisfied while they are in the restaurant. If the guest is comfortable in his\her surroundings, then this is because of the warm and friendly atmosphere in the food service area, and the team spirit amongst the service staff of the restaurant. Sense of urgency In order that the restaurant has the maximum amount of business over the service period, with as high a net profit as possible, the service staff must develop a sense of urgency in service delivery to guest. The Benefits Derived from Good Social & Interactive Skills The maintaining of good social and interactive skills is reciprocal and mutually beneficial to both service personnel and guests. The service personnel must realize that the work they are performing in a restaurant is not an ordinary kind of work, but an art, which not everyone can do. It is an art which has been developed over a long period, and is still being developed. The following points in particular, are the positive benefits to service personnel in maintaining good social and interactive skills. Cheerful attitude

A cheerful attitude is an asset to service personnel. It is infectious as one cheerful person spreads cheer and goodwill wherever he\she goes. As a result, the work atmosphere is pleasant and free of tension. A cheerful attitude towards colleagues is an advantage because a waiter would then be able to obtain the maximum co-operation and help from others. A persons job satisfaction comes from within oneself and depends on ones attitude towards ones work. If a person has a cheerful outlook, any kind of work can seem worthwhile and interesting.

Characteristics of Effective Food and Beverage Servers Effective food and beverage servers: Arrive at work on time in appropriate uniform (unless they change into their uniform at work) Practice proper personal hygiene Understand their basic duties and responsibilities and work together as an integral part of the restaurant's team Can perform all required work tasks to the necessary level of quality and quantity outputs Have extensive product knowledge about all menu items available Have a genuine desire to please the guests and are courteous and friendly Consider their work to be more than just a job Create effective working relationships with the restaurant manager and all employees Think and act as if they are the host of the guests being served. Remember/use the names of guest regulars whom they serve. Make efforts to assure that each guest has a memorable dining experience. Anticipate and respond to the needs of their guests.

Are proud of their appearance and personal grooming practices. Help other members of their restaurant team whenever possible.

Self Study 1. 2. Draw a sample organizational chart of a modern day restaurant. Describe in short the duties of the individual staff positions. Compare with the lesson. Re read the sections of the attributes of restaurant staff, and social and interactive skills required by food and beverage staff. Remember that these skills and attributes are relevant to the success of your personal life as well. At this point and throughout your career and life, try to practice these. Refer to these frequently till you get used to the requirements. But actually practicing them is the best for self study. Remember, this is not about learning something thats highly theoretical, but mostly about changing your own life style. Try to practice your attitude and social changes with your family and friends.



Introduction 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Personal Hygiene Environmental hygiene Food Hygiene Work Safety


Basics of Nutrition

Self Study

Objectives Hygiene is a way of life. Not only at work, but also at home and in your own environment one must learn to practice sound hygienic principles. To achieve this end we will be looking at hygiene to know why hygiene practices are essential, and to understand the cause of ill health resulting from failure to exercise sound hygienic principles. Be aware of the need to have a healthy positive attitude and to practice high standards of hygiene to the benefit of all including yourself, customers, employees and employers. Introduction Hygiene could be defined as the practices and procedures essential to the maintenance of health and quality of life. It could be divided as 1. 2. 3. 4.1 Personal Hygiene Environmental Hygiene Food Hygiene

Personal Hygiene

Which includes personal habits and practices related to an individuals health and wellbeing of his/her customers. All staff members should appreciate the need for personal hygiene and know to maintain good health. It should be understood why those who are employed in the food handling industry should acquire good hygienic habits and develop a responsible attitude to hygienic practices. Personal hygiene is important to food service personnel as their appearance and presentation should be pleasant; to guests and co workers alike. Again, remember, that personal hygiene standards practiced in Sri Lanka in relation to visitors culture may differ. What we should

strive to do is to strike the highest personal hygiene standards, in whatever culture. This can become a very important factor, not only at work, but also in your personal life in projecting the best image of oneself. All humans carry both harmful (pathogenic) and harmless bacteria. Poor standards of personal hygiene encourage the growth of harmful bacteria in and on oneself which in turn will lead to disease in the individual, and transferring of bacteria to any thing or any person coming into contact through direct or cross contamination. Good personal habits and cleanliness could decrease the chances of bacteria growth and contamination. Persons suffering from ill health and those who are not clean about themselves should not handle food. Self respect is necessary in every food handler because pride in ones appearance promotes a high standard of cleanliness and physical fitness. Body Daily bathing is the minimum required standard for food handlers. Body washes before commencement of a duty shift and after, is a must. We live in a tropical climate. We perspire more than others, and due to the spiciness of the foods we consume the perspiration may be unpleasant to others not used to it. The dust in the air is another factor that makes our environment dirtier than colder climes. Body should be thoroughly dried before wearing cloths. A good deodorant can help to keep you look fresh through the day. Mouth Mouth too is a place for accumulation of bacteria. High standards of oral hygiene are necessary to control its growth. Brush teeth after each meal and visit the dentist regularly. Cavities in teeth should be attended to immediately. If dentures are worn they should be fitting well and cleaned frequently as bacteria multiply between the gum and the palate. If brushing teeth after each meal is not possible use a mouth wash. Coughing over food, work

areas or people should be avoided, as bacteria are spread long distances if not trapped into a handkerchief. Hair Hair should be washed regularly. It should be free from grease, dandruff and hair lice. Hair, which is not cared for is likely to come off or shed dandruff, which may fall onto food. Hair of males should be cut short and well groomed; hair of females should be worn in a tight hair style with no free falling hair. Hair should not be combed or scratched in food handling areas where there is risk of infection. Hands If not kept clean the hands are the most common bacteria-transferring medium. Hence proper hygiene is of utmost importance. They must be washed frequently; especially after using the WC, sneezing, touching the mouth or nose, smoking, before commencement of work and during handling food. They should be washed in warm water with the aid of a brush and soap, rinsed and dried on a clean towel, suitable paper towel or by a hand hot air dryer. Nails and cuticles should be cut short and clean, well manicured as dirt could easily be lodged under the nail. Nails should be cleaned with a nailbrush. No nicotine stains. Regular application of hand cream will prevent roughness, which acts as a bacteria trap. Rings, watches, jewellery should not be worn at work, particularly by food handlers, both for hygiene (where food particles could be trapped under them) and safety reasons (where jewellery could fall into food). Always wear protective gloves when handling raw food Nose

The nose is an area where there is a vast number of harmful bacteria. It is therefore very important that neither food, working areas nor people should be sneezed over, thereby spreading germs. The nose should not be touched when food is being handled. Use a handkerchief, and hands should be washed afterwards. Paper tissues are the most ideal as they are hygienic more than cloth. Feet Tired feet could cause general tiredness, which leads to carelessness, and results in lowering in productivity. Feet must be clean, washed regularly, shoes should be comfortable, not tight and cover as much of the foot as possible for protection. Rubber sole in shoes would be helpful if there is a risk of slippery floors. Shoes should be kept in good repair. Socks should be changed daily. Toe nails should be trimmed short and clean. Personal habits Daily shaving is a must for all males. Using a mild deodorant will help to reduce body odor. Do not use strong

perfumes. Females should use mild make-up. All cuts or wounds should be medically treated and covered with a waterproof

dressing. Clothing Staff with contagious illnesses should not report to work.

Uniforms should be neat in appearance, smart, clean and well starched. Out

door clothing should be changed into uniforms especially in food handling areas. Dirty clothing encourages germs to multiply and on contact with food contamination could take place. daily. Clean cotton under cloths should be worn at all times and should be changed


Environmental Hygiene

This includes surroundings, situations and circumstances, which will affect an employees health and wellbeing as well as the customers patronizing the organization. It should be understood, why premises must be kept clean, and understand the need for premises and equipment to be designed for ease of cleaning. Neglect in care and cleaning of any part of the premises and equipment could lead to a risk of infestation of food. It is a duty of the employer to provide a hygienic environment not only for his customers but for employees to carry out their functions efficiently. Once the correct environment is created it becomes routine maintenance. Without the correct hygienic standards in the environment the employees too will decrease in their standards of personal hygiene and the pride in maintenance of environmental hygiene. Good housekeeping means keeping the entire establishment clean and sanitized at all times making it a more pleasant place for the customer to visit as well as a better place in which to work. Good housekeeping helps break the chain of infection from the source of the disease to the customer and to the employee. It also helps prevent accidents and makes a safer place in which to work. Good housekeeping is a primary responsibility of the management. However, the cooperation and assistance of all employees is needed for a safe and sanitary operation.

One of the keys to good housekeeping is proper arrangement and installation of equipment within the food facility. This makes for easier and faster cleaning and sanitizing. Additionally, posting and following daily cleaning schedules can increase cleaning efficiency and promote good housekeeping practices. Cleaning should be done during periods when the least amount of food is exposed, such as after closing. This does not apply to cleaning that is necessary due to a spill or other necessary cleaning. Ventilation Adequate ventilation should be provided to eliminate stagnated stale air which is a potential health hazard as well as creating an environment for bacteria multiplication. Windows should be screened to prevent dust, insects etc. entering premises. Air conditioning will prevent dust and fumes entering a building or room. Air curtains too could be installed to prevent dust and warm air entering a building which in turn will prevent cross contamination.

Lighting Good task lighting is necessary on work surfaces so that people working will not strain their eyes. Good lighting is also necessary to enable staff to make sure that no corners will be left dirty. Plumbing

Adequate supply of hot and cold water must be available to keep all areas clean. Cleaning in hot water is necessary, and this means that the water heating system must be capable of meeting the requirements of the establishment. Floors and walls Floors and walls of the premises must be spotlessly clean. Irrespective of the type of floor or the wall finishes, the proper cleaning and maintenance procedures applicable to the finishes must be done. For example, polished floors needs to be regularly polished, free from dust or dirt. Ceramic, tiled, vinyl or granite floors need to be mopped, preferably with a sanitizing solution. Wood and laminated floors needs regular waxing and polishing. Carpeted floors must be vacuumed regularly, and shampooed, for regular maintenance. Cracks and damaged areas on floors and walls can gather dirt and germs and should be cleaned regularly. In general,

Keep walls, ceiling, windows, screens, doors, and light fixtures clean and in good repair Keep screens on windows, doors, and outer openings closed and in good repair Keep exhaust fans, filters, and hoods in good working order and clean of dust and grease Construct and install all counters, shelves, tables, refrigerators, sinks, and other equipment or utensils so they can be easily clean Clean rest rooms and fixtures daily Prepare and store food in clean, dry places. Avoid storing food underneath sweating, or leaking pipes Loading zones and garbage areas should be kept clean, and free from trash for pest control and safety

Methods of controlling pests

Seal wall and door cracks Keep foods covered and clean up spilled foods immediately. Dispose of trash and garbage promptly. Close all openings around wiring, drain pipes, vents, and flues to make them rat and insect proof. Carefully follow instructions on labels when using poisons and chemicals. Food products, such as flour, sugar, pancake mix, etc., should be removed from their original containers and placed in approved sealed tight containers that are properly labeled and more impermeable to pests (rodent proof).


Food Hygiene

Prevention of food borne illnesses is a major concern in any food and beverage service establishment. Food borne illnesses are those caused or spread through consumption of contaminated food or beverage. Food contamination can happen in three main ways; Bacteria and germs in food Chemical contamination of food Contamination of food by physical objects such as dirt etc.

The contamination of food by germs and bacteria is the most complex of these three methods, and as such we will devote some discussion to find how it is caused and can be prevented. Bacterial Food Poisoning

Most food borne diseases are caused by bacteria or by toxins produced by bacteria in food or beverage. There are five conditions that promote the growth of bacteria, and the restriction or elimination of these conditions can help control the growth of bacteria. 1. 2. Bacteria must be present / food must get contaminated The food or beverage item must be conducive to growth of bacteria Certain types of foods are more conducive to the growth of bacteria and as such needs more attention to prevent contamination. 3. Time must lapse most bacteria must multiply in order to have an impact. This takes time. If the food is consumed early bacteria may not have time to multiply to have a major impact. 4. Correct growth temperature bacteria multiply faster in certain temperatures. For example freezing food can retard the multiplication of bacteria (but, not eliminate or stop the multiplication). Very high temperatures can kill bacteria. 5. Moisture moisture helps growth of bacteria.

Some common food borne illnesses are caused by; Salmonella - A micro organism, which after ingestion, grows in the intestine. The organism reaches food by contamination from food handlers; or easily contaminated foods such as eggs, poultry products, which may have got contaminated from animals. Foods that are susceptible to this type of poisoning are poultry, eggs, milk and foods made from eggs, milk etc. such as ice cream, custards, under cooked poultry and egg preparations, etc. Re warming of leftover foods can promote the growth of salmonella bacterium. Cooking foods at boiling temperatures for 15 seconds can kill Salmonella bacteria. Staphylococci Produces a toxin in the stomach which can induce vomiting, nausea and diarrhoea. Salads, cured foods, reheated foods are most susceptible to Staphylococci infection. It is found in the nose and throat of people and may

infect food easily. Proper washing of hands is the most effective method to prevent this contamination. Botulism One of the deadliest food poisoning caused by the micro organism, Clostridium Botulism. Mostly canned foods are affected. Cans that are bulging is a common indicator of the presence of this organism. Death can result in Botulism poisoning. Chemical Food Poisoning Chemical food poisoning occurs when food is contaminated by chemicals. A good example is contamination by pesticide used in agriculture or in the case of food service establishment, for pest and vermin control. Accidental contamination of food by chemicals can happen through; Contamination through pesticides used for control of pests in an establishment Cleaning materials used for cleaning of premises or equipments Excessive use of chemicals in agriculture that can contaminate food (Fresh produce used in salads can be thus contaminated) Improper cooking utensils, plumbing (for example; lead poisoning)

Contamination of foods by physical objects Foods may be contaminated by dirt, broken glass etc that may be harmful when eaten. Though may be less harmful, hair, pieces of foreign matter in food can be extremely repulsive to anyone. Personal Health and Work Habits

Good personal hygiene and work habits can contribute much to prevention of food borne illnesses.

Personal hygiene which we discussed in detail earlier Proper hand washing, especially after using toilet, touching nose or mouth, sneezing, smoking, eating etc. Use correct service when handling foods. This reduces hand contact and contamination of food being prepared. Utensils, clean or dirty should be handled by their base or handle - this protects both the server and customer from germs. All equipment and utensils must always remain in good condition to prevent germs from collecting in broken areas. Not handle food or be in a food handling area if suffering from a communicable disease. Use sanitized dishes and serving utensils. Equipment, food-contact surfaces and utensils must be clean to sight and touch. Non food contact surfaces of equipment must be kept free of an accumulation of dust, dirt, food residue, and other debris.

Proper Washing of Hands Fig 4.1Procedure for proper washing of hands

Rinse hands under running Apply withstand around 38 C



anti Scrub hands including arms vigorously for 20 seconds

hot water as hot as you can bacterial soap is the best

Remember to clean under Rinse thoroughly under hot Dry hands and arms with a nails and between fingers water clean towel, paper towel or under hot air blower do not re use towels
Adapted from National Restaurant Association Education Foundation, 200, Proper Hand washing


Work Safety

Safety at work is an important factor to consider in Food and Beverage Operations. It is not only about customers, but also about you and your coworkers keeping safe. The main work safety risks in the food and beverage operations is the risk of slips and falls, injuries due to lifting and carrying, and the risk of fire. Keep emergency telephone numbers in an easily accessible place. These should include police, fire department, hospital, and bomb disposal. Prevention of fires

Keep fire extinguishers in convenient locations and serviced; Staff should be trained in their use Do not use excessive water around electrical outlets

Prevention of falls at work

Use a step ladder or low stool when climbing; never use chairs, boxes, or counter tops to reach high counters or objects Keep all flooring in good repair and attend to defects immediately All work areas should have adequate amounts of light. Keep floors clean of all spills

Proper lifting to avoid back injuries Carry only weights that you feel you can carry comfortably

Lift with legs, not back. Squat and hold loads securely and stand up Check where you are going when carrying heavy loads

Other general rules Distribute weights evenly on trays to avoid imbalance Have spouts of hot beverages facing away from you, when placing on trays Warn customers when a plate is hot Dispose broken glasses separately Clean spillages immediately Be aware of luggage and suspicious bags in the work place Be aware that guest can move chairs without warning when serving tables


Basics of Nutrition

Eating habits all over the world are changing rapidly. The changes in life styles, the popularity of fast foods and processed foods have made a big impact on the health and well being of the human race. From this point of view it is important for everybody to be aware of basics of human nutrition. As a food and beverage service employee, you are expected to know, in the minimum, the basics of nutrition. Remember that most diseases can be avoided through healthy eating and regular exercise. Healthy eating is about getting the balance right. In practice this means having a variety of foods, basing meals on starchy foods and eating at least five portions of fruit and vegetable servings a day, dairy foods, having small or only occasional amounts of foods high in fat, especially saturated fat, or foods and drinks high in sugar or foods high in salt.

Nutritional guidelines are based on; Calorie needs Nutrient needs Vitamins, minerals etc.

The individual dietary needs of people will depend much on their weight, physical activity undertaken etc. In general moderately active person should have a diet that would be around 1,500 calories per day. The following pyramid shows what types of foods should be consumed.

Starchy foods contain carbohydrates mainly in the form of starch, which provides energy. Examples include bread, potatoes, and cereals such as rice, pasta, breakfast cereals and couscous. Starchy foods also contain some protein, minerals, vitamins and fiber. Fiber helps the digestive system function properly and helps prevent bowel disorders such as constipation. Most people do not eat enough fiber. On average we only eat two thirds of the fiber we should eat every day.

The healthiest choices are wholegrain foods, such as whole meal bread or brown rice, because these also help protect us against the risk of heart disease and stroke.

Fruit and vegetables We mentioned that at least five portions of a variety of fruit and vegetables should be eaten each day. A portion of fruit or vegetable is about 80g. This means people should be having at least 400g of fruit and vegetable every day. But why are lots of fruit and vegetable needed? Many different studies have shown that populations with a high intake of fruit and vegetable have a lower incidence of heart disease, some cancers and other health problems. Fruit and vegetable provide the body with vitamins, minerals, fibres and carbohydrate, mainly in the form of sugars. For a table giving you a rough guide to what is a portion as well as some practical tips on getting the most out of your fruit and vegetable, see the web link at the end of these lessons. Protein rich foods Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, nuts and pulses are all rich sources of protein. The body needs protein to grow and for body tissues to repair themselves. These foods also provide B vitamins, which help release the energy from food so it is available for the body to use. One of the B vitamins contained in meat, fish and eggs is vitamin B12. The body needs vitamin B12 because, for example, it helps make red blood cells and keeps the nervous system healthy. Vitamin B12 is not found in foods originating from plants, unless they are fortified. It is important to bear this in mind when catering for vegetarians. Fortification is the addition of one or more vitamins or minerals to a food. Liver is the richest source of vitamin B12. Liver is also a rich source of vitamin A. Pregnant women should avoid eating liver because it contains a lot of vitamin A. Protein-rich foods also contain minerals such as:

iron, which helps to build healthy blood and prevent anaemia zinc, which helps with wound healing magnesium, which helps the body use energy

Milk and dairy Milk and dairy foods make an important contribution to the diet. They provide protein and are rich in calcium, which is needed for healthy bones and teeth, provide B vitamins, especially vitamin B2, also called riboflavin, which has a number of important functions, including helping the body turn the food we eat into energy, Vitamin A, which is found only in foods of animal origin. Carotene which the body can convert into vitamin A is found in orange fruit and vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes and apricots. Fatty foods and foods high in sugar Most people would benefit from eating less saturated fat, which is the type of fat found in meat- and milk-fat, lard, butter, hard margarine, cheese, pastries, pies and cakes. Eating too much fat in general may promote weight gain and saturated fat can encourage heart disease and increase the risk of other common illnesses. Eating sugary foods too often is the main cause of tooth decay, so try to limit the amount of sugar you use. Different types of fat are made up of differing proportions of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat. In addition, some fats, and products made with these fats, contain trans fats. Too much fat is not just a factor in obesity. Saturated and trans fats may raise the level of cholesterol in the blood, and this increases the risk of heart disease. The good news is that unsaturated (monounsaturated or polyunsaturated) fat actually reduces cholesterol levels. So try to replace saturated fats, such as lard and butter, with monounsaturates such as

rapeseed (canola) or olive oil. And try to limit your use of hard margarines because these may contain high levels of trans fats. More than half of 11 to 14 year olds and two thirds of 15 to 18 year olds have dental decay. This is caused by a build-up of plaque on the teeth. The plaque contains bacteria that use the sugar in foods to make acid. Foods high in added sugar include soft drinks, sweets, jams, cakes, puddings, biscuits, pastries and ice cream. The main cause of dental decay is the sugar found in foods and drinks such as soft drinks, cakes and confectionery, and are especially popular with young people. We also know that children who have lots of sugary drinks are more likely to put on weight than children who don't have so many. Natural sugars are found in milk and fruit, but we only need to cut down on added sugars

Self Study 1. Personal development should not be confined to theoretical understanding. You should start practicing the guidelines given, not as essential to a food and beverage career, but as a part of personal development. 2. Look at what happens in your own home and village / town surroundings in terms of environment and food hygiene. Write notes to yourself on

good and bad practices. What can be done to improve on hygiene practices? 3. Observe professions and jobs in your locality that may require an understanding of work place safety. Are work place safety issues practiced, are staff trained and/or made aware of work place safety. What can be done to improve situations? 4. Keep notes on your own diet for two to three days. Does your diet follow the guidelines given? What are short comings and areas for improvements, if any?

UNIT 5 ___________________________________________________________ Introduction to Menus

Introduction 5.1 Types of Menus

5.2 5.3 5.4

The French Classical Menu Modern Menus Breakfasts

Self Study

Objectives In this unit you will learn about the various types of menus.

Introduction In olden times the Bill of fare as it was termed in English or Menu in French, was not presented at the table. The bill of fare was very large and was placed at the end of the table for anyone to read. As time progressed, the menu became smaller and increased in the variety of food choice offered in it, allowing a number of copies per table. The menu is the most important part of the caterers work and its compilation is regarded as an art, only acquired through experience and study. The main aim of a food menu is to inform guests in a clear way what is available to them to offer. The kind of food and drinks that people choose to consume depends mainly on the amount of money that they are prepared to pay for it, within a given set of circumstances. Apart from the cost aspect, there are other factors, which may concern the guest. They may include, The type and choice of food and drinks available

The quality of the product offered The quantity of the product offered The consistent standard of the product The range of textures, flavors, aromas and colors offered by a food dish Food and drinks served at the correct temperature The presentation of food & drinks enhance the product and priced value for money

Varieties of Menu The type of menu offered by an establishment and the variety of menu choice should also confirm to the requirements of the total meal experience. In smaller restaurants the choice of menu items offered is usually limited, for reasons such as the price, the amount of time taken to consume a meal, and the type of guests who patronize these restaurants may feel uncomfortable if presented with a large menu selection, whereas in higher-class restaurants where the average spending power is more per head, the menu selection is normally much greater. Further consideration affecting the choice of menu from the managements point of view, would be the production and service facilities available, the skill of staff, the availability of commodities and potential profitability of the menu. A restaurant may have several menus for different occasions. It is important for service personnel to know which menu is applicable where and when. These menus could be, Breakfast Menu Dinner Menu Childrens Menu Room Service Menu A menu as a Sales Tool Lunch Menu Snack Menu Dessert Menu Pool Side Menu

A common and major aid in the context of selling in a food service establishment is the menu, in all its many forms. Once the guest is in the premises of the restaurant, one of the main sales tools is some form of menu. With the careful yet effective application of design, layout and graphics, a menu can compliment the atmosphere and type of service. And with the correct use of language and location of items, it will serve as a reliable and useful sales medium. In your role as a sales person, you must know all there is to know about the products you are selling. It is therefore, important for you to have a good background knowledge of types of food, menu setup, and restaurant terminology. To make the best use of your knowledge, you must arrive at work in sufficient time each day to study the menu for possible changes and daily specials. Always be on the lookout for new or different menu items. When in doubt, ask the hostess, manager or the chef. The basic menu criteria

There are a number of basic factors to be considered to ensure that a menu is to be an effective sales tool. The general presentation is most important, as it identifies the image and personality of the particular establishment. The following factors are vitally important The menu should be attractive

The first impression of the menu should be that it looks interesting and inviting and that the guest really wants to read it. It should be clean Although this appears to be obvious, it is something that is frequently ignored by many restaurants.

It should be easy to read The use of attractive graphics, color and blank space can also help the guest to make his/her selection by directing and attracting the eye. It should compliment the occasion The menu should be suitable and complimentary to the occasion. It should reflect the current awareness The current trends in eating habits should be taken into consideration. The design The design can assist in achieving the uniqueness of a particular food and beverage operation.


Types of Menus

Although there are many types of restaurants offering types of meal experiences, there are basically only two types of food menus, the table dhote, and the A la carte. There are many adaptations of each of types in practice. 1. Table dhote menu

The table dhote menu is identified by: Being restricted menu Offering a small number of courses, usually three or four A limited choice within each course A fixed selling price All the dishes being ready at a set time This type of menu usually contains the popular type dishes and is easier to control, the set price being fixed for whatever the guest chooses, or being set depending on the main dish chosen. It is a common practice in many restaurants for a table dhote menu to be offered

to guests together with an a la carte menu. Table dhote menus can be offered for breakfast, lunch and dinner. 2. A la carte menu

Is identified by: Being usually a larger menu than a table dhote menu and offering a greater choice Listing under the course headings all of the dishes that may be prepared by the establishment All dishes being prepared to order Each dish being separately priced Usually being more expensive than a table dhote menu Often containing the exotic and high cost seasonal food

A part of an a la carte menu may contain a plate du jour, or specialty of the house section. This consists usually of one or two main dishes, separately priced, which are already prepared and change daily. A la carte menus, because of their size and the unknown demand for each item, are more difficult to control than the typical table dhote menus. A special promotion menu is also a form of an a la carte menu, which is at times offered to the guest in addition. 3. Carte du jour/Plate du jour:

This is the term you will find in an A La Carte menu card of the day/plate of the day, which is understood as the chefs special dishes of the day. These would be more expensive than a normal dish because of the uniqueness of the ingredients.


The French Classical Menu

The French classical menu is the underlying principle of organizing the different courses in a menu. In reality the French classical menu was served in the early parts of last century at big functions, but due to its complexity hardly served today. It comprised of thirteen different courses. 1. Hors d Oeuvres 2. Soup/Potage/ 3. Poisson 4. Entree 5. Relevet 6. Sorbet 7. Le Roti 8. Legumes 9. Entrements 10. Savoureus 11. Fromage 12. Dessert 13. cafe

Hors d Oeuvres A variety of pickled or well seasoned food stuffs, from which the customer was able to make his or her choice. Designed to stimulate the appetite rather than be filling. Soup/Potage

May also act as an appetizer for the courses to come. Type of soup provided may be clear soup (consomm) thick soup (crme, veloute, puree), bisque, borsch, petite marmite, etc. Clear soups were served before the thick soups. Poisson This is a fish course which consists of soft fibred and tender fish which is easily digested. This prepares the appetite for the heavier courses to come. Entre Small well garnished dish accompanied by a very rich gravy or sauce. When a releve follows the entre potatoes and vegetables will not be included in the entre. Examples of this type of dish are as follows, tournedos, noisette, sweet bread, vol-au-vents etc. Releve Releves are usually larger than entrees and take the form of butchers joints which have to be carved. A sauce or roast gravy and potatoes and green vegetables are always served with this course. This may include saddle of mutton, baron of beef, boned sirloin, braised ham etc.

Sorbet Because of the length of the French classical menu, this course is considered to be the rest between courses. This is a water ice plus Italian meringue usually served in a champagne glass. In the olden days, the guests actually moved to another room or a hall to consume the sorbet. The interval was the occasion for the first speeches of the day, as

this menu was served mostly at formal functions. The waiting staff used the opportunity to clean the tables, re arrange the cutlery and generally tidy up the tables. Roti A roast dish usually consisting of roast game or poultry, served with a sauce or gravy and a side salad. Legumes A vegetable dish served with an accompanying sauce, at this stage of the meal the balance of the courses is gradually returning from heavy to light. Entrements Hot or cold sweet dishes such as souffls, crepes, coupes etc. what is known as dessert, today. Savoureus Savoury items served hot on toast or as a savoury souffl.

Fromage Cheese offered with accompaniments such as cracker biscuits, greens (celery) etc. Could take the form of a cheese board offering a variety of cheeses and accompaniments. Dessert

This may include different types of fruits and nuts accompanied by castor sugar and salt. Caf Different type of coffee were offered. Accompanied with petit fois, chocolates etc.


Modern Day Menus

Modern day menus are not as elaborate as the original French classical menu. A few menu suggestions given below will illustrate this point. A seven course menu would consist of; Appetizer Soup/potage Entre Sorbet Main course Cheese Dessert Appetizer - An appetizer is basically an hors d oeuvre or another item which may be served before. (eg. Fruit cocktail, fruit juice) Soup - Same as in introduction to French Classical Menu Entre - Same as in introduction to French Classical menu Sorbet - Same as in introduction to French classical menu Main course - A main course will consist of any meat or fish item served with vegetables or salad and other accompaniments such as sauce, gravy, etc. This could be either hot or cold and the quantity served is usually more than the quantity served in other courses. Cheese - Same as in introduction to French Classical menu

Dessert - Any sweet or fruit dish served after the main course.

A Modern day Five Course menu Appetizer Soup/oitage Entre Main course Dessert Note: This type of menu is commonly used today for certain special functions where the choice of food
may be of a special selection. This five course menu is used in day to day life, in set menus with a choice within the courses.

A Modern Three Course menu Starter/entre Main course Dessert It must be noted that for a three course menu a soup could be required by the guest. This type of menu is commonly used in menu restaurants for lunch as table d hote menus and could consist of a small selection within the courses.

5.4 Breakfast The word Breakfast could be broken into Break Fast, meaning the first meal for the day after a nights sleep. Hence a proper balance meal with adequate nourishment is a must for the day ahead. Breakfast was a very substantial meal consisting of six to seven courses

including such items such as chops, steak, liver, fish etc. But modern trends of breakfast have changed to a nutritive smaller breakfast termed as continental breakfast. There are three types of breakfast served in most of the hotels. 1. Continental Breakfast 2. English Breakfast 3. American Breakfast In many Sri Lankan hotels, in addition to these a Sri Lankan Breakfast comprising of Sri Lankan Breakfast items also is generally served. This could be termed as National Breakfast, which would vary from country to country. Addition to this many Sri Lankan hotels provide Indian /Japanese breakfasts to cater to rising demands. Indian cuisine itself has large ethnic variation such as North Indian, South Indian etc. Continental Breakfast This is rather a light breakfast, which consists of Fresh Fruits / Stewed fruit or Fruit Juices ******** Breakfast Bread with Butter, Marmalade or Preserves ******** Tea /Coffee /Milk /Hot Chocolate Sometimes a slight variation occurs in certain countries such as Germany and Austria, where a soft boil eggs are served and in Switzerland & Holland Cheese may be served with continental breakfast. On the European continental it is a usual practice to serve saltfree with continental breakfast. English Breakfast

The English breakfast is a substantial meal which consists of a number of courses, with a choice of dishes from within each course. The extent and variety of an English Breakfast menu will obviously depend on the type of establishment in which it is served. A full English Breakfast menu may sometimes consist up to eight course However, today most hotels offer an English Breakfast comprising of the following items. Fresh Fruits/Stewed Fruit /Fruit Juice Cereals with warm/cold milk, sugar *** A Fish *** Egg made to order with ham, Bacon or Sausage *** Breakfast bread with butter, Marmalade or preserves *** Tea/Coffee/Hot Chocolate /Milk Preparation (Salmon,Trout,Kippers,Haddock)

American Breakfast

American Breakfast is even heavier than the English breakfast. The reason being after an American breakfast a very light lunch is to be served. Fresh Fruits/ stewed Fruit or Fruit Juices

*** Cereals with warm/cold milk and sugar *** Waffles, pancakes with melted butter and syrup or honey *** A Fish Preparation *** A small portion of steak/meat/hamburger with accompaniments *** Egg made to order with ham, Bacon or Sausage *** Breakfast bread with Butter, Marmalade or Preserves *** Hot Beverages/Tea,Coffee,Hot Choclate,Milk

This type of breakfast is seldom served in hotels. Due to the length of the breakfast chilled water should be served throughout the meal.

Sri Lankan Breakfast

Most hotels serve a Sri Lankan breakfast comprising of typical Sri Lankan Breakfast items along with their traditional accompaniments and with tea as a beverage.

Breakfast Service

In most hotels the current trend is to serve a continental breakfast, the rate of which is included in the room rate, and to serve English or American on the a al carte. Breakfast may be served in

the hotel coffee shop, dining room, open-air terrace or room service. Separate breakfast rooms were also popular. Room service breakfasts would be handled by the room service staff. Many hotels adopt breakfast buffets for its convenience in service and for the possibility in offering guests a wider choice of food.

The Service

The basic mise-en-place for the service of breakfast is normally carried out in the evening before, after dinner service. In open-air terraces the mise-en-place would be ready and laid out only in the morning whereas in restaurants this could be done the previous day. To ensure protection from dust the corners of the table cloth may be lifted up to cover the set-up. The covers should be completed before the actual breakfast service commencement. Kitchen Order Ticket (K.O.T) Date Table no Pax Waiter no Bill no




1. 2. 3.

Take the order by presenting the menu card and repeat it. Inform the linen room. Write the K.O.T.

This has 3 copies in different colors 1st copy - Production dept.( Kitchen/ Bar) 2nd copy Cashier(Accounts Dept) 3rd copy - Remains on the book(F&B Dept)

To get it approved 1st copy & 2nd copies are brought to the cashier soon after writing. Then he approves it Then the waiter places the order with the kitchen. Do the mise-en-place early preparation. Soon after picking up food, take it to the room with the bill. (choose the shortest Knock on the door, announce yourself, wait for an answer. Greet the guest; request permission to enter the room. Enter the room; place the tray according to the guest wish. (balcony/ coffee table) Arrange the breakfast on the table. Check for correctness. Present the bill and get the bill settled. Inform about the balance. Wish the customer to have a pleasant breakfast and day. Leave the room by closing the door very gently. Come and inform the housekeeping office. Settle the bill to the cashier. Do the clearance/settle balance money. Inform the housekeeping office.

and takes the copy relevant to him.

possible way)

Self Study 1. List the 13 courses of the French classical menu in the correct order. It is not essential that you get it right the first time. Just be aware of the general order of the course. 2. State the basic types of menus

3. List the items in a continental breakfast and English breakfast. Compare and contrast.


Introduction 6.1 6.2 Opening up/closing up duties Taking down reservations

6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

Welcoming guests Types of Services Presenting the bill Room Service

Self Study _____________________________________________________________________

Objectives In this unit you will learn the correct procedures in servicing the needs of the customer.

Introduction In a restaurant there are various types of services you should know and the correct procedure of carrying out these services. These services may be in the restaurants or in the rooms itself and you need to anticipate and satisfy the needs of the customer.


Opening up/Closing up Duties

Here are some of the opening duties that you may be expected to perform in connection with opening a restaurant for service; Turn on lights and necessary electrical or gas appliances such as water urn, toaster etc. Check all tables, chairs, counter tops and stools for alignment and cleanliness. Fill creamers, check and fill if necessary, syrup jugs, relish dishes, and sauce and condiment containers. Set up tables or counter, check salt & peppers, sugar bowls, napkin dispenses, ashtrays and menus. Fill ice bins.

Check and place flowers where applicable. Make tea\coffee if applicable. Bring out necessary food items bread rolls, pastries Check all side stands applies of cups, glasses, plates, etc.

The closing duties, can be, Clean and fill salts, peppers, sugar bowls, etc. Clean and fill vinegar bottles, oil bottles and mustard containers. Wash and clean sauce bottle tops. Empty and clean all cream jugs or refrigerate creamers. Re fills and cleans all syrup jugs. See that all ashtrays are washed Put pastries in proper containers Replenish all side stand supplies- glasses, cups, sauces, paper goods, etc Wash and dry tabletops, counter tops, side stands and trays. Turn off soup tureen and other electrical appliance, such as urns Rinse coffee filers clean in cold water and leave them to soak in clean, cold water


Handling Table bookings/reservations

Depending on the type of restaurant and the management policy, it may be necessary to accept table-booking/reservations in advance for service in certain restaurants. Particularly in an exclusive supper club or specialty restaurants, it will be necessary to have a system of advanced table reservations, where guest may not like to stand and wait for a table or even due to limited number of tables in a restaurant.

On the other hand, in a snack bar or in a restaurant where there is a frequent change of custom, it would be unnecessary to have a system of reserving tables. In such a restaurant, if many tables were to be reserved, it may result in loosing custom as well as offend a guest who is in a hurry and needs a quick meal. Responsibility of handling Advanced Reservations In a restaurant where advanced reservations are accepted, the responsibility of handling them would normally be with the headwaiter/senior captain or the hostess. In some cases, the restaurant manager may handle reservations and pass down the relevant information to the headwaiter or senior captain. However, it is best that one person is made responsible for handling reservations in such restaurants. The Reservation Procedure The table reservation may be made in several ways in a restaurant. They may be, Direct / Personal Callers A guest who may be a resident or a non-resident, wanting to reserve a table may do so by directly speaking to the staff member who handles them in the restaurant.

Telephone Reservations Table reservation could also be made by telephone. This is mainly done by non-resident guests. The caller should be connected to the person who handles reservations straight away. If the restaurant is closed at the time of enquiry, the telephone operators take reservations on behalf of the restaurant. All details must be noted clearly and the information passed on to the head waiter/senior captain in a written form.

Reservation by email/fax/Letter There could be instances where reservations are requested by letter. In this case, a prompt reply is essential either confirming the reservation or asking for further details. This type of reservations may not be very frequent and would probably be information required regarding a special function such as birthday, anniversary etc. All enquiries made regarding table bookings by any means should be handled with the utmost courtesy, whether the reservation could be accepted or not. Accepting or rejecting reservation is done in conjunction with the table reservations diary for a particular day or a mealtime.

Accepting Table Reservation

When accepting table reservation it is important to obtain certain information regarding the reservation, and this would include, The name of person making the reservation Date & time of reservation Number of persons

In addition to this basic information, other particulars regarding seating arrangements, special requests (e.g. flowers on the table, location of the table, etc) or even particular bottle of wine to be kept ready, could be noted at the same time. The person handling reservations should have a first hand knowledge of the facilities and services offered by the establishment. This would include,

The capacity of the restaurant/number of covers Type of food and beverages offered Seating arrangements Reservations already accepted

When a reservation is accepted, it should be recorded in a, Reservations Diary where all reservations will be entered according to date and time Reservations list - from the reservations diary a reservations list would be made out for the particular day or meal. Having such a list would help the person taking down the reservation to make sure that all necessary information is taken down. This may contain columns for, Table number Name of person Number of persons Time of arrival Remarks

If many reservations are made, it would be advisable to make a final list in alphabetical order, so that the allocated table and the seat are found without delay on the plan, when it comes to seating the guests. Table plan for functions and large reservations, it would be necessary to have a table plan, in addition to the reservations list. This plan would be in a diagram form to help visualize the situation, which would be useful for escorting and seating guests. The tables on the plan would be consecutively numbered and all reservations from the list would then be entered on the plan according to the reservations made.

Other Considerations It is important for the headwaiter and the hostess to read through the list and familiarize themselves with the table plan, before the restaurant in opened. This would also enable them to know if any V.I.P. guests are expected and how they should be received. In the case of a table being reserved, it is a general practice in most restaurants to place a Reserved board on the table until the time of arrival of the guests. This card should be taken away before the guests sit at the table, as it would be considered impolite to leave the card while the guests are seated at the table. 6.3 Receiving & Seating Guests

First Impressions The success of a restaurant rises or falls on first impressions created in the minds of guests, at the time of their arrival at the restaurant. If at this point a feeling of welcome, good hospitality , and warmth has not been created, then no matter how good the service or the food may be, the guest will not be induced to return.

Greeting Guests What could be kinder than a smile? Especially to a stranger it is an indication of friendship and goodwill. Therefore, greet your guest with your warmest smile. When possible greet them by name, e.g. Good Evening, Mr. Perera and so on. People love this recognition, and you will find that you have made a friend. In some restaurants, there is a hostess to greet and seat guest, and in some, all staff responsible for this aspect of service. No matter whose job it is, do not ignore waiting guests, if the

person responsible is not there, greet guests Good morning, Good afternoon or whatever greeting is appropriate. Look directly at guests when greeting. If you are busy, tell them that someone will be with then directly soon. If the guest is someone, known and not been in for sometime, say we have missed you do not say we have not seen you for a long time. Seating Guests If you are conducting guests to a table, assist the ladies with their chairs. Take a wraparound or parcel to be secured in an appropriate place. If you have regular guest belongings check in service, be sure to obtain a claim check for the guest. If the hostess or a fellow worker on another station is busy or out of the restaurant, assist with the seating of guests at that station. Never stand with folded arms watching guests wonder around without being greeted. Help parents place babies in high chairs or young children on junior chairs. Where to seat guests Commonsense should dictate where parties of guests should be placed in the restaurant. Utilize tables according to party size. Seat large families at large round tables. Couples at smaller tables for two. Loud, noisy parties may be placed in private rooms or towards back of the restaurant, so they will not disturb other guests. Elderly or handicapped persons may wish to be near the entrance to room so they do not have to walk far. Young couples like quite corners.

Well dressed, elegant parties, who are an asset to the restaurant dcor, may be placed in central positions.

How to Seat Guests Normally guests will inform you when they have reservations. When they do not have reservations ask them How many are their in you party? When it appears to be one person, ask, Table for one, sir and not Are you alone? When there are ladies in the party you must seat one or more of them in seats with the best view. Usually males in the parties will assist in seating other ladies present. When guests are placed at wall tables with sofa seats on side, tables may be pulled away from the seats so that guests may be seated easily. Seating Control On a busy day, many good restaurants will have to wait for a table. Be sure guests are seated in order of arrival registration giving preference to guests with reservations at their appointed times.

Taking Orders for Food & Beverage Taking Orders for Food & Beverage is a skillful art that reflects the efficiency of the server personal of the restaurant. Presenting the Menu

When presenting the menu open them and place them directly in front of guests. Immediately fill glasses with water. Table Numbers Most restaurants have numbers assigned to tables, booths or counters. When the number is placed on the sales check, any staff member can assist another who is overly busy taking the orders to the right guests without having to ask questions. Writing the Orders You will have been assigned a station, which will consist of certain tables, booths or portions of a counter, as mentioned these will probably be numbered, in which case you must familiarize yourself with your area and memorize the numbers. In case they are not numbered it is a good idea to use your own numbers, which will make your job much easier. You have now greeted your guest with the usual cheerful and appropriate greeting, brought the water, and presented the menu in the proper manner. You are equipped with an order pad K.O.T. book and well sharpened pencil. Now you are ready to take the order. Stand erect, to the left of the guest, if space permits. Bend forward slightly from the hip, this posture give the impression that you are listening carefully. Hold your order pad firmly in your hand. Never slouch or rest the book on the table while you are writing. Listen attentively, write the order fully, make sure that you are not confused. Read the order back to ensure correctness, but do this quietly. If you are not sure about something, ask the guest about it immediately, do not wait. Be sure to note little details if the guest says brown toast, for example, that is what guest wants, not white. Does the guest want dressing on his or her salad, stuffing with turkey? It is

such details in which so many mistakes are made. The guest may not always mention it, but he will remember it. This makes for the poor service which affect the repeat business. So pay attention, take the order correctly, and deliver it that way. What to Ask How do you wish to have your meat (roast beef or steak) done? Well done, medium or rare? What type of dressing do you wish on your salad? (name the salad dressings available) Would you prefer mash, roast or backed potato? (or whatever available in the menu) Would you like your sandwich toasted or plain? On white bread or brown bread? How do you like your eggs, boiled? Two, three or four minutes? Do you prefer your bacon crisp or lightly cooked? White or brown toast? Trimmed or untrimmed? Do you wish coffee now, with your order or later?

There are in addition, many questions that house policy will require that you ask. Notice that instead of asking, How do you like your potatoes? you should offer specific suggestions. Follow the same procedure with other items on the menu that involve making a choice. This informs the guest of the choice and saves time. As a rule, the guest does not know what goes with his order and cannot find the items quickly on the menu. Often too, there are changes on the menu if the lunch or dinner hour is drawing to a close. Many guests give the order for the main course first, and decide later to have soup, juice or an appetizer. When writing down the order, place the main course in the center of the check, leaving space above for such items.

Informing the guests of his/her choice for dessert will prevent his/her ordering by mistake something that is not included in the meal chosen. If a guest order such an item and not be told and charged extra, the guest will be displeased. Therefore it is far better to list the choice for guests. When you have written the order, say, thank you and move quietly away from the table, gathering the menus as you leave. Taking of Order for Party of Six or More Guest It is important for service staff to adopt a proper system, as suggested in earlier handouts particularly when taking orders for large groups. Whether you have separate checks or single one, put your own small numbers on the check when you take the order, to remind you of what each guest ordered. That is, you mentally assign number 01 to the guest you will serve first, then assign numbers to each guest in turn, moving counter-clockwise around the table. 6.4 Types and Styles of Service

The service of meals may be carried out in many ways depending on the following factors 1. The type of catering establishment fast food or fine dining etc. 2. Type of customers to be served Business, holiday makers, etc. 3. Time available for the meal In a hurry, time on hand 4. Turn over of customers fast, slow 5. Type of menu presented elaborate, simple 6. Cost of the meals served Expensive, inexpensive 7. Size of the establishment large, small The main types of services practiced in food and beverage operations are; American Service (plated service)

1. In American Service, the food is portioned out on to the plate in the kitchen. 2. The waiter or steward has to collect the plate from the kitchen and place it in front of the customer from the right hand side of the guest walking in a clockwise direction. 3. Wait until all finish eating to do the clearance from right side. 4. Has to bring 4 plates at once; 3 from your left hand and 1 from your right hand. American Service is simple, time saving and profitable. It is ideal for Coffee Shops or Restaurants where clients are in a hurry. Usually the plates that are used in American Service are colorful. French Service (silver service) 1. In this type of service the food is portioned out to the service platter in the kitchen. 2. The waiter brings and presents it to the guest from the left hand side. 3. When approval is given by the customer, the waiter serves from the same side using service cutlery. 4. When waiter collects the food platters from the kitchen he would instruct his commies or his assistants to place the plates in front of the guests from the right hand side. 5. Used plates will be removed from the right hand side of the guest. 6. In French Service the waiter goes around the table in a clockwise direction. French Service is elegant, efficient and requires a lot of skill. In good hotels waiters are expected to wear gloves during French Service. English Service (gueridon service) 1. The food is placed on platters in the kitchen.

2. It is then brought to the restaurant by the waiter. 3. He will present the food to the guest from the left hand side then take it back to the Gueridon table and place it on a Rechaud. 4. The food will be portioned out to the hot plates at the Gueridon table using Service Cutlery. 5. The portioned out food is then placed in front of the guest from the right hand side. As American service walk around the table on a clockwise direction. 6. Clearance should be done from the right hand side. Gueridon Service will be found in first class and Luxury class restaurants. The second service will be Silver Service. Rechaud and warm plates are only used when serving warm food. German Service 1. The empty plates are placed in front of the guest from the right hand side. 2. The dishes are garnished and placed on the table with service spoons and forks. 3. The guest helps himself to the food off the dishes. This type of service while extending the highest form of the politeness is uneconomical from the hoteliers point of view.


Preparing and Presenting Guests Bill/Checks

The Sense of Urgency

The promptness in presenting guest bills/checks cannot be overemphasized in a restaurant operation. One moment the guest may be quietly reading the newspaper, and next moment standing with tapping toe at the cashers desk demanding for the check. Therefore, it is essential for service staff to remember that no sooner the orders are served, the guests check must be initiated. Depending on house policy, a waiter may have to give the second or third copy of the K.O.T. to the casher for the preparation of the guest check. Nothing can be more confusing to a casher than to have a handful of poorly written K.O.T.s. On the other hand, if they are clearly written, it may be a matter of moments for the cashier to prepare the checks accordingly. It is a good practice for service staff to have the guests checks prepared in advance, before the guest demands or asks for the check. No time should be lost in presenting the check, once it has been asked for. However, at no time should the service staff give the impression that they are trying to get rid of the guest, either because other guests need the table, or because it is nearing closing time. Preparing Checks When the waiter is sure all the orders are served and that the guests do not wish to avail any service further, he/she should inform the cashier, who will total the charges and prepare the check for presentation to guests. The waiter must always check to ensure that the bill is correct before presenting it to the guest. The following must be ensured in particular, Everything written on the check is legible. All items are marked down and properly priced The check is not stained with food or finger prints The correct number of people in the party is written down

The service charge or sales tax is computed according to the specified regulations

Presenting Checks In the service of a quick service restaurant, after the waiter has ensured that the guest required no further service, the check may be placed on the table at the left hand side of the host. But in a more leisurely type of a restaurant, more service may be required by guests after a meal, so that the check must remain open until asked for. The check must be presented to the guest in a check folder or on a small plate, according to the house policy. The more discreet the activity of paying the check is done, the better the service would be. Usually the check has two copies, one for the guest and the other for the cashiers record. Additional copies may be made according to the policy of the establishment. The Method of Settlement In most restaurants the settlement may be done in two ways, Signing the check In a hotel dinning room, the check may be signed by the guest and the amount added to his/her room bill, (in the case of house guest). These checks must be written neatly and the room number is noted in the check.

Cash payments

When the guests pay cash, this should be taken along with the check to the cashier, who enters it in a register or a sales summary sheet. The cashier then gives the change if any and stamps the check Paid. The change along with the original of the check is placed in the check folder and presented to the guests again. If payment is made through credit card, the card must be taken to the cashier to verify and record the particulars. After doing so, a copy of the payment voucher should be given to the guest along with the original of the check. Tips Service staff should never expect a tip from the guest at the end of the service. A tip is something that you may earn through courteous and prompt service. Sometimes the tips received will not be in proportion to the efforts that were made. A generous tip may be left for a small order which took little time and effort, and a less generous tip for a full dinner with all the trimmings. This probably depends on the number of guests that were being served and the amount of attention you were able to devote to each one. Any tip left by a guest, no matter what size it may be, should be picked up graciously with the folder or plate, and the guest must be thanked politely. Service staff should not hang about for a tip after presenting the check to a guest. The following is a flow chart of the typical service process in a restaurant;

Initial Table Approach (Genuine Welcome)

Present Menus Take Beverage Order

Pour Water

Serve Bread Deliver Beverages

Take Second Beverage Order (if applicable)

Take Food Order

Take Wine Order

Deliver Second Beverage Order Remove Unnecessary Serviceware Place Additional Serviceware, if Applicable

Serve Appetizers Serve Salad/Soup Serve Wine

Serve Entre Serve Dessert

Final Service Procedures


Room Service

Room service refers to Food & Beverage being served in guest rooms. Many hotels offer 24 hour room service. Depending on the size and the type of hotel this will be carried out by, a. Room service brigade. b. Housekeeping staff. Room service brigade

This will be a sub department under the Food & Beverage Department. Like any other service outlet it would be headed by a manager or maitre dhotel under whom there would be different categories of staff depending on the exclusiveness of its operation. Sample room service brigade,

Room Service Manager Room Service Maitre dhotel/Senior Captain

Order Taker

Waiters/ Stewards Trainees

Layout of the room service area In hotels where there is a separate room service department there would be a centralized area assigned to room service. This would comprise of storage space, office and a still room. The equipment found in the room service department would depend on the layout of the hotel and exclusiveness of its operation. Among these are, Sink Unit Hot Plate Gas/ Electric Cooker Cutting Boards Chinaware Refrigerator Salamander Coffee/ tea maker machine Knives Hollowware

Cutlery Linen Trolleys Chafing lamps Tables Trays


Wine Service Equipment

Cruets and necessary condiments etc. To facilitate room service many hotels have a room service floor pantry small area assigned to room service with a limited stock of necessary equipment. There may be one floor pantry for each floor or one located to serve two or more floors depending on the number of rooms to be served from the pantry.

Room Service Ordering Systems It is a must that all guest rooms have room service menus. The room service menus are not as exclusive as a restaurant menu but would offer a guest a limited menu selection inclusive of snack items. The items of the menu too would depend on the class of hotel. There are 4 main methods of ordering Food & Beverage to rooms, 1. Via Reception 2. Call Bell System 3. Door Knob Card 4. Calling Room Service Direct 1. Via Reception

In some hotels the guest may telephone the reception and request his/her order to the reception. The reception in turn will inform the restaurant of the order, where the service staff will deliver the food as per the order and time.

2. Call Bell System In hotels where a call bell system exists, the guest may use this to call the staff to his room to give the order. 3. Door Knob Card

The system is mainly in operation for breakfast service. The Order Card/Door Knob Card is placed in the guest room, so that the guest could indicate what his/her order is, and hang it outside the door before a stipulated time. These doorknob cards are collected by the floor waiter and he carries out the service. 4. Calling Room Service Direct

This is the modern system of room service order taking, where the guest calls the room service department direct and places his/her order. Generally the order is taken by an experienced order taker and passes it on to room service waiters for execution. Importance of Telephone Handling Techniques in room service In hotels where this system is in existence, remember that the telephone is the only means of communication between the guest and the room service. In this context, a room service order taker is quite similar to that of a telephone operators job, in front office. Good communication skills and effective telephone techniques are the most important attributes required for the job. The room service order takers should be competent in menu selections offered to guests (type of food, accompaniments, preparation time etc.) along with techniques in suggestive selling.

The room service order taker is the first contact of the guest in this operation and therefore, the guest's first impression depends on how the order taker answers the telephone. Answering the Room Service Telephone Order taker must be pleasant and accommodating to guest requests in answering a telephone. Answering a telephone promptly is of utmost importance. Answer it before the third ring. The following phrase may be used with a well-modulated and pleasant voice: Good Morning, Room Service, May I Help You? You must fully concentrate on the call, as the guest wants and deserves the full attention o the receiver. The guest cannot see and does not care how busy the receiver is. To the guest, his or her call is important and it is the only call that matters to him at the time. Order takers must eliminate all personal conversation while answering a call, in order to fully concentrate on them. Speak distinctly and pleasantly over the telephone into the transmitter so that the guest may hear every word clearly. Speak unhurriedly and make sure not to garble on words. The guest should not be given an impression of being rushed through. You must try to picture the person at the other end of the line, and try to create an impression that you are speaking to that person and not just to a telephone. Shouting, whispering and mumbling are equally unpleasant, and the voice should be natural and friendly. Call the guest by name if your hotel policy allows you to do so. This creates personalized attention. To facilitate this, the modern telephone systems have a digital room number indicator, which indicates the room number when a call is connected through. This enables the order taker to refer to the House Count, so that he could know the name of the guest, in-order to address the guest by name. However every order taker must try to remember the names and room numbers of VIPs and the long staying guests in the hotel.

Remember that things will not go right all the time. If an error or delay occurs, you can always rectify by directly apologizing and courteously explaining to guests. It is a must to thank all guests who call room service-whether for a bucket of ice or a full dinner menu. Thank the guest pleasantly making him feel that you are glad to have been of service. Room Service order taking procedure The room service order taking procedure is simple, but must ensure that every step is followed so that no errors are made in guest orders. The following procedure is recommended for order taking. Always answer the telephone courteously and promptly. Write down the order clearly on order slip. Room Number Number of persons to be served Name of the guest (check with House Count) Sequence in order (appetizer, soup, main course, etc.) Note any specific instructions (less salt, more ice etc.)

Repeat the order to the guest (name of the guest, room number, the order any specific instructions). Indicate an approximate time to serve the order. Thank the guest for calling room service, and let the guest hang up first. Write the order along with all relevant information on the order slip.

Every thing that the guest tells you about the order no matter how insignificant it may seem to you must be noted on the order slip. Remember it is important to the guest, or he/she wouldnt have said it. If the guest wants a quick service, for example note it on the order slip.

Call the shift in-charge and give the order immediately. Follow up the service of order and clearance. The Service Procedure in Room Service The room service procedure requires some special techniques that are vitally important to its own success as well as to the hotels reputation for outstanding service. These steps must be followed in sequence to avoid loss of time and any errors. Speed is essential in getting the orders to the guest rooms in the best possible condition. Organization is also essential as the wheeled tables used for rooms service in most hotels, impose limitation of space for conveying and setting up attractive meals. 1. 2. On receiving the room service order (KOT/BOT) place the 1st copy in the kitchen/s for food preparation. Set up the tray or trolley according to the order. Double check to ensure that all necessary cutlery, crockery, glassware, linen etc. has been placed on the tray/trolley. 3. 4. 5. 6. Pick up food (use food covers) and beverage, check once again with the KOT/BOT to ensure that the order is correct. Collect the guest bill, checking the room number and the order. Inform the order taker of your service. Take the order in the shortest route to the guest room. Knock the door and announce Room Service.

Never enter a guest room until the guest has asked you to do so. If no answer is received at the first knock, knock again. 7. 8. 9. On entering the room, make sure that the tray/trolley does not obstruct your view. Smile and greet the guest according to the time of the day. Good afternoon sir/madam Place the order on the coffee table or inquire from the guest where he/she likes the food placed (terrace etc.) 10. Remove any food covers if there are any. 11. Present the check and obtain the signature. 12. Inquire from the guest of clearance time. 13. Leave the room by thanking him for calling room service. 14. Close the door gently behind when you are leaving. 15. Hand over the signed check to the cashier. 16. On the time indicated by the guest, call over at the room for clearance (In clearance make note of the items brought in and items taken out-stock control) 17. Indicate to the order taker of the clearance done. Self Study 1. List 3 methods of taking down reservations. List the items that need to be taken down in taking a table reservation in a restaurant. 2. Write short notes on; a. Taking a food order b. Service of foods c. Presenting the bill 3. List the steps in service in a room. Check with the notes and correct. 4. List the important steps in taking a room service order by phone. Compare with notes provided. 5. Draw a flow chart for room service, based on the flow chart for restaurant service. Compare with restaurant service flow chart. Compare and contrast.


_____________________________________________________________________ Introduction 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9 7.10 Types of bars Bar Equipment Non Alcoholic Beverages Coffee Tea Beer Spirits Liqueurs Cocktails Wines

Self Study

Objective In this unit you will the various types of beverages, storage techniques and the art of serving them.

Introduction Beverages form an important part of the time that a customer spends in a restaurant. Beverages may be consumed before, during or after a meal. Some may be alcoholic while others are non-alcoholic. Not only should you know the various types of beverages but also the correct combinations that go with the food. 7.1 The Types of Bars

A bar can be defined as a place where people buy and consume beverages. Some bars serve only beverages and no food are served what so ever. Others sell beverages with snacks or light meals. A bar can be a part of a restaurant, can be in a hotel or a club, or it can be an independent enterprise. There are different types of bars in existence within hotel operations. Some of them are, Public/Front Bar This is a bar which is open to the public (non-residents of a hotel). The guest may order and consume their beverages either at the bar counter, or at tables placed around the bar counter or in the bar lounge. Lounge/Saloon/Cocktail Bar This is usually a bar for the exclusive use of the hotel guests, where they can have a drink in a leisurely and a relaxed atmosphere. A high standard of service and friendliness is essential. Usually soft music or live entertainment is provided in this type of bars. A wide variety of beverages and particularly cocktails are offered on sale at these bars. Snack Bars This is similar to the snack/coffee shop style restaurant, where a variety of drinks and snacks are on offer. Quick service is an essential requirement in this type of bar. Dispense/Service Bar This is a bar for dispensing beverages to service staff, and not directly to guests. Because it is not a visual sales outlet of a hotel, it is not usually designed to be aesthetically appealing but very functional, as it often has to serve a number of restaurants and other

sales outlets in the hotel such as rooms, etc. Normally these types of bars are located in the food and beverage service area behind the scenes. restaurants and room service area) Other Bars (Night Clubs/Discotheques/etc) There are other bars located in areas such as night clubs and discotheques in hotels, which are for the exclusive use of the guests who patronize these service outlets. Beverage Service Method/Style in Catering Operations The method/style of beverage service employed by a catering establishment should be complimentary to the food service method adopted. In a high-class restaurant for example, it is common to find an adjacent cocktail bar for pre-meal drinks, where the guest is served at the bar or table by a waiter. After the meal beverages are served at the guests table or in a coffee lounge. In a catering facility offering a self-service method of food service, the guest would help himself to beverages either as he moves along the cafeteria line, serves himself from a vending machine, or be served by a staff member operating from behind the counter. Often there is no separate coffee lounge in self-service restaurants, although where requirements space permits, one may be provided to help increase the turnover. However the two main beverage service methods adopted in food and beverage operations are: Counter or Bar Service In bar service, guests may either sit on stools or chairs at the counter and be served directly by the bar staff or they may sit at individual tables within the bar area and be served by waiting staff who collect the drinks from the bar. (for example, between the

The method of beverage service in which the guests may remain seated at the bar or table, is most commonly used in public houses and coffee shop style catering facilities. The latter method is widely used in hotel bars and other restaurants, which often feature a separate bar for pre and after meal drinking.

Table Service This is service of beverages at the guests dining table. The guests order for beverages is taken at the table and the beverages usually collected from the side of the bar, or from a dispense bar which is out of sight from the guest. In some restaurants, a trolley or cart may be used for the service of beverages to tables, particularly after the meal when liqueurs are served. The use of such a beverage cart is not only an aid to the service of beverages, but is also an important visual sales tool. 7.2 The Bar Equipments

In order to carry out the service of all forms of beverages requested efficiently, a bar should have all the necessary equipment for making cocktails, decanting wine, serving wine correctly, and making fruit cups and so on available within it. The type, quality, design and the amount of equipment used in a bar depends on the type of operation and the management policy. However, certain standard equipment are required for a smooth operation in a bar. Fixed Equipment Refrigeration equipments Ice making machines

Glass washing machine Beer reticulation equipments Cash registers Sink with running water

The above equipment are normally installed before commencing the operation of a bar as they need to be fixed on a permanent basis. The service personnel should know the use of these equipment thoroughly. Bar Tools / Small Equipment These tools or small equipments are used for pouring and mixing various drinks, preparing garnishes, and a variety of other purpose in a bar. Measures and pourers Optics Bottle openers and corkscrews Fruit knife and cutting boards Fruit squeezers Syphons Ice crushes Cocktail shakes Blenders Bar mixing spoon Mixing glasses Hawthorn strainers Ice tongs and scoops Wine buckets\cradles Decanters, carafes and water jugs Funnels and strainers

Swizzle sticks and cocktail stirrers Ice buckets and wine coolers Cleaning cloth

The service personnel must know the use of the above equipment thoroughly. 7.3 Non Alcoholic Beverages

Non-alcoholic beverage may be classified into five main groups, 1. Aerated waters 2. Natural spring water or mineral waters 3. Squashes 4. Juices 5. Syrups Aerated Waters These beverages are charged or aerated with carbonic gas. Artificial aerated waters are by far the most common. The charging with gas imparts the pleasant effervescent characteristic of all these beverages. The flavorings found in different aerated waters are imparted from various essences. Some examples of these waters are as follows, Soda water: Colorless and tasteless Tonic water: Colorless and quinine flavor Dry ginger: Golden straw color with a ginger flavor Bitter lemon: Pale cloudy color with a sharp lemon flavor

Other flavored waters, which come under this heading, are,

Fizzy lemonades Orange Ginger Beer Coca cola, etc.

Natural Spring Waters/Mineral Waters Today we live in an era increasingly concerned with health and the diet, so as a result mineral and natural spring waters are back in vogue. There is a worldwide shift in drinking habits away from strong spirits to lighter wines from sugary soft drinks to bottled waters. In Britain, the market has expanded 25 fold in just ten years, whilst in United State bottled water is the fastest growing beverage. At the same time, due to marketing forces, countries like Japan are becoming more aware of the benefits of bottled waters. Perrier from France and Apollinairs from West Germany make good aperitifs with their crisp sparkle. Other good pure still table water, internationally recognized, are Evian and Vittel from France, Panna from Italy and Font Vella from Spain. The EU has divided water into two main types, Mineral water & spring water. Mineral water has a mineral content (which is strictly controlled) while spring water has fewer regulations, apart from those concerning hygiene. Either water can be still, naturally sparkling or it can be carbonated during bottling by the addition of carbon dioxide.

Different Varieties of Mineral Water

NAME Appollinairs Contrex Perrier Royal Farris San Pellegrino Spa Spa Monopole Vichy Celestines Vittel Volvoc

TYPE Naturally sparkling Still Naturally sparkling or in fruit flavor Naturally sparkling Carbonated Still, naturally sparkling or fruit flavor Still or Sparkling Naturally sparkling Naturally sparkling Still

COUNTRY Germany France France Norwegian Italy Belgium Belgium France France France

Different Varieties of Spring Water

NAME Ashboure Badoit Buxton Evian Highland Spring Malvern

TYPE Still or sparkling Slightly sparkling Still or carbonated Still Still or carbonated Still or carbonated

COUNTRY England France England France Scotland England

Bottle size for the above mineral and spring waters vary considerably from 1.5 liters down to 200 milliliters. Some brand names sell in both plastic and glass bottles whilst other brands prefer either plastic or glass bottles, depending on the market and the size of container preferred by the market. Evian comes in single serve containers which are used by the airline. Natural spring waters are obtained from natural springs in the grounds, the waters themselves being impregnated with the natural minerals found in the soil and some times naturally charged with an aerated gas. The value of these mineral waters, as they are sometimes termed, has long been recognized by the medical profession. It should be

noted at this stage that one may often find a bottle of Malvern water on the bar top as well as the soda siphon. The guest may then help himself or herself to whatever he or she wishes. Where mineral spring waters are found, there is usually what is termed a spa, where the waters may be drunk or bathed in according to the cures they are supposed to effect. Many of the best known mineral waters are bottled at the springs. The mineral waters are usually classified according to their chemical properties, which are as follows: Squashes Squashes may be served on their own, mixed with spirits or cocktails, or used as the base for such drinks as fruit cups. They are indispensable in the bar and an adequate stock should always be held. Orange Lemon Grapefruit Lime juice


The main type of juices held in stock in the dispense bar are, Bottled or canned Orange juice Pineapple juice Grapefruit juice Tomato juice

Fresh Orange juice Grapefruit juice Lemon juice

It is very necessary that a small stock of these, made from fresh fruits, be kept. They would be used for cocktails and for mixing with spirits. Syrups The main use of these concentrated sweet fruit flavoring is as a base for cocktails, fruit cups or mixed with soda water as a long drink. The main ones used are, Grenadine (Pomergranate) Cassis (Black current) Citronelle (Lemon) Gomme (White sugar syrup) Framboise (Raspberry) Cerise (Cherry) Orgeat (Almond)

It should be noted that syrups are also made as flavoring agents in cold milk drinks such as milk shakes.



Coffee is a natural product grown in many countries of the tropical and sub tropical belt in the South and Central America, Africa and Asia. It is grown in different altitudes in

different basic climates and different soils and is looked upon as an international drink consumed throughout the world. Blending of Coffee Companies who sell coffee have their own blending experts whose task it is to ensure that the quality and the taste of their particular coffee brand is consistent, despite the fact that the imported coffee beans will vary from shipment to shipment. Most brands of coffee sold in shops are in fact a blend of two or more batches of beans. Because they have no smell or taste, green beans have to be roasted in order to release the coffee aroma and flavors. The correct roasting should give an even color. The output of different roasting are used to form different blends. The common degrees of roasting are Light or pale roasting Suitable for mild beans to preserve their delicate aroma. Medium Roasting Gives a strong flavors and are often flavored for coffees with well-defined character. Full Roasting Popular in many Latin countries and have a bitter flavor High Roasted Coffee Accentuates the very strong bitter aspects of coffee, although much of the original flavor is lost. The higher the roast, the less acidity and the more bitterness there is in the coffee. Roasted coffee must be ground before it can be used to make the brew. Coffee is ground in different grades of fineness, which suit many different methods of brewing. Most suitable grind of some common methods of brewing are as follows:

Characteristics of Good Coffee Good Flavor Good Aroma Good Colour Good Body

Coffee may be made in many different ways and will be served from the stillroom or appropriate service point. As coffee is an infusion, maximum flavor and strength should be extracted. Storage Coffee is an expensive commodity and therefore the utmost care must be taken in its storage. Well ventilated store room Air tight container for ground coffee to ensure that oils do not evaporate, causing loss of flavor and strength Away from excess moisture Must not be stored near strong smelling foods, as coffee will absorb their odor Making Coffee Rules to be observed when brewing coffee Use freshly roasted and ground coffee Use the correct grind for the type of machine Ensure that all equipment are clean

Use set measure of coffee to water Add boiling water to coffee and allow to infuse The infusing time should be controlled according to the type of coffee and the method of preparation. Control temperature, since to boil coffee is to spoil coffee - the coffee develops a bitter taste Strain and serve Add milk and cream separately Best service temperatures are Coffee 82oc (180oF) - Milk 68oc (155oF)

Reasons for bad coffee Weak Coffee Flat Coffee Bitter Coffee Too much coffee used All points for weak coffee Coffee left in urn for too long before use or kept at wrong temperature Dirty urn or equipment Water not fresh or boiled too long Coffee reheated Water has not reached boiling point Insufficient coffee Infusion time too short Stale or old coffee used Incorrect grind of coffee used for the equipment

Infusion time too long Coffee not roasted correctly Sediment remaining in storage or serving compartment Infusion at too high temperature

Coffee maybe made in many ways. The still room staff must have a full knowledge of method of making and serving coffee in order to ensure that it reaches the guest in peak condition with maximum flavor and strength, piping hot, correct accompaniments and served in the right type of container.



The most universally consumed beverage, made by infusing the dried leaves of an Asiatic evergreen shrub. At first regarded primarily as a medicinal beverage, tea drinking became fashionable with the aristocracy and then popular at all levels of society. The drinking of teas is important in China and in Japan, where the tea ceremony has influenced social life, art, religion and philosophy. Climate, soil, altitude and orientation all affect the growth and the quality of the plants and therefore the color, fragrance and the taste of the tea. The best teas are cultivated in an altitude of about 2000m (6500 ft) and are hand picked. Today the principal tea producers are India, Sri Lanka, China, Japan, Indonesia, East Africa, Latin America and the Soviet Union. In France and Briton where tea has become the national beverage, the most popular varieties are Sri Lankan teas. Tea could be categorized into three main types.

Green Tea This is unfermented tea, which is roasted immediately after harvesting and gives a strong bitter, although quite a clear infusion. A specialty of China and Japan prepared by subjecting the leaves to fierce heat. It is highly favored by the Chinese and Muslims, who are forbidden to drink fermented tea. Black Tea By far the most common, this is fermented and dried. There are five stages in its preparation. Withering (the leaf is dried and softened), rolling (the cells of the leaves are broken down to release and mix the constituents), moist fermenting (2-3 hours at 27 oc), desiccating (20 min at 90oc), sorting, and grading. Black tea mainly comes from Sri Lanka, India and China. Sri Lankan Tea These are quite strong infusions, with a natural simple taste and could be drunk at anytime. Among the best varieties are: Superior Orange Pekoe Large very fragrant leaves with a delicate taste, giving an amber Colored infusion. Flowery Orange Pekoe Rolled leaves which open out fully during infusion, giving a Fragrant tea, blending well with lemon Uva Highland a great growth, obtained from large leaves, drunk without milk. Medium Grown Broken Orange Pekoe a full bodied tea usually drunk with milk.

High Grown a colored very fragrant tea, excellent in the morning Oolong This is semi-fermented tea, intermediate between green and black tea. Its quality varies from season to season. Very popular in the United States, where it is divided into eight grades ranging from choicest to common. The best is fancy grade Oolong, characterized by well-formed whole leaves and giving a unique mellow infusion best drunk without milk.

Scented and/or Flavored teas Apart from the classic teas, there is a large variety of teas perfumed and/or flavored with flowers or fruits. The range is quite vast - Vanilla, Raspberry, Grapefruit, Apple, Apricot, Ginger, Cinnamon, Passion Fruit, etc. and gives various scented teas that could be drunk hot or iced. However apart from the traditional flavorings other fragrances produce infusions which, for tea lovers, have little to do with tea. Tea and Health The many beneficial qualities of tea has been recognized since the ancient times. It stimulates the nervous system because of its caffeine (or theine) content, it aids digestion, stimulates the circulation and heartbeat and it is diuretic. The properties and the flavors of tea could be preserved if stored as follows. Dry, Clean and Covered Container Well Ventilated Still Room Away from excess moisture

Should be stored away from strong smelling food as tea quickly absorbs strong odors. If stored under the correct condition tea will keep for 18 months.

Preparation of Tea The type of tea used will of course depend on the customers choice and cost, but most still carry a varied stock of Indian, Sri Lankan and China tea. The quantity of dried leaves used would vary slightly with the type of tea used, but as an approximate guide 42.5-56.7 gms (1 - 2 oz) dry tea per 4.546 liters (1 gallon). When brewing smaller amounts in the stillroom such as a pot for one or two, it is often advised to install a measure. This then ensures standardizing of brew and control of the commodity in use. Other means of pre portioning is by use of tea bags. Because a tea is an infusion, the maximum flavor is required from the brew. A few simple rules carefully followed will obtain satisfactory results. They are. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ensure that all equipment used is clean. Use fresh water for boiling. Do not use water that has been boiled before. Rinse out the teapot with boiling water, just before adding the dry tea leaves so that the maximum heat could be obtained from the boiling water. Measure the dry leaves and water exactly. The general rule is one teaspoon of tea per person and one for the pot. Use freshly boiled water, take the teapot to the kettle and pour the water into the pot just as it reaches the boiling point. Allow infusion to take place for 3-5 min to obtain the maximum strength from the brew. After this time, the flavor does not improve and the tannins spread and make the infusions bitterer and darker. 7. Just before service stir the tea in the pot with a spoon. Remove the tea leaves at the end of this period. If the tealeaves are left in the pot, use a strainer in pouring.

Service of Tea A good quality of tea is generally drunk on its own or sometimes with a dash of milk. Tea lovers avoid lemon which denatures the flavor of the tea, and they often do without sugar. Some however like tea sweetened with honey. Tea with milk Tea Always use freshly brewed tea according to the above steps. Use refined sugar as raw sugar gives a distinctly different flavor to the tea. 1 kg of sugar could be used to make approximately 75 cups of tea. Milk Fresh cows milk is the ideal milk for a good cup of tea.

Sugar -

Equipment necessary for Tea service 1. Service Salver/Beverage Tray with Tray Cloth 2. Tea Pot which could hold the correct number of portions 3. Hot Water Jug 4. Milk Jug on an underliner 5. Slop Basin & Strainer if the tea is not pre strained. 6. Tea Cups and Saucers with Tea Spoons corresponding to the number of portions Serving of Tea 1. 2. Position all items to ensure an even balanced tray when carrying. Place tea cups on saucers with the tea spoon in front of the guest from the right hand side.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Place milk, Hot water and sugar containers on the table in front of the guest. The handles of such should be towards the guest for his convenience. Place the strainer on the slop basin and place both near the tea cup. Transfer the strainer onto the tea cup. Pour tea to the cup through the strainer holding the pot from the right hand side. Transfer the strainer onto the slop basin and remove both onto the tray. Proceed as above to other guests.

Iced tea Prepare an infusion of tea as per normal preparation. A sprig of fresh mint could be added for flavor. Allow to cool and chill in a refrigerator. During service add the correct measure of tea to a highball glass with ice, add limejuice and sugar syrup. Garnish with a slice of lime. Serve on an underliner with straws and iced teaspoon. In first class establishments, the limejuice and sugar syrup would be presented in separate jugs for the guest to mix according to his requirement.



Beer can be defined as alcoholic beverage which contains carbon dioxide, and is manufactured from barley, hops, sugar and water and is fermented with yeast and filtered with finings. Beer contains between 4% to 9% alcohol, sugar and minerals. The main ingredient is water. The legend goes to say that beer was first manufactured by Egyptians in the seventh century B.C. (more than 2600 years ago). It is said that in the middle age, beer was mainly brewed in European monasteries by the monks.

The Basic Materials Used in Beer Making Malt The best cereal for use in the production of beer is barley. This cereal goes through a process, which converts it to what is termed malt. Hops These are specially grown for brewing. The part of the hop, which is used, is the flower. The flower contains oil, which gives beer its flavor. Yeast Yeast is a living thing and is added to the beer at a set time to cause fermentation. Yeast and sugar combination produces alcohol and gives off carbon dioxide gas. During fermentation, the yeast multiplies and this new yeast is collected and used for future brews. Water (Liquor) Usually draws from a special well and may have certain mineral in its make up, which helps a beer develop its own special characteristics.

The types of Beer Light Beer This is a regular beer, which is light in color.

Brown/Black Beer

This is an aromatic malt beer, made from oven-roasted malt, with a dark brown or black color. Ale This is an aromatic hop beer, which is usually fuller bodied and is bitterer than regular beer. Stout This is also ale, which is darker, sweeter and more hoppier than mild ale. Lager This is a bright beer, lighter bodied with more carbon dioxide than regular beer and is stored longer than regular beer. Special Beer This is a type of beer made by a double brewing process. It contains more hops than regular beer and is stored longer for maturing. Draught Beer This beer is put in casks and served under full pressure Beer Producing Countries Today beer is manufactured all over the world. However the most popular and commonly served beers in hotels are, England Germany Holland Australia Denmark France Bass \ Guinnes \ Worthington Becks \Dortmunder\ Lowenbrau Heineken \ Skol \ Amestel Fosters Large \ Swan Larger Carlsberg \ Tuborg Kronenburg \ Slavia

Czechoslovakia Sweden Switzerland U.S.A. Japan Indonesia Philippine China Sri Lanka

Pilsner Urquel \ Budweisser Skol Cardinal \ Gurten \ Muller Michelob \ Schlitz Asahi \ Santoro \ Kirin Anker \ Bintang \ San Miguel San Miguel Pu Tao Lion Lager /Three Coin/ Sando Stout

The Storage of Beer The storage of beer is important as its manufacture if the guest is to be satisfied. The following points must be remembered when storing bottled and canned beer. The room condition The room should be large enough, clean, free from strong or foul orders and the temperature approximately 10 degrees centigrade. The Position The bottles should be stored vertically. Stack the beer neatly according to size and the type, and follow the stock rotation procedure of first in first out. Draught Beer These are usually racked into cask, which have been sterilized. The casks of beer are then allowed to mature in the cellars before distribution for sale. Light beers need not be stored as long as the strong beers. Sometimes the casks are rolled in the cellars to encourage the working of a slight secondary fermentation. As soon as this occurs a porous peg is inserted to ease the pressure of the gas given off.

This peg will later be replaced by a hard peg as soon as the secondary fermentation has eased and the beer is in condition.

The Service of beer There are 3 important points, which must be taken into consideration when serving beer. 1. The cleanliness of the glass The glass should be spotlessly clean and chilled, with no cracks or chips. The use of a dirty or greasy glass will result in flat beer. 2. The service temperature Beers are best served chilled, particularly in tropical climates, to around 10 C , without ice. This improves their taste and freshness. 3. The foam (Head) of beer There should be just enough head in the beer glass when served, not too much or too little. In cold climates, beer is generally served at a temperature of 13 to 15 C. The only beer served chilled in such climate is lager. Also draught beer on its route from the keg\cask to the pump, often pass though a chilling unit. Draught beer should have a small head on them. One may note the good condition of beer if the head or froth clings to the inside of the glass. Pouring

When pouring bottled beer, it should be poured down the inside of the glass, which is held at a slight angle. It should be poured slowly. This is specially important where beer works a lot and may produce a large head quickly if it is not poured slowly and carefully. Guinnes and stouts are such beers. More care must be taken when pouring beer in hot weather as this causes the beer to work much more. The neck of the bottle should not be placed in the beer when pouring. Where bottle beers have sediments, when pouring, a little beer must be left in the base of the bottle holding the sediment back. There should always be adequate beer mats\pads or coasters on the bar top and in the lounge on the table.

Mixed Beer Drinks There are several commonly served mixed beer drinks at a hotel bar. Some of them are, Mild and bitter Stout and mild Brown and mild Light and mild Shandy - draught bitter and lemonade or ginger beer Black velvet Guinnes and champage Black and tan half stout and half bitter



Although there are other spirits, the best-known and commonly served spirits at hotel bars are,

Whisky Brandy Gin Rum Vodka Arrack

The other spirits served at hotel bars may be categorized as, Fruit based spirits Aniseed based spirits Bitters Schnapps and Aquavit Tequila

Whisky Whisky is made from the distillation of malted barley, un malted barley, maize or rye. Scotch whisky This whisky is made in Scotland. Its flavor and quality is governed by the type of cereal, the malting process, the peat used, the water, the distilling equipment used and the skill of the distiller and the blend. There are two distinct types of Scotch. One is made from malted barley, double distilled in a pot still, this is called malt whisky. The other is made from barley and maize, usually un malted and distilled in a continuous still, this is called grain whisky.

Irish Whisky This whisky is made in Ireland from a wash of malted and malted barley with some grain. Made by the pot still method, it is distilled three times but the majority is now made by the continuous method. It is normally not sold until seven years old. Whiskey is the Irish spelling, which is also used by the Americans for their whiskey. Rye Whisky This whisky is distilled mainly from wash containing a minimum of 51% rye. The majority of rye whisky is produced in North America. Bourbon Whisky Bourbon is an American whisky which is made from maize, rye and malted barley. Bourbon takes its name from Bourbon country, Kentucky. It must contain at least 51% maize spirit.

Brandy Brandy is the distillation of the fermented juice of fresh grapes, without the addition of any other spirits. Cognac Cognac is produced in the region of Cognac in France. The quality of the brandy finally produced depends on the soil where the grapes are grown as well as the distillation, maturing and blending processes. Only copper pot stills are used for the distillation, which by law must be completed by the end of March of the year following the harvest. The distillation is done under French Excise supervision.

Armagnac This brandy is produced in the region of Armagnac in France. The grapes are picked up and made into a very dry and acidic wine. The distillation must then be completed before the end of April following the year of the harvest. The traditional method of producing Armagnac is by using the traveling continuous or rectifying still rather than the pot still. However it is a different type of continuous still to that used to produce other spirit, it has a much shorter rectifying column. Gin Gin is a spirit distilled from a wash made from fermented grain, malted barley, maize or rye. There are three main types of well known English grain, and they are, London Dry Gin This is made by adding a distillate of various flavorings to the base spirit. The flavorings used are juniper berries, coriander, angelica root, orange and lemon peel, liquorices, orris root, cassia bark, cardamom, calamus root, fennel and almonds. These constituents are usually steeped in spirit and distilled in a separate run. The distillate is then used to flavor the spirit. Sometimes the flavoring are added to the grain mash and distilled in one process. Plymouth Gin This is wholly unsweetened and is the correct gin for pink gin, which is a mixture of a little Angostura bitters and gin served with ice water.

Old Tom Gin This is a sweetened gin. In addition there is Dutch gin, which is sold under the names of Geneva, Holland and Schiedam. Gin is flavored and colored as well, and is brought to the required strength by the addition of distilled water. It does not require maturing as do whiskies and brandies. Rum Rum is a spirit distilled from fermented molasses. Molasses is a syrup by product of the sugar industry from which the crystalline sugar cannot easily be obtained by further refining. The type of yeast used in the fermentation has a great bearing on the resultant rum. Other factors are the method of distillation, the type and amount of caramel used for coloring, and the maturation. Rum can be matured in uncharred or charred oak cask. White Rum This was originally a Cuban rum, but now it is also produced in Puerto Rico and Jamaica. It is made by using the continuous still and maturing for just one year in uncharred oak casks. This rum is light in body, flavor and smell. Dark Rum This rum is rich and full-bodied. It is produced in Jamaica and is known as Jamaican rum. Vodka Vodka originally came from Russia and Poland. It is colorless and the best is filtered through charcoal filters to purify the flavor. The best is made from rye, although it is made from other grains. Genuine Russian vodka is distilled from wheat. It is odorless and flavorless and thus is ideal for mixed drinks and cocktails. Vodka is now made by British

companies and in other Western countries. Flavored vodkas are available from Russia and Poland.

Arrack Arrack is also a spirit distilled from fermented molasses. There are many varieties produced in Sri Lanka by different manufacturers. Arrack is also produced in Indonesia (Batavia) and is called Batavia Arrack.


Liqueurs and their Production

Definition Liqueur is the French name generally given to an alcoholic beverage composed of a spirit which has been sweetened, flavored and sometimes colored. The history of some liqueurs goes back to the days when many monasteries distilled their own spirits with herbs and spices for medical purposes. Some liqueurs still retain links with this original even today. The Basic Materials used in the Making of Liqueurs Spirits Brandy is the most commonly used spirit in liqueurs. Also there are liqueurs made with whisky, rum and natural spirits, as their base in the production. As a rule only one spirit is used as the base, for the production of liqueurs.

Flavoring Agents

There are various types of plants fruits and herbs used for flavoring of liqueurs. The types and proportions of flavoring used depend on the type of liqueur made. Most liqueur producers have their own secret formula for the liqueurs that they make. Some of the fruits which are used in making liqueurs are apricot, banana, cherries, peaches, pears, orange and strawberries. The plants and herbs used include angelica root, cinnamon, olives, ginger root, nutmeg, almond, caraway seeds, coriander, vanilla, mint, lemon peel, etc.

Sweetening Agent Sugar syrup is the most frequently used sweetener in liqueurs, while the other include sugar and honey. Besides these basic materials, coloring agents are sometimes added to liqueurs to develop a particular color. The Types of liqueurs The type and style of liqueurs will vary according to the spirit used, the alcoholic strength, and the flavoring used in them. They are intended to be drunk mainly after meal, where they are considered an aid to digestion. Liqueurs can be classified into two main groups. 1. Liqueurs under proprietary name Benedictine D.O.M This is made from cognac, flavored with a variety of plants and herbs in France. The letter D.O.M. stands for Deo Optimo Maximo which means To God, Most God, Most Great

Chartreuse Mostly made with brandy base in France and in Spain. These come in two varieties, the yellow Chartreuse which is softer and sweeter, and the Green Chartreuse. Cointreau This is orange flavored liqueur with a bittersweet taste made in France. Drambuie This is a liqueur made from Scotch whisky in Scotland. The term Drambuie is derived from the Gaelic word Drum Buidheach which means the drink that satisfies Grand Marnier This is made from cognac, flavored with oranges and sweetened with caramel and is made in France. Kummel This liqueur is made from neutral spirit and flavored with caraway seeds. This is produced in Berlin, Germany. Kahlua This is a Mexican liqueur with coffee flavor and is an excellent accompaniment to ice cream. Tia Maria This is a Jamaican liqueur made from Jamaican rum, flavored with coffee.

2. Liqueurs under general brands Advokat

A thick liqueur made from brandy, avocado, egg yolk and sugar, originally made in Holland.

Apricot Brandy This is brandy-based liqueur flavored with apricot. B & B Liqueur This is a mixture of Benedictine D.O.M. with brandy made in France. Blackberry Liqueur This is brandy-based liqueur, flavored with blackberries. Cherry Brandy Liqueur This is brandy base liqueur, flavored with red cherry. Crme de ananas This is made with neutral spirit and flavored with pineapple Crme de bananas Banana flavored and neutral spirit base. Crme de cacao A chocolate flavor liqueur that comes in two varieties, the white is made from cocoa and vanilla and the brown is made from cocoa beans. Crme de framboise This liqueur is flavored with raspberry. Crme de menthe A mint flavored liqueur which comes in two colors. Green and white.

Curacao An orange flavored liqueur made from dried peels of green orange. It comes in a variety of color. White\clear, orange, blue. Crme de Mocca This is a coffee flavored liqueur, which is dark black in color. 7.9 Cocktails

Definition A cocktail can be defined as mixed drink made from a mixture of two or more beverages, one or more of them being alcoholic. A good cocktail should have some desirable attributes, and the most important among them are, o It should be able to stimulate the appetite o It should be able to please the palate and the eye o It should be able to refresh the mind Further, cocktails serve three entirely different social and human purposes, and should be chosen and prepared accordingly. o Cocktails provide a graceful and pleasant way to drink for people who enjoy or need the relaxation or the stimulation of alcohol. They are gin, whisky, brandy, or rum (and other spirits) pleasantly colored, flavored and served in a pretty glass.

o Cocktails are excellent stimulators of appetite when they are not sweet, and so provide a perfect before meal drink which awakens the palate while if relaxes the nerves. o Cocktails afford the seldom drinker a pleasantly flavored small quantity of alcohol to serve or drink for social purposes. Besides being aperitifs, cocktails can also be drunk after meals, and so they can be differentiated into, Aperitif cocktails After dinner cocktails

They also can be classified into different categories as, Squashes (non-alcoholic) Highballs Collins Sours Slings Punches Fizzes

The Cocktail Ingredients Beside the method of making cocktails, color and the aroma of ingredients used in making cocktails influence the final product. The ingredients can be categorized into three, such as, Main Ingredients

These are the fundamental and distinguishing ingredients which consist of alcoholic beverages, particularly spirits and wines (except for non alcoholic mixed drinks). Usually not more than three different spirits are used in cocktails, as it can destroy the distinguishing flavors of the spirit and produce an unpleasant drink otherwise. Modifying Agents The function of these agents are to smooth down the bettering sharpness of the spirit and at the same time to highlight and add character to its natural flavor. The flavor of the modifying agent should not predominate, but should always remain submerged, making the drink smooth and fragrant. These can be differentiated into aromatized agents such as vermouths, bitters and miscellaneous agents such as milk, cream, fruit juice, eggs.

Flavoring & Coloring Agents The function of these agents are to improve the flavor and the presentation by adding color to the cocktail. They should never dominate and overpower the flavor of the main ingredients. Generally, liqueurs and fruit syrups are considered as flavoring and coloring agents. Besides those mentioned above, cocktails are usually decorated with garnishes, such as cherry, lemon, orange, cocktail onion, olives, etc. The main function of these garnishes are decorative, making them pleasant to eye, and also to add taste and flavor. They should be placed attractively in the glass or on the rim of the glass. Using Particular Ingredients

Remember that important points should be perceived when using the following ingredients in cocktails. Ice Ice should be fresh, clear and free from any taste. Always put ice before pouring any liquid ingredients. Ice cubes are best for mixed drinks and for drinks on the rocks, while crushed ice is required for frappes. Sugar Sugar should be put in before adding spirits, except when the recipe specifies so. Powdered sugar dissolves and blends quickest with alcohol at low temperature. Fruits & Fruit Juices Whenever possible use only fresh fruits. They should be well cleaned before use. Use fresh fruit juices by squeezing and straining just before using to ensure freshness and the taste. When mixing drinks containing fruit juices, always pour the spirits last. Lemon or Lime Peel The peel should be wiped around the rim of the glass to deposit the oil on it and then dropped in the drink. Bitters When a recipe calls for bitters, only a dash or two is required. The use of special dasher\stopper is suggested to ensure the proper quantity. Egg Egg should be placed in the mixing glass or the shaker; before spirits are poured in to make sure that the egg is fresh. To separate the white of an egg from the yolk, break the egg by hitting the center on the edge of the glass. Separate the two halves passing the yolk from one half of shell to the other, until the white slips through to the glass below. Shaking method is a proper way to mix up and blend the egg with the other ingredients.

Methods of Making Cocktails There are four methods of making cocktails such as mixing, stirring, shaking and blending.

Mixing These drinks are directly prepared in the glass to be used for the service of the drink, by gently floating the ingredients one on top of the other. In doing so, each ingredient (liquids) should be poured slowly over the teaspoon held, bottom side up, over the glass. The rounder surface of the teaspoon will spread each liquid slowly and evenly over the one below in the glass. Be sure to pour all ingredients in the order given in the recipe. Stirring The ingredients for stirred cocktails are mixed together with a bar spoon in a mixing glass containing plenty of ice. The cocktail is then strained through a hawthorn strainer. Plenty if ice should be placed in the mixing glass and then any water strained off before adding any ingredients. All garnishes and glasses etc. should be assembled before any ice is added to the glass to prevent loss of time and excess melting of ice, which will weaken the cocktail. When the ingredient are all in the glass the bar spoon should be stirred round and round the inside of the glass vigorously, causing the ice to mix and cool the liquors. The spoon is removed and the hawthorn strainer is placed on the top of the mixing glass, which is then tilted to strain the mixed drink in to the cocktail glass. If the drink being prepared is for more than one person, half fill each of the glasses then top up each so obtaining an equal strength of the drink in each glass. The prepared drink in the mixing glass becomes more dilute towards the end because of the continually melting ice. Shaking

Basically, cocktails containing ingredients are difficult to mix, e.g. sugar, cream, egg, etc, require shaking with ice for proper mixing. Cocktails may be shaken in either a Boston or a standard shaker. Plenty of ice should be placed in the shaker and any excess water should be strained off. The ingredients are then poured into the shaker on to the ice and the top is put on securely. Holding the top and bottom of the shaker together with both hands for Boston shaker, and with one or both hands for the standard shaker, shake vigorously so that the ice moves up and down the inside of the shaker quickly, cooling and thoroughly mixing the ingredients. The drink is then strained out of the shaker into the glass or glasses, which have been previously prepared. Ingredients containing carbon dioxide, such as soda water, must never be shaken in a cocktail shaker, otherwise the shaker will burst open. These ingredients should not be used in a mixing glass or a blender either. Blending This blending is very suitable for drinks which require a fruit cream and where frothiness is desired in them. They are prepared by mixing the ingredients in an electric mixer or blender (liquidizer). Crushed ice is usually used on the blender in place of ice cubes.



What is Wine? Definition Wine is an alcoholic beverage obtained from the fermentation of the juice of freshly gathered grapes, the fermentation of which has been carried through in the district of its origin and according to local tradition and practice. Wine is merely the fermented grape juice with no addition of any sort. Main Wine Producing Countries of the World

France, Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Australia, Spain, Argentina.. France, Italy and Germany produce some of the finest quality wine and Italy produce the largest quality of wine in the world.

Different Types of Wine Wine could be broadly categorized into three different types, 1. Table Wine 2. Sparkling Wine 3. Fortified Wine Table Wine Table wine is further categorized as, White wine Rose wine Red wine Colorless to lightish green in color Pink in color Dark red in color

Sparkling Wine This is a wine which gives a sparkling effect and bubbles up when the bottle is opened. A sparkling wine is where some of the carbon dioxide gas released from the second fermentation is retained in the bottle. Different countries have special terms to describe sparkling wine displayed on the wine label. Sparkling wines are named as,


Champagne Champagne is the sparkling wine made in the Champagne district of France. No other districts or a country could produce a sparkling wine with the name of Champagne. E.g. Dom Perignon is a brand name of a sparkling wine produced in the district of Champagne in France. The standard name given for the sparkling wines produced in Germany is called SEKT. Henckle Trocken is the brand name of a sparkling wine produced in Germany. On the label of the wine bottle, SEKT will indicate that it is a sparkling wine from Germany. The standard name given for the sparkling wine in Italy is called ASTI. ASTI SPUMANTE is a brand name of a sparkling wine produced in Italy. The name itself indicates it is an Italian sparkling wine. Fortified Wine This is a grape wine strengthened with the addition of a grape brandy, blended and matured before bottling. Now known within the European Economic Commission (EEC) as liqueur wine or vins de liqueur. The alcoholic strength is between 15% - 22%

There are many fortified wines in the world, out of which some famous types are, Port Wine Madeira Wine Sherry Marsala

PORT WINE Alcoholic strength is 18% - 20% Some famous names are Ruby Port, Twany Port, Vintage Port. SHERRY Alcoholic strength is 15% - 18% Some famous names are Bristol Cream, Amontillado, Oloroso. MADEIRA Made on the Portuguese island of Madeira. Alcoholic strength is 18%. Some famous name are Sercial (dry), Verdello (medium), Bual (sweet), Malmsey (very sweet) MARSALA A dark sweet wine from Marsala in Sicily. Service of wines
Type Starting Temp. Starting Temp. In the glass

All Sparkling Wines and Champagnes



White dry wine Young red wines, light & fruity Great strong white wine Elegant red wines Red tannic wine Service Procedure for Wine

7C 8C 8 - 10 C 10 - 12 C 15 - 17 C

9 11 C 10 12 C 10 12 C 12 14 C 18 20 C

After the guest is seated the wine list will be presented, usually by the server, but it may be given by the greeter or sommelier. The wine list is always presented to the host or hostess. Wine lists are usually presented from the left of the guest space and table arrangements permitting. The wines offered are priced in accordance with the menu pricing and should complement the foods offered A wine list, outlining the wines by region or grape varieties, is the best way to present wine selections to guests. You are more likely to find a sommelier in a finer restaurant. A sommelier will have extra knowledge about the wine selection, wine service, and food pairings. Sommelier will work specifically with guest regarding wine selection. A sommelier's attire will usually be different than the other servers. In restaurants without a sommelier, the server will handle both the food and wine selections. If the guest has not ordered wine before their meal, then a server could make suggestions of wine, after the meal order is taken. Rather than be brash and ask Would you like a glass of wine with that? you could take the approach of can I suggest the house Chardonnay which is from Australia, and would taste great with the salmon you ordered? The second approach provides a more appealing sell and allows you to focus the guest on the order, up-sell the wine and leave the table without having to wait while they continue to peruse the menu. Having wines available both in the bottle and glass makes it easier to sell.

It is traditional for the sommelier or server to bring the bottle to the wine host. This provides an opportunity to verify that the bottle is indeed the wine that was wanted before the cork is removed. If everything matches up, a nod indicates to the server that the wine is correct. The most common error will be an incorrect vintage or wines of the correct variety of grape but from the wrong winery. These are usually just innocent errors caused by mistakes in communication or vintage changes that were not updated on the wine list. Guests in high-end restaurants expect a certain level of elegance and professionalism to be tied to the presentation, opening and pouring of wine, while those in casual restaurants look at a bottle of wine as a treat and require some level of service to justify the price of the wine. While most restaurants should provide the server with their preferred wine service techniques, the key points follow: Carry the bottle to the table and present it to the host (or the person who ordered the wine). The presentation is simple and should consist of the server holding the wine bottle on a slight angle on his / her arm with the label facing the guest. Here the server should repeat the name of the wine and the vintage (year) of the wine. This allows the guest to verify both and ask you to proceed. (Some service staff presents the wine holding it in a white linen napkin which adds a bit of elegance). Once the bottle has been approved, the waiter will remove the cork with a corkscrew. It is acceptable for the bottle to be placed on the table for stability, or a more accomplished waiter may hold the bottle in the air. In either instance, the server is usually standing to the right, just behind the host open the corkscrew knife (a servers corkscrew has a small knife for cutting the foil top off, a corkscrew and a leverage arm), and in one wrap around motion, cut the foil top off the top of the bottle about 1/8 inch from the top. At all times the bottle should remain still, and the label facing the table. Next, twist in the corkscrew until it has fully penetrated the cork. Finally, flip the leverage arm onto the rim of the

bottle and slowly and gently lift out the cork.

Once the cork is removed, it will be placed on a small plate just to the right of the wine host for inspection. It is very common for a little mold to develop on a cork just under the capsule. It does not affect the wine in the bottle. The wine host may look to see if there is a stain that runs the entire length of the cork on one side (especially visible with red wines). This can indicate that the seal of the cork was faulty and that wine was able to leak out and air able to leak in. It could indicate that the wine was stored at too high a temperature or stood upright for too long at some point in its life. The wine may be bad or still good. The knowing consumer inspects the wine more closely when tasting. The server will pour a small portion for the wine host. This is an opportunity for the bottle to be approved or rejected for cause. It is possible for a wine to be corked, oxidized, or have some other flaw that would make it unsuitable. These conditions rarely occur with most wines but can increase in older or poorly stored wines. If the wine host should detect one of these conditions, the server is informed and the bottle rejected. It will be removed and either replaced with another bottle of the same wine or a different wine could be suggested by the server. Depending on the wine and the point in the meal, the wine should be poured (possibly decanted), placed on the table or set in an ice bucket. Red wines that are old and likely to have sediment should be decanted by the waiter or sommelier. Red wines that are not fully mature or are 'closed' will benefit from exposure to oxygen. This is known as letting a wine 'breath' and can be accomplished by decanting. A big red wine that is scheduled to accompany the main course might be opened and poured during the appetizer or salad course while the guests are possibly enjoying a white wine or cocktails. When it is time to pour the wine, proper etiquette is for the server to pour the wine for the ladies first, clockwise from the wine host, then the men in the same clockwise manner with the wine host last. For a large table (eight or more guests at a table), the server may pour around the table clockwise from the wine host to all guests regardless of gender. If

the number of guests is greater than six or seven people, the server may suggest to the host that another bottle is in order. Whatever the decision of the host, the waiter should ensure that all guests receive a nearly equal amount even if it means that each receives a less than normal pour. Only a very poor server will run out of wine before making it around the table.

Wine and Food Combination Asparagus A different flavor for wine, white Burgundy, Chardonnay, dry Gewrztraminer. Avocado Medium white wine Graves Caviar Champagne iced vodka Consomm Medium dry Sherry or Mederia Fish, Seer, Prawns Fine dry medium white wine Chablis, Fuilly Fume, Graves Oyster Chablis, Muscadet, Graves Salmon (Fresh) Chardonnay, Corton Charlamangne Chablis Grand Cru Chicken\Turkey Red Burgundy Wine Beef Stew Pomerol, St. Emilion Pork Very good dry or wet white or red Lamb Red Bordeaux Liver Young Red Beaujolais, Zinfandel Foie gras Beaujalais or a light young red wine Cheese Light cream cheese go well with full bodied white, Rose and light reds. Sweets & Puddings Champagne works well with sweets & puddings Dessert Sautens, Sherry, Port, Madeira, Marsala

Self - Study List four large and four small types of bar equipment. What is the difference between table water and mineral waters. What are the points that would make a bad coffee? Can you think of 10 at least? Check against the lesson. List the main types of teas. Go through the steps in making tea. Check how tea is made at home. Do you follow the procedure given? If not it will be a good place to start. Describe the service of beer. Name three beer based mixed drinks. Write short notes of five spirits. What are liqueurs? Name five liqueurs, with associated flavors. What are cocktails? Describe the service of wine. Re read the relevant sections and compare against your answers.

UNIT 8 ___________________________________________________________ SALES PROMOTION & CUSTOMER COMPLAINTS

Introduction 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 Sales Promotion Advertising Merchandising Personal Selling Suggestive selling Introduction to Customer Complaints Facts on Complaints Complaints are Sales Opportunities Handling Complaints

Self Study _____________________________________________________________________

Objectives In this unit you will learn two topics. The first is about the various techniques of Sales Promotion and the second topic is on Handling Customer Complaints.

Introduction This unit is a combination of two important topics necessary for food & beverage operations. We start with sales promotion. The business of service is about selling. You interact with people and please people. And thats the basics of a good sales person. Think of the job as a sales job rather than delivery of services. You need to meet, greet, connect and deliver a set of goods. If you actually sell the goods to the guest you can better meet the needs of the guest by showing them you know your way around the menu. Think of yourself as having the opportunity to promote items (and as a result you are going to get 10% service charge and the tip), too. The second topic is Customer Complaints which in fact is not confined only to the F&B department but to other departments as well. No matter how efficient a hotel operation is, at some point a guest may register disappointment or find fault with something or someone. Hotels should try to anticipate guest complaints and plan strategies to deal with them as they arise. When it is easy for guests to express their opinions both the hotel and the guests benefit. The hotel learns of potential or actual problem areas and is given the opportunity to resolve guests complaints, thereby increasing guests satisfaction. The guests have more problems resolved and feel that the hotel cares about their needs. From this perspective, every complaint is welcome. Remember that guests who leave a hotel dissatisfied may never return.


Sales Promotion

We considered the range of food & beverage operations within the hotel and catering industry. Sectors were identified based on the nature of demand being met rather than the types of operation. In addition the factors which affect the customers enjoyment of a meal were identified. This section considers various aspects of sales promotions relevant to food and beverage operations.

Sales promotions involve activities designed to promote temporary sales mainly to increase business at slack period such as, Mondays Early evening (Happy hours) January / February

Examples of such activities include, reducing price, offering free wine (or a buy one get the second one free), offering a free soup or starter as part of the meal package. Also included are special product sales mainly to increase the sales by promoting particular product: Festival promotions Wine and spirit promotions (Possibly in association with suppliers) Children menu Diabetic menu National eating out week (sometimes also includes temporal sales offer) Taste of England, Scotland, etc. Products to complement calendar dates

The number of innovations in sales promotions is growing all the time. For food & beverage operations, three aspects of sales promotions are considered, these are: Sales promotions through advertising Sales promotions through merchandising Sales promotions through personal selling

8.2 Advertising

There are many different definitions of advertising. Each text book tends to take the business of advertising in a slightly different context. Some to consider are, Advertising is paid communication by an identified sponsor Hotel & Food service marketing, Francis Buttle Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods or services by an identified sponsor American marketing association in food service operation, Peter Jones Advertising is that function of an organization concerned with contracting and informing the market of an operations product and persuading it to buy Food & Beverage Management, Davis and Stone The first two definitions tend towards the marketing angles. The third tends to encompass all aspects including sales promotions, direct mail, etc. Advertising Media The following are examples of advertising media, BROADCAST PRINT Newspapers National daily Regional daily National Sunday Regional Sunday Weekly regional & free distribution Radio Television

Consumer Publications Guides Business Publications Executive travel publications Technical & professional publications Journals Directories (Yellow pages, Thompson)

Other Magazines Including local free one

OTHER MEDIA Transport Bus Underground stations Escalators Train stations Posters Cinema

POSTAL ADVERTISING Direct mail Hand drops (not really postal as such but may be useful on very local basis)

In addition, it is always worth considering the use of mailing lists of existing customers of special events, etc. Retaining existing customers is always less costly than finding new ones

8.3 Merchandising Merchandising is related mainly to point of sale promotion. Its main role is to improve the average spend per head of the customer. However it is also used to promote particular services or goods. Examples of food & beverage merchandising tend to be mainly visual, but may also be audio, such as in store broadcasts or hotel audio systems, or audio visual, such as hotel room videos. Food and beverage merchandising stimuli can include, Aromas Bulletin/black board/floor stands Directional signs Display cards/brochures Display of food & drinks 1. trolleys (sweet, liqueurs) 2. buffets/salad bar 3. self service counter bar displays, flamb work Drink placemats Facia boards Illuminated panels Menus\drinks and wine lists Posters Tent cards Other customers food \drinks

However, most merchandising stimuli must also be supplemented by good personal selling techniques by all restaurant and bar staff in order to achieve the improvement in customer spending. 8.4 Personal Selling Personal selling refers specifically to the ability of the staff in food & beverage operation to contribute to the promotion of sales. This is especially important where there are specific promotions being undertaken. The promise of a particular type of menu or drink, a special deal or the availability of a particular service can often be devalued by inability of the staff to fulfill the requirements as promised. It is therefore important to involve the service staff in the formulation of particular offers and to ensure that briefing and training are undertaken so that the customer can actually experience what has been promised. Personal selling does not, however, relate solely to supporting special promotions. The contribution of staff to the meal experience is vital. The service staff contribute to the customers perception of value for money, hygiene and cleanliness, the level of service and the perception of atmosphere that the customer experiences. Within the context of selling, the service staff should be able to, Detail the food and drink on offer in an informative way, and also in such a way as to make the product sound interesting and worth having Use the opportunity to promote the specific item Seek information from the customer in a way that promotes sales, e.g. rather than asking that drinks are required with the meal, ask which drinks are to be required, ask which of the sweet is required. Use opportunities for the sales of additional items such as extra garnishes, special sauces or accompanying drinks such as a dessert wine with a sweet course. Provide a competent service of the items for sale and seek customers

Good food & beverage service staff must therefore have a detailed product knowledge, be technically competent, have well developed social skills and be able to work as part of a team.


Suggestive selling

Suggestive selling is a great tool. Most restaurant guests have no idea what they want when they come to a restaurant. Be descriptive Explain how and why selected menu items might be of interest to guests. Be excited about items you want to sell. Speak clearly and be concise. Be prepared to answer any questions. Make a personal recommendation; suggest items that you like yourself. Suggest items that complement each other such as wines that naturally go with certain foods and a la carte items such as soup and salads that go well with the selected entres. Ask open-ended questions (Our cheesecake and special apple strudel are just excellent. They are our most popular desserts. Which would you prefer?) Dont mention selling prices in the initial description; be prepared to provide this information if requested. Sell non-traditional items such as bottled water. Suggest that guests can share items. Ask for the order!


Introduction to Customer Complaints

Much is written and spoken on the subject of complaints. But what does the word complain mean? To complain has been defined as to express resentment or displeasure or to make a formal protest. Most customers hate to complain and will put up with a lot before they will ever say anything. When they do complain, it may be because something major, but more often it is the result of series of little things that have build up to the point where just one more thing makes the customer snap. The complain may be totally unrelated to you personally, or to your job, but they will still expect you to solve the problem.

8.7 Facts on Complaints Research and personal experience tell us that for every one person who complains, there are at least six others who kept quite Making it easy for customers to complain shows your customers that you are serious about listening to them and that you have confidence in the quality of your products and service. For every unhappy customer who complains, there may be six other who doesnt bother. Worse still is the possibility of all seven telling at least six other people. So one complain can actually represent 42 lost customers. Complaining takes up time and causes stress. So customers who take the time and trouble to inform you of their complaint are worth looking after. Finding new customers is not always easy, and it actually causes 4 or 5 times more money to find a new customer than it does to look after an existing one. Research indicates that customers who complain and who have the complaint dealt with satisfactorily are far more likely to become more loyal customers. They will delight in telling their friends just how well they were treated. This is why handling customers complaints properly is so important.

Think of the life time value of a customer, not just one transaction. If this customer comes back for perhaps ten years, how much will they spend in that period of time.

Why Do Customers Complain Customers complain for many reasons and these include, The quality of the product or service may be unacceptable The choice on offer is limited The wrong product is offered or the timing is wrong Frustration due to the treatment they receive Being ignored

In some instance, the complaint may be invalid or grossly exaggerated. In these circumstances, it is advisable to refer the matter to your supervisor. Customers Expectations in Lodging a Complaint It is always worth remembering that it requires effort on the part of a customer to lodge a complaint. It is not easy, for the customer doesnt need the stress involved, yet he or she takes the time to inform you. When a customer complains, they expect to be treated courteously, e.g. they want, A satisfactory result To be believed Someone to take personal responsibility and make any necessary decisions to rectify the situation. They do not want to be passed from one person to another. To believe that the company or establishment values them To believe that the problem will not happen again

The last thing the customer wants is an argument.

8.8 Complaints are Sales Opportunities An important point to remember about complaints is that complaints represent an opportunity and not a threat. Complaints, if received with the right attitude and investigated properly, can be a valuable source of information. There can be an opportunity for the hotel to find out how the customer sees you, and what they think of the product. This information is obtained free of charge by listening to your customers complaints and it can help you provide a better service. Complaints also represent an opportunity for you to show the customers that you listen to them, that you care about them, and that you want them to enjoy their stay.

8.9 Handling Complaints Using a structured approach is much more likely to achieve results that is acceptable to both the customer and the company. Watch the signs of discontent before they turn into complaints - food left on plate, customer drumming fingers on bar counter and looking annoyed. Find out what is wrong. Steps in handling Complaints 1. Listen: Do not interrupt. Do not say Thats not my job or You will have to talk to the manager. Let the customer tell you whole story.

2. Apologize without admitting liability. Do not make excuses. Do not blame another person or another department. Let the customer know you are sorry they have been upset. 3. Rectify the problem. Handle the complaint yourself if possible, but get help from your supervisor if the problem is outside your responsibility. Offer alternatives but know the house polices and do not offer something you cannot deliver. Try to turn the complaint back into a satisfied customer. 4. Thank the customer for bringing the matter to your attention. 5. Record the complaint and pass on to your supervisor. Proper handling of complaint builds goodwill. When you have succeeded in regaining the customers confidence, tactfully try to turn the opportunity to promotional advantage. You can do this by saying, for example, We look forward to having you stay with us when you return to this area. The Dos & Donts of Handling Customer Complaints Dos Listen carefully Show an understanding of the other persons portion through your tone of voice, choice of words and general attitude Ask open questions to clarify the situations Explore all possibilities, offer a choice if you can Stress what you can do rather than what you cant do Allow the customer to let off steam if they are very angry Speak calmly Be aware of your company complaint policy. Refer complaints to someone senior if appropriate to company policy Thank the customer for informing you of the complaint Express regret quickly Do accept responsibility and do not pass the duck


Be diplomatic Investigate and get all the facts in order Advise the customer of the next step Tell the customer what you are going to do and do it at once

Jump to conclusions Admit liability Speak before you think Panic Blame others Disagree with the customer Patronize the customer Interrupt Take the complaint personally Be critical of your company or colleagues Be defensive Leave the customer attended Approach the complaint with suspicion

Self Study For food & beverage operations, three aspects of sales promotions are Considered. What are they? Next time you read the weekend newspapers, look at the various ways used in advertisements to promote sales of food and beverages. If you were a potential customer, would you be motivated enough to try out what is promoted and why? 8.3 Remember, most lessons in this unit are about day to day life rather than a

specific job. Have you seen people complaining about a product or a service closer to where you live? May be at the market, barbershop. Think of what usually happens when people complain. It there a better way to handle them? 8.4 Have you ever complained about something? If so how was you complaint handled? Do you think it was handled professionally? 8.5 Re read the section after you have thought about above. Do you think it clarified you to look at the scenarios of complaining from your own point of view?

References and bibliography Florida Department of Health, 2004, Preventing Food Contamination, online manual accessed Jan 22nd 2006, at Food standards Agency, 2006, healthy catering , online article, 2006, National Restaurant Association Education Foundation 2005, National Food Safety Education Month, Proper Hand Washing V. 0505

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 2005, Promoting Safe Work , Ninemeier, Jack D and Hayes David K, Hotel Operations Management, 2004, Prentice Hall, Sri Lanka Institute of Hotel and Tourism Management, Food and Beverage Service Manual. 2004, Visa, Merchant Resource Center, Best Practices Restaurant service accessed Jan 2006 at

Volume 4


UNIT 1 ___________________________________________________________ METHODS OF COOKERY

Introduction 1.1 What is cooking?

1. 2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8

Boiling Poaching Stewing Braising Steaming Baking Roasting Grilling

1.10 Shallow frying 1.11 Deep Frying 1.12 Paperbag Cooking 1.13 Microwave Cooking 1.14 Pot Roasting Self Study _____________________________________________________________________ Introduction Heat has been used in the preparation of food for millions of years. The advantage to early man must have been primarily the increased palatability of cooked food. As cooking processes developed, meals changed from a collection of a few raw food stuffs to the rich variety of cooked dishes which are enjoyed today. These flavour, colour, and texture changes still remain the most important reasons for cooking food. Food which has been heat treated may also last longer, be safer to eat, and easier to digest.

Objectives At the end of the unit you should able to: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Explain what is cooking Describe as to why food is cooked State which, why and how foods are cooked by various Explain why this is so in relation to nutritional, menu and Select suitable equipment to use for each process

methods economic factors

1.1 What is Cooking? The process of converting raw foods into an edible stage with the application of heat is known as cooking. Therefore if heat is applied at any stage of preparation the food is said to undergo cooking. How food is cooked The process of cooking requires the transfer of heat energy throughout the food by a combination of conduction, convection, and radiation. more of the following principles: 1. Radiation Heat passes from its source in direct rays until it falls on one object in its path e.g. grilling. 2. Conduction A brief summary of these methods of transferring heat is given below. All methods of cooking depend on one or

This is the transferring of heat through a solid object by contact.

Some materials,

e.g. metal used for pans, transfer heat more quickly than say wood used for wooden spoons. Conduction is the principle involved in the use of solid electric hot plate. 3. Convection This is the movement of heated particles or liquids. On heating, the particles expand, become less dense and rise. The colder particles sink to take their place, thus causing convection currents which distribute heat. This principle is used in heating a gas oven and in the heating of liquids.

Methods of cooking food 1. Boiling 2. Poaching 3. Stewing 4. Braising 5. Steaming 6. Baking 7. Roasting 8. Grilling 9. Frying (shallow & deep) 10. Paper bag 11. Microwave 12. Pot Roasting

1.2 Boiling Definition Boiling is the cooking of prepared foods in a liquid at boiling point. This liquid may be water, court-bouillon, milk or stock. PurposeThe purpose of boiling is to cook food so that it is: (a) Pleasant to eat with an agreeable flavour (b) Suitable texture, tender or slightly firm according to the food

(c) Easy to digest (d) Safe to eat

Methods of Boiling There are two ways of boiling: (1) Place food into boiling liquid, re-boil, then reduce heat for gentle boiling to take place, this is known simmering (2) Cover food with cold liquid, bring to the boil, and then reduce heat to allow food to simmer. Examples of foods cooked by boiling Stocks - beef, mutton, chicken, fish Glazes - Fish, meat Sauces brown, white, curry, jam etc. Soups - tomato, Scotch broth etc Eggs Farinaceous spaghetti, noodles, etc Fish - Tuna, Talapath, Salmon etc Meat Beef, leg of mutton, leg of pork etc. Chicken Vegetables cabbage, Carrots, Beans, Pumpkin etc. Yams - Potato etc. The advantages of food started slowly in cold liquid, brought to the boil and allowed to boil gently

(1) Helps to tenderize the fibrous structure (meat), extracts starch (vegetable soups) and flavour from certain foods (stocks) (2) Can avoid damage to foods which would lose their shape if added to boiling liquid, e.g. whole fish. The advantages of adding food to boiling liquid, (1) Suitable for green vegetables as maximum colour and nutritive value are retained, provided boiling is restricted to the minimum time. (2) To seal in the natural juices as with meat Boiling Meat and Poultry Boiling is restricted to the first few minutes in order to seal the pores thus helping to retain the natural juices. If a well flavoured stock is required, start slowly in cold water, then bring to the boil and simmer. Salted or pickled meats/fish should always be started in cold water. Vegetables In order to retain flavour, colour and nutrients, vegetables should be cooked rapidly and steadily. The general rule pertaining to boiling of vegetables is that the vegetables that grow above the ground (green vegetables) are plunged into boiling salted water and the vegetables that grow below the ground (root vegetables) are started in cold salted water. At all times avoid over cooking of vegetables because not only will they become soft and mushy, but they will lose flavour, colour and nutritive value. Techniques associated with boiling Simmering:

This is a gentle heat treatment which causes small bubbles to rise slowly from the liquid. The food remains whole, with a better texture and more flavour. Soaking: Prior to boiling, this is the covering in cold water of certain foods, e.g. dried vegetables, to soften them. (Green gram should be soaked prior to boiling). Salted dried fish, to extract some of the salt. Skimming: This is the removal of scum, grease and other impurities from the surface of the liquid, (e.g. Skim the scum) Blanching and refreshing (1) In cold water Place foods, e.g. bones, in cold water, bring to boil and wash off under cold running water until clean; (in this case bringing to boil in cold water is known as blanching and immediately washing off in cold running water is known as refreshing). (2) In hot water Plunge into boiling water and then refresh, e.g. for removing skins from tomato. (In order to remove the skin of tomatoes you should take out the eye and then on the opposite side of the tomato you make a criss cross incision with a sharp knife. Then plunge the tomato into boiling water and leave for 30 seconds. This process is known as blanching. After 30 seconds you plunge the tomato into an ice water container which is known as refreshing, and then the skin could be peeled off easily. Cooking with / without a lid

Most foods are boiled with a lid to speed up the process. Exceptions are leafy vegetables which produce an undesirable flavour, if volatile acids are not allowed to escape and stocks/jams where a function of the cooking is to evaporate water and reduce the water content. Equipment Examples of equipment used for boiling include stock pots, saucepans, boiling pans, bratt pans etc. Since this is the most commonly used technique, involving a wide range of food stuffs, no special equipment is needed and any type of fuel can be utilized. Safety Rules (a) Select containers of the right capacity. (b) Always move pans of boiling liquid on the stove with care. (c) Position pan handles so that they do not protrude from the stove or become hot over the heat. 1.3 Poaching

Definition The cooking of foods in the required amount of liquid just below boiling point. The cooking liquid may be water, milk, stock, wine or court bouillon Purpose: The purpose of poaching food is to cook food so that it is: (a) Easy to digest (b) A suitable tender texture (c) Safe to eat

(d) Pleasant to eat because, where appropriate, an agreeable sauce is made with the cooking liquid. Methods of Poaching (1) Shallow Poaching 1. Shallow Poaching Most foods are poached in this method. A minimum amount of liquid is added, this is later used to make an accompanying sauce. Greased paper or a lid can be used to trap moisture and prevent drying out. The item can be basted (spooning of the cooking liquid over the food) during the cooking process. The liquid should never be allowed to boil but kept at a temperature as near to boiling point as possible. To prevent the liquid boiling, bring to the boil on moderately hot oven, approximately 180 C. Cuts of fish and chicken could be poached this way. 2. Deep Poaching When poaching some items, more liquid is used than in shallow poaching. In the case of fruits this is because they have to be completely covered to prevent discolouration. In other cases, as with eggs, a depth of water is needed to prevent food sticking to the cooking dishes or other pieces of food, during cooking. Suitable foods and cooking procedures Foods requiring gentle handling and low temperature cooking are often poached. It is an ideal method for eggs, fish and fruit required whole. Despite the fact that it is a moist method it is not suitable for butchers meat because of the minimum temperatures employed. Poultry, however, can be poached satisfactorily, increasing flavour, moistness and tenderness. When the cooking liquor is used in the final dish the nutritional value is also increased. Most foods are placed into cold water although eggs are a common (11) Deep Poaching

exception. These are placed in hot liquid to set the egg proteins (in the egg white) so as to retain its shape. The rest of the cooking process occurs at low temperature to avoid toughness. Time and Temperature: Because of the delicate nature of poached food it is important to gauge correctly the time and temperature for cooking. A few minutes over might cause fish to fall to pieces or fruit to disintegrate completely. Skill in the techniques of poaching, as in most methods of cooking, depends on following recipes exactly until experience is gained. Foods can be poached either in the oven or on top of the stove. It is worth remembering that oven temperatures are far more controllable. Various foods may be trussed, (with a needle), tied, wedged etc. prior to poaching to give the desired shape when cooked. Large fish will normally be poached in a fish-kettle which has a drainer so that it can be lifted without breaking. Equipment Suitable sized trays, pans or ovenproof dishes are used for poaching. Always check equipments are clean before use. Do not use cracked ovenproof dishes, as they may break in the oven.



Definition: This is a long, slow, moist method of cooking in which small pieces of food are simmered in a minimum amount of liquid. The liquid which may be water, stock or prepared sauce, is always served with the food. The stew is cooked in a dish with a tightly fitted lid, either on top of the stew or inside the oven. Purpose

Because steaming is both economical and nutritional, cheaper cuts of meat and poultry, which would be unsuitable for roasting and grilling, can be made tender and palatable. Suitable foods and cooking procedure Meats, Poultry, Sea foods, Fruits and Vegetables are stewed. The food is cooked in small pieces to increase the surface area and allow even cooking. Stews are particularly popular because of the high degree of flavour retention. This is due to, (1) Low temperatures involved and (11) the use of cooking liquor in the final dish. This also ensures that maximum nutritional value is obtained from commodities used. Developing colour in meat stews If a brown colour is required the vegetables and meat may be browned in hot fat (seared) prior to stewing. If no colour development is required vegetables must be carefully sweated if they need prior cooking. White meats may be blanched and then rinsed to remove any blood or scum which may discolour the stew, as in the preparation of a Blanquette. Consistency The cooking liquor thickens and changes colour during cooking as soluble components of the food pass into the water. These soluble components may be fat, soluble proteins, starches, sugars, vitamins, minerals or flavourings. They are often called extractives and they are further concentrated as water is lost as steam. In some instances these extractives will thicken the stew without the addition of thickening agents. In others the consistency will need to be adjusted, by the use of suitable thickening agents, and then carefully monitored during cooking, to gain the correct degree of thickness. Stews are usually thickened with flour during cooking but may be thickened after cooking is complete, with egg and crme liaison.

Time and Temperature Stewing involves cooking temperatures of approximately 80 C. This equates to an oven temperature of between 150 C and 180 C. It is important not to overcook as this causes drying out of liquid, discolouration, and breaking up of food and flavour deterioration. Cooking times vary depending on the type of food, quantity, quality and temperature. It is normal for stewing to be a long process of often two or more hours.

Equipment Examples of equipment used for stewing include saucepans, boiling pans and bratt pans. Ovenproof dishes can be used for stewing in the oven.



Definition: This is a moist method of cooking in the oven using a tightly lidded cooking dish. The commodity is usually placed on a bed of root vegetables and herbs with an appropriate quantity of liquid or sauce. It is a combination of stewing and Pot roasting. Purpose: (a)To give variety to the menu and the diet (b)To make food tender, digestible, palatable and safe to eat (c)To produce and enhance flavour, texture and eating quality Suitable foods and cooking procedures

Poultry, meat and vegetables can all be braised. It is a particularly suitable method for tough and fibrous meat which require a lot of softening and also for the coarser, cheaper cuts of meat. The bed of root vegetables used are generally overcooked and discoloured after braising and are strained off and used in the preparation of sauces. Methods of braising There are two methods: 1. Brown braising 1. Brown braising: 2. White braising Used for joints and portions sized cuts of meats. Joint e.g. beef,

venison, are marinades and may be larded then sealed quickly by browning on all sides in a hot oven or in a pan on the stove. Sealing the joints help retain flavour, nutritional value, and gives a good brown colour. Joints are then placed on a bed of root vegetables and herbs in a braising pan, with the liquid and other flavourings, covered with a lid and cooked slowly in the oven. 2. White braising: Used for vegetables and sweetbreads: e.g. celery, cabbage, and sweetbreads. These are blanched, refreshed, cooked on a bed of root with white stock in a covered container in the oven. Thickening The liquid in which the food is cooked is usually served with the braised items as a sauce. It is thickened by one of the following methods. (a) The items to be braised are dredged (sprinkle) in flour before cooking so that the liquor thickens during cooking. (b) Brown sauce is diluted with an equal quantity of stock and used as the cooking liquor.

(c) The liquor remains un-thickened during cooking. It is made into sauce when cooking is complete. Equipment Braising can take place in a specially designed pan, called a braisiere (braising pan), tight lidded ovenproof pans or thick bottomed pans with tight fitting lids. Time and Temperature Food are braised at oven temperatures of around 150 170 C until the food is well done or tender. Over cooking will produce discolouration and disintegration of the product. This is a long, slow cooking method, but times vary according to commodity and size.

Techniques associated with braising Sealing - Applying heat to the surface of the meat to prevent the escape of natural juices Larding - Inserting strips of fat bacon into meat (this is done in order to prevent excessive shrinking and drying out) Marinading - A richly spiced pickling liquid used to give flavour and to assist in tenderising. Sweating - The extraction of flavours without colouration. Basting - Frequent spooning of liquid over meat to moisten. Browning - The application of heat to colour the surface.



Definition: Steaming is the cooking of prepared foods by steam (moist heat) under varying degrees of pressure. Purpose: The purpose of steaming food is to cook it so that it is: (a) Easy to digest (b) Of an edible texture and pleasant to eat (c) Safe to eat (d) Is full of nutrients as possible (steaming minimises nutritive loss) Methods of Steaming 1. Atmosphere or low pressure steaming food may be cooked by direct or indirect contact with steam. (a) Direct, in a steamer or in a pan of boiling water, e.g. stock and kidney pudding. (b) Indirect, between two plates over a pan of boiling water 2. High Pressure steaming in purpose-built equipment, which does not allow the steam to escape, therefore enabling steam pressure to build up, this increasing the temperature and reducing cooking time Foods suitable for steaming Fish Meat Vegetables Sweet Puddings

Steaming is a method of cooking which does not develop colour. Even though food can overcook, it will not burn or dry out, because of its constant contact with moisture, at its surface. This moisture presents a problem for dry foods as they can easily become soggy if not covered carefully. Most other foods are cooked in perforated containers so that

excess moisture can drain away. It is an unsuitable method for items which require a crisp, brown surface, such as shortcrust pastry or cakes. The retention of shape, texture, flavour and nutrients is high making this an extremely successful cooking operation.



Definition: This is a dry method of cooking in an oven. The texture, surface and volume of baked goods are modified by steam. This is produced by the food as it cooks (secondary steam) or can be injected in to the oven (primary steam) if required. Purpose: (a) To make food digestible, palatable and safe to eat. (b) To create eye-appeal through colour and texture and produce an enjoyable eating quality. (c) Baked goods lend variety to the menu and are popular in the diet.

Methods of baking: Note: Ovens must be preheated (heated up to required temperature) prior to baking. 1. Dry baking: When baking, steam arises from the water content of the food. This steam combines with the dry heat of the oven to cook the food, e.g. cakes, pastry, baked jacket potatoes. 2. Baking with increased humidity : when baking certain foods, e.g. bread, the oven humidity is increased by placing a bowl of water or injecting steam into the oven, thus increasing the water content of the food and so improving eating quality.

3. Baking with heat modification: placing food in a container of water (bain-marie) e.g. baked egg custard, modifies the heat so that the food cooks more slowly, does not overheat and lessens the possibility of the egg mixture over cooking. Suitable foods and cooking procedures The process of baking is usually associated with flour products; egg and milk dishes; fruits; vegetables and fish. The baking of meat usually involves fat and is therefore classified as roasting. Time and temperature Oven temperatures range from 120 C to 270 C with times varying according to item, size and degree of cooking required. Internal temperatures do not rise above 100 C but surface temperatures can be above 130 C. Techniques associated with baking Greasing: Trays and tins are usually greased to prevent food sticking.

Brushing: This may occur before, during or after baking. Before During After egg wash on pastry, e.g. sausage rolls to colour milk wash on bread rolls, to improve appearance sugar wash on fruit buns to give gloss

Cooling: This is the placing of baked goods on wire grids or racks so that air circulates and prevents the bases becoming soggy.

Recovery time: This is the time required for the oven temperature to reach the correct degree before cooking each batch of food. Equipment Pastry ovens are specially designed for the baking of pastry goods. They are shallow in height and obtainable in one, two, three or four decks. Small equipment Baking sheets are made of black wrought steel. The less they are washed the less likely they are to cause foods to stick.

1.8 Roasting

Definition Roasting is cooking in dry heat with the aid of fat or oil in an oven or on a spit. It is a dry method of cooking food. Purpose The purpose of roasting is to cook food so that it is tender, easy to digest, safe to eat, and palatable. Also it gives variety to the menu and the diet. Methods 1. Placing prepared foods e.g. meat, poultry, on a roasting spit over or in front of fierce radiated heat. 2. Placing prepared foods in an oven

Suitable Foods Roasting is a popular method of cooking meats. It is suitable for veal, pork, lamb, and also poultry. Cuts of beef however have to be carefully chosen as this dry method of cooking will not soften fibrous connective tissue. Vegetables such as potatoes, parsnips, with a high starch-content, are also roasted successfully. They retain their structure, soften inside and become crisp on the outside. With constant basting from hot fat they brown to produce traditional vegetables to serve with roast joints. Techniques associated with roasting Boning out The removal of bones from raw meat to facilitate carving. Tying The securing of meat with string to retain shape. Trussing The tying of poultry with string to keep in shape. Metal trivet A trivet (or grid) is used to raise the joint from the fat in the roasting tray to prevent the joint from frying. Basting This is the frequent spooning of the melted fat and juices over the food during cooking to keep it moist and prevent it from drying and to assist in colouring.

Testing for cooking To test if cooked, press the surface of the meat and squeeze out some meat juice. If juice runs: a) Red b) Pink c) Clear - meat is underdone; - meat is medium cooked - meat is cooked through.

Larding and Barding Larding is to insert cut strips of fat into raw flesh using larding needles. Often the strips of fat are marinaded before insertion. Barding is to lay slices of fat over the surface of meat, poultry, and game in preparation for roasting. Time and temperature Large joints of meat are generally roasted fairly slowly in ovens at temperatures of around 175 C. Vegetables can be roasted more quickly at higher temperatures. Cooking times and temperatures vary considerably, however, depending on many factors, including: a) Type of oven b) Quantity of food, e.g. one portion of roast potatoes will cook more quickly than twenty portions. c) Weight and shape of food d) Degree of cooking required, e.g. pork should always be cooked at a higher temperature than lamb.

1.8 Grilling Definition Grilling is a method of cooking using dry, radiant heat of high intensity. (This is a fast method of cooking food). The term broiling is used in the USA to describe a similar process, particularly in relation to chickens (broilers). Purpose a) To make food digestible, palatable and safe to eat. b) To utilize the speed of the cooking process to produce a distinctive flavour, colour, texture and eating quality. c) To bring variety to the menu and to introduce into the diet simple, uncomplicated dishes. Methods of Grilling Grilled foods can be cooked a) Over heat b) Under heat c) Between heat a) Over heat Grill bars must be preheated and brushed with oil prior to use, otherwise food will stick. The bars should char the food on both sides to give the distinctive appearance and flavour of grilling. Most foods are started on the hottest part of the grill and moved to a cooler part to complete the cooking. The thickness of the food and the heat of the grill determine the cooking time, which is learned by experience. b) Under heat. Salamander -e.g. charcoal, barbecues, gas or electric heated grills; - gas or electric salamanders (over fired grills) -electrically heated grill bars or plates.

1. Cooking on the salamander bars: the salamander should be preheated and the bars greased. 2. Cooking between a double wire grid; food items that are difficult to handle because they may easily break up may be placed in between a wellgreased, center-hinged, double wire grid with a handle, making it both easy and swift to cook the food, e.g. whole fish. 3. Cooking on a flat tray with an edge: tomatoes, mushrooms, bacon, sausages, and kidneys may be grilled under a salamander. An edge is required to the tray to prevent spillage of fat and articles of food sliding from the tray. 4. The salamander can also be used for browning, gratinating and glazing certain dishes, e.g. duchess potato border, macaroni au gratin and for toasting of bread. c) Between heat This is grilling between electrically heated grill bars or plates and is applied to small cuts of meat. Suitable foods and cooking procedures The method of grilling is suitable for prime cuts of meat and poultry as long as they are evenly and thinly cut. It is not suitable for cuts which contain a high proportion of connective tissue as no water is used in this method, and cooking times are too fast. Fruits and Vegetables are mostly unsuitable as they shrivel up with intense dry heat although exceptions are well-greased mushrooms and tomatoes. Foods to be cooked by grilling must not be thicker than about 3 cm in order to brown, cook thoroughly and not burn or dry up. Certain types of meat can be batted out to reduce the thickness, as in case of steaks or cutlets. Meat can also be skewered, to allow quicker penetration of the surface heat.

Techniques associated with grilling Oiling, greasing and basting The grill bar must be oiled before, during and after use and trays lightly greased. Foods are brushed with oil before being placed on grill bars or they will stick Brushing with oil during grilling, known as basting prevents food drying out.

Flouring This is the passing of fish through seasoned flour. Charring or searing These are the dark brown marks on foods caused by contact with the very hot grill bars. Charring gives the distinctive flavour to grilled foods.

General rules for efficient grilling 1. Smaller, thinner items require cooking quickly. 2. Seal and colour food on the hot part of the grill then move to a cooler part to complete cooking. 3. Slow cooking results in the food drying out. 4. Basting of food and oiling of bars prevents dryness.

1.10 Shallow frying Definition Shallow frying is the cooking of food in a small quantity of pre-heated fat or oil in a shallow pan or on a flat surface (griddle plate).

Purpose a) To give variety to the menu and the diet, by making food palatable, digestible and safe to eat. b) To brown food giving it a different colour and an interesting and attractive flavour. Methods There are four methods of frying using a shallow amount of fat or oil: Shallow fry; saut; griddle; and stir fry. 1. Shallow fry- The cooking of food in a small amount of fat or oil in a frying pan or saut pan. The presentation side of the food should be fried first, as this side will have the better appearance because the fat is clean, then turned so that both sides are cooked and coloured. This applies to small cuts of fish, meat and poultry, also small whole fish(up to 400g). Eggs, pancakes and certain vegetables are cooked by this method.

2. Saute- this term is used: a) when cooking tender cuts of meat and poultry in a saut or frying pan. After the food is cooked on both sides it is removed from the pan, the fat discarded and the pan deglazed with stock or wine. This then forms an important part of the finished sauce b) Saut is also used when cooking

1.11 Deep Frying This is the cooking of food in pre-heated deep oil or clarified fat.

Methods: (a) Conventional deep fried foods, with the exception of potatoes, are coated with milk and flavor, egg crumbs, batter or pastry. The food is carefully placed into deep preheated oil or fat, fried until cooked and golden brown, well drained and served. (b) Partial deep-frying is known as blanching and may be applied to chipped potatoes. The purpose is to partly cook in advance of service and to complete the cooking order. With certain types of potatoes, this gives an eating quality of flavors inside and crisp exterior to the chips.

1.12 Paperbag Cooking Known as en papillote, this method of cookery in which food is tightly sealed in oiled greaseproof paper or foil so that during cooking no steam escapes, maximum natural flavor, and nutritive value is retained. Thick items of food e.g. Veal chops, red mullet, may be partly and quickly pre-cooked, usually by grilling or shallow frying, then finely cut vegetables, herbs and spices can be added. The bags are tightly sealed, placed on a lightly greased tray and cooked in a hot oven. When cooked, the food is served in the bag and opened by or in front of the customer.

1.13 Microwave Cooking This is a method of cooking and re-heating food using a high frequency power in a microwave oven powered by electricity. The microwaves are similar to those which carry television from the transmitter to the receiver but are at a higher frequency. The microwaves activate the

water molecules or particles of food and agitate them, causing heat by friction which cooks or re-heats the food.


Pot Roasting

Pot-roasting is cooking on a bed of root vegetables in a covered pan. Known as poele, this method retains maximum flavor of all ingredients.

Self Study 1. 2. 3. What are the reasons for cooking food? Define steaming and what are the methods of steaming? What are the techniques associated with roasting?

UNIT 2 STOCKS ___________________________________________________________

Introduction 2.1 General instructions for all types of stocks 2.2 General proportions of ingredients for all stocks except fish stock 2.3 General method for all white stocks (except fish stock) 2.4 General Method for Brown stocks 2.5 Glazes 2.6 Fish stock 2.7 Fish Glaze Self Study _____________________________________________________________________ Introduction Stock is a liquid containing some of the soluble nutrients and flavours of food which are extracted by prolonged and gentle simmering (with the exception of fish stock, which requires only 20 minutes); such liquid is the foundation of soups, sauces and gravies. Stocks are the foundation of many important kitchen preparations; therefore the greatest possible care should be taken in their production.

Objective At the end of the unit you should be able to: Define the term stock State why stocks are important in cookery Appreciate the need for different stocks Outline in theory the making of stocks

2.1 General instructions for all types of stocks 1. Unsound meat or bones and decaying vegetables will give stock an unpleasant flavour and cause it to deteriorate quickly. 2. Scum should be removed, otherwise it will boil into the stock and spoil the colour and flavour (skim the scum at regular intervals). 3. Fat should be skimmed, otherwise it will taste greasy. 4. Stock should always simmer gently, for if it is allowed to boil quickly, it will evaporate and go cloudy. 5. Salt should not be added to stock. 6. When making chicken stock, if raw bones are not available, then a boiling fowl can be used (whole chicken). 7. If stock is to be kept, strain, re boil, cool quickly and place in the refrigerator.


White stocks

Brown stocks

White beef stock White mutton stock White veal stock White chicken stock White vegetable stock

Fish stock

Brown beef stock Brown mutton stock Brown veal stock Brown chicken stock Brown game stock Brown vegetable stock

White stocks are used in: white soups, sauces and stews. Brown stocks are used in: brown soups, sauces, gravies and stews

2.2 General proportions of ingredients for all stocks except fish stock 2 kg 4 litres 500gr raw bones water vegetables (Onion, carrot, celery, leek)Bouquet garni (thyme, bay leaf, parsley stalks, pepper corns) tied together inside a piece of leek or muslin cloth.

2.3 General method for all white stocks (except fish stock) 1. Chop up the bones, remove any fat or marrow. 2. Place in a stock pot, add the cold water and bring to the boil. 3. If the scum is dirty then blanch and wash off the bones, re-cover with cold water and re-boil. 4. Skim, wipe round sides of the pot and simmer gently. 5. Add the washed, peeled, roughly cut vegetables, bouquet garni. 6. Simmer 6-8 hours. Skim and strain. During the cooking a certain amount of evaporation must take place, therefore add lit cold water just before boiling point is reached. This will also help to throw the scum to the surface and make it easier to skim.

2.4 General Method for Brown stocks 1. Chop the bones and brown well on all sides either by: a) Placing in a roasting tin in the oven, or b) Carefully browning in a little fat in a frying pan. 2. 3. Drain off any fat and place the bones in stock pot. Brown any sediment that may be in the bottom of the tray, deglaze (swill out) with litre of boiling water, simmer for and add to the bones 4. 5. Add the cold water, bring to the boil and skim. Wash, peel and roughly cut the vegetables, fry in a little fat until brown, strain and add to the bones. 6. Add the bouquet garni. 7. Simmer for 6-8 hours. Skim and strain. a few minutes

Note; for brown stocks a few squashed tomatoes and washed mushroom trimmings can also be added to improve the flavour. 2.5 Glazes Glazes are made by boiling steadily white or brown beef stock or fish stock and allowing them to reduce to a sticky or gelatinous consistency. They are then stored in jars and when cold kept in the refrigerator for up to one week. If they are to be deep frozen then place in small preserving jars which have been sterilized for one hour. The glaze can then be kept for several months. Glazes are used to improve the flavour of a prepared sauce which may be lacking in strength. They may also be used as a base for sauces, e.g. fish glaze for white wine sauce. 2.6 Fish stock 50g margarine or butter 200g onions 2 kg White fish bones Juice of a lemon 6 peppercorns 1 bay leaf Parsley stalks 5 litres water Method; 1. Melt the margarine or butter in a thick-bottomed pan. 2. Add the sliced onions, the well-washed fish bones and remainder of the ingredients except the water. 3. Cover with greaseproof paper and a lid and sweat (cook gently without colouring) for 5 min. 4. Add the water, bring to the boil, skim and simmer for 20-30 minutes and then strain.


Fish Glaze

This is a fish stock reduced by boiling to a gelatinous consistency. It is used for increasing the flavour of fish sauces. When cold it may be kept in jars and stored in a refrigerator.

Self Study 1. Explain the term stock. Why is it important in cookery. 2. In general what are the precautions you should take in preparing stocks. 3. List the different types of stocks.


Introduction 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.9 The roux White roux Blond roux Brown roux Other thickening agents for sauces Sauce Families Veloute (chicken, veal, fish, mutton) Brown Sauce (Sauce espagnole)

3.7 White sauce (Bchamel)

3.10 Demi-Glace Sauce 3.11 Tomato Sauce 3.12 Hollandaise Sauce Self Study _____________________________________________________________________ Introduction A sauce is a liquid which has been thickened by a) Roux, b) Corn flour, arrowroot, c) Beurre manie (kneaded butter) d) Egg yolks. All sauces should be smooth, glossy in appearance, definite in taste and light in texture, this is to say the thickening medium should be used in moderation. A sauce may be

defined as a flavourful liquid, usually thickened, that is used to season, flavour, and enhance other foods. A sauce adds the following qualities to foods: Moistness Flavour Richness Appearance (colour and shine) Interest and appetite appeal

Objectives At the end of the unit you should be able to: Describe what a sauce is Understand thickening agents To state when and how sauces are made Describe the main sauces and their derivatives.

3.1 The Roux A roux is a combination of fat and flour which are cooked together. There are three degrees to which a roux may be cooked, namely 1. White roux, 2. Blond roux, 3. Brown roux. Basic Procedure for Making All Roux 1. Melt fat

2. Add correct amount of flour and stir until fat and flour are thoroughly mixed. 3. Cook to required degree for white, blond, or brown roux. Cooking is done in a saucepan on top of the stove, and the roux is stirred for even cooking. Use low heat for brown roux, moderate heat for white or blond roux. A boiling liquid should never be added to a hot roux as the result may be lumpy and the person making the sauce may be scalded by the steam produced.

3.2 White roux Uses: bchamel sauce (white sauce), soups. Equal quantities of margarine or butter and flour cooked together without colouring for a few minutes to a sandy texture.


Blond roux

Uses: veloutes, tomato sauce, soups. Equal quantities of margarine or butter and flour cooked for a little longer than a white roux but without colouring to a sandy texture.


Brown roux

Uses: espagnole (brown sauce), soups Vegetable oil and flour cooked together slowly to a light brown colour.


Other thickening agents for sauces Corn flour, arrowroot (powder obtained from a tropical yam found in West-Indies) Uses: jus-lie and sauces. These are diluted with water, stock or milk, then stirred into the boiling liquid and allowed to re boil for a few minutes.

Beurre manie Uses: chiefly fish sauces Smooth paste and mixed into a boiling liquid.

Egg yolks Uses: mayonnaise, hollandaise, and custard sauces.

Vegetables or fruit Fruit or vegetable puree known as a cullies (coulis). No other thickening used. agent is

Glazes Fish or meat glazes can be made into sauces by the addition of butter and/or cream.

3.6 Sauce Families Leading sauces (Mother Sauces) Liquid + Thickening agent = Leading sauce Leading sauce + Additional flavourings = Small sauce.

There are five basic liquids which could be used in sauces: Milk White stock Brown stock Tomato puree (plus stock) Clarified butter. (Melted butter).

From these liquids we get our five leading sauces, they are also known as Mother Sauces. The Leading Sauces Liquid Milk White stock Thickening Agent + white roux = (veal, + blond roux = Leading Sauce White sauce (bchamel sauce) Veloute,(veal veloute,chicken veloute, fish + brown roux + brown roux + egg yolks = = = veloute) Brown sauce or espagnole Tomato sauce hollandaise

chicken,fish) Brown stock Tomato plus stock Butter

3.7 White sauce (Bchamel) This is the basic white sauce made from milk and a white roux. Recipe for 1 litre 100g 100g 1 litre 1 studded onion Method: 1. Melt the butter or margarine in a thick-bottomed pan. margarine or butter flour milk (whole onion studded with a bay leaf and a clove)

2. Add the flour and mix in. 3. Cook for a few minutes over a gentle heat without colouring. 4. Remove from heat to cool the roux. 5. Gradually add the warmed milk and stir till smooth. 6. Add the onion studded with a clove. 7. Allow to simmer for 30 mins. 8. Remove the onion, pass (strain) the sauce through a conical strainer. 9. Cover with a film of butter or margarine to prevent a skin forming. Sauces Made From Bchamel Sauce Anchovy sauce Egg sauce Cheese sauce Onion sauce Served with Additions per litre Poached, fried or boiled 1 tablespoon anchovy fish Poached or boiled fish Fish or vegetables Roast mutton essence 2 hard boiled eggs in small dice 50g grated cheese 100g chopped or diced onions cooked without colour in butter or by Soubise sauce Parsley sauce Cream sauce Mustard sauce Roast mutton boiling. As for onion sauce but

passed through a strainer Poached or boiled fish and 1 tablespoon chopped vegetables parsley Poached fish and boiled Add cream. vegetables Grilled herrings Add diluted mustard


Veloute (chicken, veal, fish, mutton)

This is a basic white sauce made from white stock and a blond roux. e.g. White chicken stock + blond roux = chicken veloute White mutton stock+ blond roux = mutton veloute

100g 100g 1 litre

margarine, butter or oil flour Stock (chicken, veal, fish, mutton) as required.

1. Melt the fat or oil in a thick bottomed pan. 2. Add the flour and mix in. 3. Cook out to sandy texture over gentle heat without colour. 4. Allow the roux to cool. 5. Gradually add the boiling stock. 6. Stir until smooth and boiling. 7. Allow to simmer approx. 1 hour. 8. Pass through a fine conical strainer. A veloute sauce for chicken, veal or fish dishes is usually finished with cream and in some cases, also egg yolks.

Sauces made from veloutes Sauce Caper sauce Supreme sauce Served with Boiled leg of mutton Boiled chicken Additions per litre 2 tablespoon capers Flavoured with mushroom trimmings strain and add

cream, egg yolks and lime Aurore sauce Mushroom sauce Boiled eggs Boiled chicken,sweetbreads, etc. chicken, juice. poached Supreme sauce + 1 tablepn tomato puree Supreme sauce washed, white sliced, button + well



after the veloute has been Ivory sauce Boiled chicken strained. Supreme sauce + meat glaze to give an ivory colour. 3.9 Brown Sauce (Sauce espagnole) 50g 25g 100g 50g good oil tomato puree carrot celery 60g 100g flour onions 1 litre brown stock

1. Heat the oil in a thick bottomed pan. 2. Add the flour, cook out slowly to a light brown colour, stirring frequently. 3. Cool and mix in the tomato puree. 4. Gradually mix in the boiling stock. Bring to the boil. 5. Wash peel and roughly cut the vegetables. 6. Lightly brown in a little fat or oil in a frying pan. 7. Drain off the fat and add to the sauce. 8. Simmer gently 4-6 hours.Skim when necessary. Strain. 3.10 Demi-Glace Sauce

This is a refined espagnole and is made by simmering 1 litre espagnole and 1 litre brown stock and reducing by a half. Skim off all impurities as they rise to the surface during cooking. Pass through a fine strainer, re-boil, correct the seasoning. Sauces made from demi-glace

Sauce Bordelaise sauce Chasseur sauce Devilled sauce Poivrade sauce Italian sauce Brown onion sauce Madeira sauce Piquant sauce Robert sauce Charcutiere sauce 3.11 10g 50g 50g 25g Tomato Sauce

Served with Fried steaks Fried steaks,chops,chicken etc Grilled or fried fish or meats. Usually served with venison. Fried cuts of veal or lamb Vienna steaks or fried liver Braised ox tongue Grilled meats Fried pork chops Pork chops

margarine or butter onions carrots celery bay leaf Sprig of thyme

10g 50g 375ml

flour tomato puree stock, clove garlic, Salt, pepper 1. Melt the margarine or butter in small pan. 2. Add the vegetables and brown slightly. 3. Mix in the flour and cook to a sandy texture. Allow to colour slightly. 4. Mix in the tomato puree, allow to cool. 5. Gradually add the boiling stock, stir to the boil. 6. Add the garlic, season.Simmer 1 hour. 7. Correct the seasoning and cool. 8. Pass through a fine strainer.

This sauce may be served with spaghetti, eggs, fish, meats etc.


Hollandaise Sauce

This is a sauce made with clarified butter (melted butter) and egg yolks. The sauce could be served with hot fish, and vegetables (asparagus, cauliflower).

Self Study 1. List the various types of sauces.

_____________________________________________________________________ Introduction 4.1 Classification of Soups. 4.2 Service of Soups 4.3 Garnish Self Study _____________________________________________________________________


Soup is a liquid food derived from meat, poultry, fish, or vegetables which may be served at the beginning of a meal or in between courses. They could be served either hot or cold for dinner, lunch or in between meals.

Objectives After reading this unit you should be able to, 1. Describe three basic categories of soups 2. Identify standard appetizer and main course portion sizes for soups.


Classification of Soups.

Soups can be divided into three basic categories: Clear or un thickened soups Thick soups Special soups that dont fit the first two categories.

Most of these soups, no matter what their final ingredients may be, are based on stock. The quality of the soup will depend on the quality of the stock. Clear soups Clear soups are all based on a clear, un thickened broth or stock. They may be served plain or garnished with a variety of vegetables and meats. 1. Broths and bouillon are two terms used in many ways. In general, they both refer to simple, clear soups without solid ingredients.

2. Vegetable soup is a clear, seasoned stock or broth with the addition of one or more vegetables and, sometimes, meat or poultry products and starches. 3. Consomm is a rich, flavourful stock or broth that has been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent Consomm is one of the greatest of all soups. Its sparkling clarity is a delight to the eye, and its rich, full flavour, strength, and body make it a perfect starter for an elegant dinner.

Thick Soups Unlike clear soups, thick soups are opaque rather than transparent. They are thickened either by adding a thickening agent, such as roux, or by pureeing one or more of their ingredients to provide a heavier consistency. 1. Cream soups are soups that are thickened with roux, beurre manie, liaison (mixture of egg yolk and cream), or other added thickening agents, plus milk and/or cream. They are similar to veloute and bchamel sauces. In fact, they may be made by diluting and flavouring either of these two leading sauces. Cream soups are usually named after their major ingredient, such as cream of chicken or cream of carrot. 2. Purees are soups that are naturally thickened by pureeing one or more of their ingredients. They are not as smooth and creamy as cream soups. Purees are normally based on starchy ingredients. They may be made from dried legumes (such as split pea soup) or from fresh vegetables with a starchy ingredient such as potatoes or rice added. Purees may or may not contain milk or cream. 3. Bisques are thickened soups made from shellfish. They are usually prepared like cream soups and are almost always finished with cream. The term bisque is sometimes used on menus for a variety of vegetable soups. In these cases, it is

really a marketing term rather than a technical term, so it is impossible to give a definition that covers all uses. 4. Chowders are hearty soups made from fish, shellfish, and/or vegetables. Although they are made in many ways, they usually contain milk and potatoes. 5. Potage is a term sometimes associated with certain thick, hearty soups, but it is actually a general term for soup. A clear soup is called a potage Clair in French.

Specialty and National Soups This is a catch-all category that includes soups that dont fit well into the main categories and soups that are native to particular countries or regions. Specialty soups are distinguished by unusual ingredients or methods, such as turtle soup, gumbo, peanut soup and cold fruit soup. Cold soups are sometimes considered specialty soups, and, in fact, some of them are. But many other popular cold soups, such as jellied consomm, cold cream of cucumber soup, and vichyssoise (vee shee swahz) are simply cold versions of basic clear and thick soups.


Service of Soups

Standard portion sizes Appetizer portion: 200 to 250ml Main course portion: 300 to 350ml Temperature

Serve hot soups hot, in hot cups or bowls. Serve cold soups cold, in chilled bowls or even nested in a larger bowl of crushed ice. Holding for service Small batch cooking applies to soups as well as other foods. Heat small batches frequently to replenish the bain-marie with fresh soup. Consomms and some other clear soups can be kept hot for longer periods if the vegetable garnish is heated separately and added at service time.

4.3 Garnish Soup garnishes may be divided into three groups. 1. Garnishes in the soup Major ingredients, such as the vegetables in clear vegetable soup, are often considered garnishes. This group of garnishes also includes meats, poultry, seafood, pasta products, and grains such as barley or rice. They are treated as part of the preparation or recipe itself, not as something added on. Consomms are generally named after their garnish, such as consomm brunoise which contains vegetables cut into brunoise shape. (3-mm dice). Vegetable cream soups are usually garnished with carefully cut pieces of the vegetable from which they are made.

An elegant way to serve soup with a solid garnish is to arrange the garnish attractively in the bottom of a heated soup plate. This plate is set before the dinner, and then the soup is ladled from a tureen by the dining room staff. 2. Toppings. Clear soups are generally served without toppings to let the attractiveness of the clear broth and the carefully cut vegetables speak for themselves. Occasional exceptions are toppings of chopped parsley or chives. Thick soups, especially those that are all one colour, are often decorated with a topping. Toppings should be placed on the soup just before service so they wont sink or lose their fresh appearance. Their flavours must be appropriate to the soup. Do not overdo soup toppings. The food should be attractive in itself. Topping suggestions for thick soups: Fresh herbs (parsley, chives), chopped Fresh herbs, such as parsley, sage, chervil, celery leaves Fine julienne Cuts of vegetables e.g. leek julienne Sliced almonds, toasted Grated cheese Sieved egg yolks Chopped egg whites Croutons Grated parmesan cheese Bacon Paprika Flavoured butters

Flavoured oils Sour cream, cream fraiche, or whipped cream, either plain or flavoured with herbs or spices.



American soups are traditionally served with crackers. In addition to the usual saltines, other suggestions for crisp accompaniments are: Melba toast Corn chips Breadsticks Cheese straws Profiteroles Whole-grain wafers

Self Study 1. What are the 3 categories into which soups can be divided? 2. What are the points to note in the service of soups? 3. What items could be used for the garnishing of soups?

UNIT 5 SALADS ___________________________________________________________

Introduction 5.1 Types of Salads 5.2 The Structure of a Salad 5.3 Ingredients Self Study _____________________________________________________________________

Introduction Salad is a term applied broadly to many food preparations that are a mixture of chopped or sliced ingredients. A salad can be served cold or at room temperature, and it can also form the filling for a sandwich. Though it can be made with meat or eggs, it usually includes at least one raw vegetable or fruit, most often lettuce. Often it is prepared or served with a dressing. A salad may be served before or after the main dish as a separate course, as a main course in itself, or as a side dish. Salad may refer to a blended food item often meat, seafood or eggs blended with mayonnaise, finely chopped vegetables and seasonings which can be served as part of a green salad or used as a sandwich filling. Salads of this kind include egg, chicken, tuna, shrimp, and ham salad.

Objectives After reading this unit, you should be able to Identify and describe five different salad types. Identify the four basic parts of a salad. Understand the guidelines for arranging salads Today, the variety of 5.1 Types of Salads

salads on offer seems to be greater than ever in memory. Restaurants that once listed no more than two or three salads on their menu now devote an entire page to the category. The following classification of salad types describes the roles salads fill in modern menus. These categories apply to both traditional and modern recipes. Appetizer Salads

Many establishments serve salads as a first course, often as a substitute for a more elaborate first course. In addition, more elaborate compound salads are popular as appetizers (and also as main courses at lunch) in many elegant restaurants. These often consist of a poultry, meat, or fish item, plus a variety of vegetables and garnishes, attractively arranged on a bed of greens. It should stimulate the appetite. This means they must have fresh, crisp ingredients; a tangy, flavourful dressing; and an attractive, appetizing appearance. Pre-portioned salads should not be so large as to be filling, but they should be substantial enough to serve as a complete course in themselves. (Self-service salad bars, of-course, avoid this problem) Toss green salads are especially popular for this reason as they are bulky without being filling. The combination of ingredients should be interesting, not dull. Flavouful foods like cheese, ham, salami, shrimp and crab meat, even in small quantities, add appeal. So do crisp raw or lightly cooked vegetables. A bowl of poorly drained iceberg lettuce with a bland dressing is hardly the most exciting way to start a meal. Attractive arrangement and garnish are important because visual appeal stimulates the appetite. A satisfying, interesting starter puts the customer in a good frame of mind for the rest of the meal. Accompaniment Salads

Salads can also be served with the main course. They serve the same function as other side dishes (vegetables and starches).

Must balance and harmonize with the rest of the meal, like any other side dish for example, dont serve potato salad at the same meal at which you are serving French fries or another starch. Sweet fruit salads are rarely appropriate as accompaniments, except which such items as ham or pork. Side-dish salads should be light and flavourful, not too rich. Vegetable salads are often good choices. Heavier salads, such as macaroni or high-protein salads containing meat, seafood, cheese and so on, are less appropriate, unless the main course is light. Combination salads with a variety of elements are appropriate accompaniments to sandwiches. Main-Course Salads Cold salad plates have become popular on luncheon menus, especially among nutritionand diet-conscious diners. The appeal of these salads is in variety and freshness of ingredients. Main course salads should be large enough to serve as a full meal and should contain a substantial portion of protein. Meat, poultry, and seafood salads, as well as eggs salad and cheese, are popular choices. Main course salads should offer enough variety on the plate to form a balanced meal, both nutritionally and in flavours and textures. In addition to the protein, a salad platter should offer a variety of vegetables, greens and/or fruits. Examples are chefs salad (mixed greens, raw vegetables and strips of meat and cheese), shrimp or crab meat salad with tomato wedges and slices of avocado on a bed of greens, and cottage cheese with an assortment of fresh fruits. The portion size and variety of ingredients give the chef an excellent opportunity to use imagination and creativity to produce attractive, appetizing salad plates. Attractive arrangements and good colour balance are important. Separate-Course Salads

Many fine restaurants serve a refreshing, light salad after the main course. The purpose is to cleanse the palate after a rich dinner and to refresh the appetite and provide a pleasant break before dessert. Salads served after the main course was the rule rather than the exception many years ago, and the practice deserves to be more widespread. A diner who may be satiated after a heavy meal is often refreshed and ready for dessert after a light, piquant salad.

Separate-course salads It must be very light and in no way filling. Rich, heavy dressings, such as those made with sour cream and mayonnaise should be avoided. Perhaps the ideal choice is a few delicate greens, such as bib lettuce or Belgian endive, lightly dressed with vinegerette. Fruit salads are also popular choices. Dessert Salads Dessert salads are usually sweet and may contain items such as fruits, sweetened gelatine, nuts, and cream. They are often too sweet to be served as appetizers or accompaniments and are best served as dessert or as a part of a buffet or party menu. 5.2 The Structure of a Salad A plated salad may have as many as four parts: Base Dressing Body Garnish

All salads have body, and most have dressing, but base and garnish are parts of only some salads, as you will see in the following discussion.

Of course this discussion refers only to individual plated salads. When we use the term salad to refer to a bulk mixture, as in two kilos of potato salad, reference to the four parts of a salad do not apply. Base or under liner A scoop of potato salad looks bare when served by itself on a salad plate as a side dish. Placing it on a bed of lettuce leaves makes it more appealing and also emphasizes its identity as a salad. Although most tossed green salads and many composed salads are presented without an under liner, bound salads and some other vegetable salads may be more attractive and appetizing when served on a bed of leafy greens. Cup shaped leaves of iceberg or Boston lettuce make attractive bases. They give height to salads and help confine loose pieces of food. A layer of loose, flat leaves or shredded lettuce may be used as a base. This kind of base involves less food cost and labour, as it is not necessary to separate whole cup-shaped leaves from a head.

Body This is the main part of the salad. Garnish A garnish is an edible decorative item that is added to a salad to give eye appeal, although is often adds to the flavour as well. It should not be elaborate or dominate the salad. Remember this basic rule of garnishing: keep it simple.

Dressing Dressing is a seasoned liquid or semi liquid that is added to the body of the salad to give it added flavour, tartness (sharp in flavour), spiciness, and moistness. The dressing should harmonize with salad ingredients. In general, use tart dressings for green salads and vegetable salads and use slightly sweetened dressings for fruit salads. Dressing may be added at service time (as for green salad), served separately for the customer to add, or mixed with the ingredients ahead of time (as in potato salad, tuna salad, egg salad and so on). A salad mixed with a heavy dressing, like mayonnaise, to hold it together is called a bound salad. Remember: Dressing is a seasoning for the main ingredients. It should accent their flavour, not over power or drown them. Guidelines for arranging salads 1. Keep the salad off the rim of the plate. 2. Strive for a good balance of colours. 3. Height helps make a salad attractive. 4. Cut ingredients neatly. 5. Make every ingredient identifiable. 6. Keep it simple. 5.3 Ingredients Freshness and variety of ingredients are essential for high quality salads. Lettuce, of course, is the first choice for most people, but many other foods can make up a salad.

Self Study 1. Explain the term salad? When is it served? 2. 3. What the ingredients that could be used to make a salad? What are the guidelines for arranging salads?