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Beacon

Schools Project

Health Education
Level 8 Planning Guide

Section 1

• Skills for senior health education – taking


students into non-fiction health
education literature

• Skills for senior health education –


interpreting graphs, tables and diagrams
Skills for senior secondary Health Education

This section contains activity outlines that can be applied to any of the contexts in this resource.
At this level of learning, it is important that when reviewing and understanding health related
literature students can:
1. Interpret graphs, tables and diagrams in reports
2. Comprehend what they are reading so they can:
• Make enough meaning of it to extract useful information
• Critique/critically analyse (at least some) of the material they read especially material
from magazines and popular websites
• Consolidate material from a variety of sources to present a written response about a health
issue, as indicated by the Achievement Standards and as required for assessment.
The following material provides some activities and guidelines for teaching and utilising these skills
in Health Education contexts
1. The processes for taking students into non-fiction literature are from Anne Alkema, Literacy
Project, Ministry of Education (as presented at the NZHTA Conference 2003). See further
material on www.tki.org.nz and access any literacy project actions happening in your school,
especially those strategies used for non-fiction materials. The following articles are on-line in
the literacy and numeracy community on TKI [a selection of these are included in the Level 8
Beacon Schools resources folder]:
• Extending interactions with non-fiction texts: An exit into understanding by David
Wray and Maureen Lewis (key article)
• An approach to factual writing by David Wray and Maureen Lewis
• Secondary Literacy: A selected bibliography compiled by Helen Nicholls at Team
Solutions
• I Read, I Learn iMovie: Strategies for developing literacy in the context of inquiry-
based science instruction by Randy Yerrick & Donna Ross
• Strengthening reading and writing skills using the internet Scholastic website (linked
from TKI)
2. Activities for Interpreting graphs, tables and diagrams in reports – these pages can be
photocopied and used as part of skill based lessons early in the year’s programme. Teachers
are encouraged (where available and relevant) to replace these graphs and tables with ones
specific to the context being explored.
It is not expected that students can regurgitate a mountain of statistics as ‘evidence’ to support
their responses to NCEA assessments. It is, however, expected that students can recall
significant trends and major findings related to the health issue they have been studying (part
of these trends may include knowing one or two really essential statistics but generally
speaking the overall findings are more important). Occasionally students maybe required to
use data supplied in the examination, hence it is important that students can read and interpret
graphs, tables and other presentations of data in Health Education.
For other sources of useful statistical data see documents on these websites:
www.youth2000.ac.nz – initial findings document
www.statistics.govt.nz – search for anything relevant
www.moh.govt.nz various documents – search for anything relevant to the issue being studied
www.aphru.ac.nz source of tables and graphs on alcohol use
www.alcohol.org.nz additional source of alcohol research data
Taking students into non-fiction literature in Health Education

The following processes offer some possible ways to help students make greater sense of printed
materials used in Health Education.

For the purpose of illustration, the articles are all related to gender issues. It is intended that teachers
could use the material in its current form to enhance student’s literacy skills and/or replace the articles
with ones specific to the context being studied.

It is not intended that this process be followed in full or in sequential order with every unit of work or
every piece of literature. Select those aspects of the process(es) that are most useful at the stage they
are needing to be used.

General context: Health issues for males and females

(This could be a unit of work assessed by 3.1 or 3.2, during which the teacher plans to facilitate
some aspects of the teaching and learning and also have students carry out their own research and
review of the literature about other aspects of the issue.)

Resources supplied in the Beacon Level 8 Folder:

Newspaper articles [search your local newspapers online e.g. www.nzherald.co.nz


www.dominionpost.co.nz www.thepress.co.nz]
• Many a pitfall in pursuit of pay equity NZ Herald 3 June 2003
• Laila Harre: Pay gap embarrassing and costly NZ Herald 3 June 2003
• Wallflower at pay equity party NZ Herald 2 June 2003
• [article on men’s employment … edge – get full title] The Press Christchurch 7 June 2003
• A kiss is but a kiss, but not always on TV NZ Herald 27 August 2003

Other internet articles


• Male bashing on TV by Michael Abernethy
• Men’s Health: A global Crisis from Reuters Health (www.xtramsn.co.nz website)
• Looking good – US men and beauty care (www.xtramsn.co.nz website)
• Key determinants of health and well-being of men and boys by Will Courtenay, and The
meaning of boys bodies in physical education by Murray Drummond (www.mensstudies.com
website)
• Survey shows snapshot of New Zealand Women (www.nzgirl.co.nz )
• Women, the information revolution and the Beijing conference (www.un.org )

Published documents/books
• Extract from Questioning Gender: Snapshots from Explaining and Addressing Gender
Differences in New Zealand Compulsory School Sector, a literature review by Adrienne Alton-
Lee and Angelique Praat [this can be also accessed online www.minedu.govt.nz]
• Extract from Human rights, race. Women and youth issues. NZ Official Yearbook 2000
Elicitation of previous knowledge and getting started
Use the KWLH chart to identify K (what I know) and W (what I need to know) about the issue. This
could extend from exploration of the issue started from a brainstorm, a postbox, graffiti sheets and
other such diagnostic activities (provide students with this template on an A4 landscape page).

K W L H
(what I know (what I need to know (what I learnt about (how I learnt this
about….. ) about …..) …..) about ….)

The gender related resources supplied (see previous list) suggest that the ‘issue’ to be explored is very
broad and as yet undefined. A KWLH chart could be used early in the investigation as one means of
helping define the issue. The ‘W’ questions could help form the basis of the research questions (some
guidance for the direction of these could come from the achievement standard being used to assess the
work).

If the issue is already defined (as below), then the KWLH chart could be used in a more focused way –
the K&W parts to identify what needs to be found out about the issue and the L&H parts to
summarise what was found out. If the KWLH chart is being used more broadly (e.g. to help define the
issue in the first place), it may be some time before the ‘L’ and ‘H’ columns can be filled in.

Locating information relevant to the issue


For the purpose of illustration in this resource, samples of printed materials relating to gender issues
are supplied. Not all of the articles will be useful or appropriate for the investigation – this has been
done deliberately as an exercise to get students to be selective and discerning about what is useful
literature. Locating information may need to be revisited once the students determine whether or not
the materials collected so far are suitable, and if they are not, where do they locate more suitable
material?

Establishing the purpose of the literature and adopting an appropriate strategy for exploring
the whole issue
For 3.1 (and 3.2) teachers could either prescribe a specific gender issue to be explored or allow
students to define one of their own. For the purpose of illustration, assume the more specific
health issue to be explored is the impact of work and employment on the health and well-being of
males and females.

N.B. It will be important to spend some time with students determining the actual nature of the
‘issue’. This could again be supported by going back to the ‘what do I need to find out?’ research
questions. The strategy for finding answers could equally involve students in carrying out their own
surveys. For this discussion however, it is assumed that the answers need to come from printed
literature. Select a few articles including:

Articles from valid and reliable sources … … and ones that are not;
e.g. Extract from Questioning Gender: Snapshots e.g. Survey shows snapshot of New Zealand
from Explaining and Addressing Gender Women (off www.nzgirl.co.nz )
Differences in New Zealand Compulsory School
Sector, a literature review by Adrienne Alton-Lee
and Angelique Praat
Articles that are more opinion based while still … and articles from factual research reports;
from valid sources …
e.g. [article on men’s employment … edge – get e.g. Extract from Human rights, race. Women and
full title] The Press Christchurch 7 June 2003 youth issues NZ Official yearbook 2000

and articles that are relevant to the issue … … and others that are interesting, gender
related, but not relevant to the issue.
e.g. Laila Harre: Pay gap embarrassing and e.g. A kiss is but a kiss, but not always on TV NZ
costly NZ Herald 3 June 2003 Herald 27 August 2003

Interacting with the text (using the gender related articles supplied):

For each of the articles selected:


• What is the source of the article?
• What do you know about the reliability of the information supplied by this source? How do
you know this?
• Is the article based on reliable research, is it someone’s opinion? How do you know this?
• Is the article useful for what I want? Go back to what do I need to know?
• Do I actually understand the article? [If not – see following teaching processes].
• Does this article actually fit with the topic and does it answer any of my questions about what I
need to know? Or is it just really interesting but nothing to do with the issue?
• If the article is useful, which bits are useful and what do I need to disregard?
• Has this article told me something I didn’t realise before? If so, what do I now need to go and
find out?

Once students are more confident in selecting valid and appropriate materials by themselves, these
processes can be trimmed back and used only as and when needed.

If the students need help to understand what they reading (in order to answer the questions
above) then another layer of literacy strategies may need to be used – these reuse the strategies
above in more detail, and add to them.

The EXIT model (Extending Interaction with Texts) identifies a series of processes important for
taking students into text (ref: Extending interactions with non-fiction texts: An exit into
understanding by David Wray and Maureen Lewis available on www.tki.org.nz)

1. Elicitation of previous knowledge


2. Establishing purposes
3. Locating information
4. Adopting an appropriate strategy
5. Interacting with text
6. Monitoring understanding
7. Making a record
8. Evaluating information
9. Assisting memory
10. Communicating information
The following is one interpretation of the use of some aspects of this model.
NB. Some of these aspects fit some articles better than others – be selective.

1. Elicitation of previous knowledge about the issue the impact of work and employment on health
and well-being of males and females - before reading the article(s)
What do I already know? KWLH chart, class brainstorm, post box etc.

Think about the different perspectives of the issue; male and female work issues, youth and older age
workers, physical, mental and emotional, social and spiritual dimensions of health related to work, the
worker, the employer, the community, the government perspectives on work and health etc.

2. Establishing purposes - before reading the article(s)


From the students’ perspective:
• What are the various points of view I already know about related to the issue?
• Why do I need to understand more about the issue?
• How are employment, gender and health linked together [as I understand it at the moment]?

3. Locating information (as above)

4. Adopting an appropriate strategy


Skimming – read through the text to gain a general picture of what the text is about. Discuss this in
groups to determine common and different understandings about the purpose of the article(s).

5. Interacting with text


Closer analysis* – in groups, decide on 2-4 facts in the text and 2-4 opinions (as relevant).

Jigsaw/expert sharing activity (good for helping students understand longer articles)
• Divide the text up into about 4-6 manageable sections
• Number class off 1-6 (or however many sections the text is divided into)
• All the 1s, 2s etc group together and in their groups read just their allocated part of the text.
• This ‘expert’ group discusses and summarises the meaning of their section in about 6 bullet
points
• Students return to their original groups such that each group now has and ‘expert’ 1, 2, 3, 4, 5
and 6 person
• In numerical order student’s then share their 6 bullet points to build up an overall
understanding of the article
• If needed, students can record each group’s summary in their learning journal
(#7. Making a record)

10. Communicating information


A parliamentary debate approach could be used to draw the different perspectives of the issue together
once the class had a clearer, overall picture of the issue

*Close analysis
When students are really struggling with the language and meaning of the article, some of these
strategies may need to be used:

Meaning making (comprehensive text)


1. The language of the headline – what does that tell us about the perspective of the writer and
about the nature of the text?
2. How do we know it a factual/opinion (or other) piece of information?
3. What vocabulary do we not understand? [Find this out]
4. Draw a flow chart of information in the piece of writing.
5. Are there any other difficulties we have understanding this piece of writing? What and why?

Text using
1. Who would read this text and why?
2. What purpose does this piece of writing serve?

Text analysing (understanding how text positions readers)


These questions need to be specific to the context of the article. To illustrate this, the article ‘Male
bashing on TV’ has been used.

1. What position is the writer taking in this article – what’s the point he is trying to make?
2. How are readers made to feel about the representation of men on TV?
3. How are teenager boys likely to feel about this article?
4. How are adult men likely to feel about this article?
5. How are girls and women likely to feel about this article?

And, is there anything useful in this article to help explore the issue the impact of work and
employment on the health and well-being of males and females

Factual writing

When it comes to students preparing for, or writing responses to assessments An approach to factual
writing by David Wray and Maureen Lewis offers an overview of the steps that could be taken,
depending on the existing skill level of the students. The revised apprenticeship model of teaching
writing they adopt is a step-wise process that includes:

1. Demonstration (teacher modelling)

2. Joint activity (collaborative writing)

3. Scaffolded activity (supported writing)

4. Independent activity (independent writing)

(See full article on www.tki.org.nz or Reading Online www.readingonline.org)

This process would allow for plenty of formative assessment opportunities to provide feedback and
feedforward to students about their learning.
MALE BASHING ON TV
by Michael Abernethy
PopMatters Film & TV Critic

www.popmatters.com

Warning for our male readers: The following article contains


big words and complex sentences. It might be a good idea to
have a woman nearby to explain it to you.

It's been a hard day. Your assistant at work is out with the flu
and there is another deadline fast approaching. Your wife is at a
business conference, so you have to pick up your son at
daycare, make dinner, clean the kitchen, do a load of laundry,
and get Junior to bed before you can settle down on the sofa
with those reports you still need to go over.

Perhaps a little comedy will make the work more bearable, you
think, so you turn on CBS's Monday night comedies: King of
Queens, Yes, Dear, Everybody Loves Raymond, and Still
Standing. Over the next two hours, you see four male lead
characters who are nothing like you. These men are selfish and
lazy, inconsiderate husbands and poor parents.

And the commercials in between aren't any better. Among them:


A feminine hygiene ad: Two women are traveling down a lovely
country road, laughing and having a great time. But wait. One of
them needs to check the freshness of her mini-pad, and,
apparently, the next rest area is six states away. A woman's
voice-over interjects, ‘It's obvious that the interstate system was
designed by men.’

A digital camera ad: A young husband walks through a grocery


store, trying to match photos in his hand with items on the shelves. Cut to his wife in the kitchen, snapping
digital pictures of all the items in the pantry so that hubby won't screw up the shopping.

A family game ad: A dorky guy and beautiful woman are playing Trivial Pursuit. He asks her, ‘How much does
the average man's brain weigh?’ Her answer: ‘Not much.’

A wine ad: A group of women are sitting around the patio of a beach house, drinking a blush wine. Their
boyfriends approach, but are denied refreshment until they have ‘earned’ it by building a sand statue of David.

Welcome to the new comic image of men on tv: incompetence at its worst. Where television used to feature
wise and wonderful fathers and husbands, today's comedies and ads often feature bumbling husbands and
inept, uninvolved fathers. On Still Standing, Bill (Mark Addy) embarrasses his wife Judy (Jamie Gertz) so badly
in front of her reading group, that she is dropped from the group. On Everybody Loves Raymond, Raymond
(Ray Romano) must choose between bathing the twin boys or helping his daughter with her homework. He
begrudgingly agrees to assist his daughter, for whom he is no help whatsoever.

CBS is not the only guilty party. ABC's My Wife and Kids and According to Jim, Fox's The Bernie Mac Show,
The Simpsons, Malcolm in the Middle, and (the recently cancelled) Titus, and the WB's Reba also feature
women who are better organized and possess better relational skills than their male counterparts. While most
television dramas tend to avoid gender stereotypes, as these undermine ‘realism,’ comic portrayals of men
have become increasingly negative. The trend is so noticeable that it has been criticized by men's rights groups
and some television critics.

It has also been studied by academicians Dr. Katherine Young and Paul Nathanson in their book, Spreading
Misandry: The Teaching of Contempt for Men in Popular Culture. Young and Nathanson argue that in addition
to being portrayed as generally unintelligent, men are ridiculed, rejected, and physically abused in the media.
Such behavior, they suggest, ‘would never be acceptable if directed at women.’ Evidence of this pattern is
found in a 2001 survey of 1,000 adults conducted by the Advertising Standards Association in Great Britain,
which found that 2/3 of respondents thought that women featured in advertisements were ‘intelligent, assertive,
and caring,’ while the men were ‘pathetic and silly.’ The number of respondents who thought men were depicted
as ‘intelligent’ was a paltry 14%. (While these figures apply to the United Kingdom, comparable advertisements
air in the U.S.)

Some feminists might argue that, for decades, women on tv looked mindless, and that turnabout is fair play.
True, many women characters through the years have had little more to do than look after their families. From
the prim housewife whose only means of control over her children was, ‘Wait till your father gets home!’ to the
dutiful housewife whose husband declares, ‘My wife: I think I'll keep her,’ women in the '50s and '60s were often
subservient. (This generalization leaves out the unusual someone like Donna Reed, who produced her own
show, on which she was not subservient.)

Then, during the ‘sexual revolution,’ tv began to feature independent women who could take care of themselves
(Mary and Rhoda on The Mary Tyler Moore Show, Julia, Alice and Flo on Alice, Louise and Florence on The
Jeffersons). So now, 30 years later, you'd think that maybe we'd have come to some parity. Not even.

Granted, men still dominate television, from the newsroom to primetime. And men do plenty on their own to
perpetuate the image of the immature male, from Comedy Central's The Man Show to the hordes of drunken
college boys who show up every year on MTV's Spring Break. What's the problem with a few jokes about how
dumb men can be? C'mon, can't we take a few jokes?

If only it was just a few. The jokes have become standard fare. Looking at a handful of sitcoms makes the
situation seem relatively insignificant, but when those sitcoms are combined with dozens of negative ads which
repeat frequently, then a poor image of men is created in the minds of viewers.

According to Gender Issues in Advertising Language, television portrayals that help create or reinforce negative
stereotypes can lead to problems with self-image, self-concept, and personal aspirations. Young men learn that
they are expected to screw up, that women will have the brains to their brawn, and that childcare is over their
heads. And it isn't just men who suffer from this constant parade of dumb men on tv. Children Now reports a
new study that found that 2/3 of children they surveyed describe men on tv as angry and only 1/3 report ever
seeing a man on television performing domestic chores, such as cooking or cleaning. There are far too few
positive role models for young boys on television.

Moreover, stereotypical male-bashing portrayals undermine the core belief of the feminist movement: equality.
Just think. What if the butt of all the jokes took on another identity? Consider the following fictional exchanges:

‘It is so hard to get decent employees.’


‘That's because you keep hiring blacks.’

‘I just don't understand this project at all.’


‘Well, a woman explained it to you, so what did you expect?’

‘I can't believe he is going out again tonight.’


‘Oh please, all Hispanics care about is sex.’

All of these statements are offensive, and would rightfully be objected to by advocates of fair representation in
the media. However, put the word ‘man’ or ‘men’ in place of ‘blacks,’ ‘woman,’ and ‘Hispanics’ in the above
sentences and they're deemed humorous. Are men who ask to be treated civilly overly sensitive or are we as
justified in our objections as members of NOW, the NAACP, GLAAD, and other groups which protest
demeaning television portrayals, whether those portrayals are on sitcoms, dramas, advertisements, or moronic
tv like The Man Show.

Most of the shows I'm talking about are popular. Maybe that means I am being too sensitive. Yet, many U.S.
viewers didn't have a problem with Amos and Andy or I Dream of Jeannie, both famous for their offensive
stereotypes. These shows enjoyed good ratings, but neither concept is likely to be revived anytime soon, as
‘society’ has realized their inappropriateness.

All this is not to say buffoonery - male or female -- isn't a comic staple. Barney on The Andy Griffith Show, Ted
on The Mary Tyler Moore Show, and Kramer on Seinfeld were all vital characters, but the shows also featured
intelligent males. And these clowns were amusing because they were eccentric personalities, not because they
were men. The same could be said of many female characters on tv, like Alice's Flo, Friends' Phoebe, or Karen
on Will & Grace. Good comedy stems from creative writing and imaginative characterizations, not from
de.g.rading stereotypes.

Fortunately, some people are working to change the way television portrays men. J. C. Penney recently ran an
ad for a One Day sale, with a father at the breakfast table, with his infant crying and throwing things. The father
asks the child when his mother will be home. Lana Whited of The Roanoke Times, syndicated columnist Dirk
Lammers, and the National Men's Resource Center were just a few who objected to this image of an apparently
incompetent and uncaring father, one who would let his child cry without making any attempt to calm him.
Penney's got the message; their recent holiday ad features a father, mother, and son all happily shopping
together.

Few men I know want a return to the ‘good ole days.’ Those generalizations were as unrealistic as the idea that
all men are big slobbering goofballs. Hope lies beyond such simplistic oppositions, in shows like The Cosby
Show or Mad About You, which placed their protagonists on level playing fields. Paul Reiser and Cosby did, on
occasion, do moronic things, but so did Helen Hunt and Phylicia Rashad. People -- because they are people,
not just gendered people -- are prone to fall on their faces occasionally.

Undoubtedly, there are men out there who are clones of Ward Cleaver, just as there are men who resemble Al
Bundy. But the majority is somewhere in between. We're trying to deal the best we can with the kids, the
spouse, the job, the bills, the household chores, and the countless crises that pop up unexpectedly. After all
that, when we do get the chance to sit down and relax, it would be nice to turn on the tv and not see ourselves
reflected as idiots.

— 9 January 2003
Interpreting Graphs and Tables
From A DECADE OF DRINKING: TEN-YEAR TRENDS IN DRINKING PATTERNS IN
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND, 1990-1999
NB. The numbers on the graphs and tables have been retained from this document for easy reference.

BAR GRAPHS

QUESTIONS (Figure 8&9 and 10&11)


1. What do the titles of the graphs tell you about the graph (and what is the different purpose of graphs
8&9 and 10&11)?
2. What does ‘frequency’ mean in graphs 8&9?
3. Look at the x-axis (the one going across) what data is recorded here?
4. And again on the y-axis (the vertical one) what data is recorded here?
5. What does the key tell you about the bars on the graph?
6. What are graphs telling you about male and female drinking across the age groups? In other
words, what are the trends shown by the data or what can you summarise from the data? Write an
sentence that could be used in an assessment that uses this data as evidence for an issue you are
explaining.
7. What are graphs telling you about male and female drinking across the age groups when
comparing 1995 and 2000? In other words, what are the trends shown by the data or what can
you summarise from the data?
8. What sorts of things do these graphs NOT tell you?

Bar graphs (figures 12&13) are more complex bar graphs.


9. What do the titles of the graphs tell you about the graph (and what is the different purpose of graphs
12&13)? What does ‘abstention’ mean?
10. Look at the x-axis (the one going across) what data is recorded here?
11. And again on the y-axis (the vertical one) what data is recorded here?
12. What does the key tell you about the bars on the graph?
13. What are graphs telling you about male and female drinking across the years? Write an
sentence that could be used in an assessment that uses this data as evidence for an issue you are
explaining
14. What sorts of things do these graphs NOT tell you?

LINE GRAPHS

15. What do the titles of the line graphs tell you about the graph (and what is the different purpose of
graphs 7, 8, 9 & 10)?
16. What does ‘proportion’ mean in graph 7 and ‘frequency’ mean in graph 8?
17. Look at the x-axis (the one going across) what data is recorded here?
18. And again on the y-axis (the vertical one) what data is recorded here?
19. What does the key tell you about the lines on the graph?
20. What are graphs telling you about drinking across the years? Write an sentence that could be
used in an assessment that uses this data as evidence for an issue you are explaining
21. What sorts of things do these graphs NOT tell you?
BAR GRAPHS

Figure 8

Figure 9
Figure 10

Figure 11
LINE GRAPHS
Interpreting Tables

1. What do the titles of the tables tell you about the graph (and what is the different purpose of
graphs 13, 7&8)?
2. Look at the data going across - what data is recorded here?
3. And again look at the data down the left hand side - what data is recorded here?
4. What units are the numbers in the table recorded in – percentages, frequencies, ratios?
5. What does ‘sample size’ or ‘n’ mean in a table?
6. What are tables telling you about male and female drinking? Write an sentence that could
be used in an assessment that uses this data as evidence for an issue you are explaining
7. What sorts of things do these tables NOT tell you?

Table 13 Most frequent purchasers of alcohol for younger drinkers

Table 7 Proportion of 14-19 year old drinkers drinking in licensed premises


Table 8

Ratio of drinking occasions to visits that resulted in refusal of entry or refusal to allow purchase
of alcohol on licensed premises

Questions for Table ‘Appendix B’


A number of reports have huge tables like appendix B. These often contain all the data the survey
collected or background information about the survey (like this one) or a lot of information that
cannot be discussed all at once in a report so it its more usual to see a more summarised or broken
down version of the data presented as a series of tables or graphs, like those shown previously.
Occasionally you may need to make sense of a big table like this but don’t be put off. It’s just a bigger
version of those above.
1. What does the title of the table tell you about the contents of the table?
2. Look at the data going across - what data is recorded here?
3. And again look at the data down the left hand side - what data is recorded here?
4. What units are the numbers in the table recorded in – percentages, frequencies, ratios?
5. What does ‘sample size’ or ‘n’ mean in a table?
6. What is the table telling you about male and female drinking? [Trick question – what does
the title say?]
7. What sorts of things do these tables NOT tell you?
8. Would this table be useful for you if you were wanting to find out about the frequency of
drinking among teenagers for example? Why or why not?
A DECADE OF DRINKING: TEN-YEAR TRENDS IN DRINKING PATTERNS IN AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND, 1990-1999 Sally Casswell and Krishna Bhatta
Alcohol & Public Health Research Unit, May 2001 APPENDIX B: SAMPLE DEMOGRAPHICS - Table B1 Distribution of Age by Gender
Males 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Age N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N %

14-15 30 2.1 24 2.3 19 1.7 23 1.8 11 1.0 23 2.0 35 2.8 24 1.9 36 2.9 23 2.0

16-17 27 1.9 36 3.4 33 3.0 23 1.8 26 2.3 20 1.8 26 2.1 24 1.9 23 1.9 22 1.9

18-19 45 3.2 27 2.6 18 1.6 33 2.6 26 2.3 24 2.1 33 2.6 30 2.4 34 2.8 30 2.6

20-24 82 5.7 72 6.8 69 6.3 74 5.8 71 6.4 57 5.1 70 5.6 69 5.4 70 5.7 72 6.3

25-29 75 5.3 58 5.5 46 4.2 70 5.5 60 5.4 56 5.0 72 5.8 88 6.9 69 5.6 64 5.6

30-39 129 9.0 114 10.8 115 10.5 144 11.3 118 10.6 131 11.7 126 10.1 157 12.3 133 10.8 112 9.8

40-49 126 8.8 103 9.8 102 9.3 122 9.6 104 9.4 103 9.2 126 10.1 110 8.6 119 9.7 127 11.1

50-65 128 9.0 98 9.3 89 8.1 102 8.0 98 8.8 99 8.8 100 8.0 99 7.8 90 7.3 110 9.6

Total 642 45.0 532 50.4 491 44.7 591 46.3 514 46.4 513 45.7 588 47.2 601 47.2 574 46.6 560 49.1
Females 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
Age N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N % N %

14-15 37 2.6 14 1.3 17 1.5 23 1.8 18 1.6 26 2.3 21 1.7 18 1.4 18 1.5 20 1.8

16-17 37 2.6 32 3.0 27 2.5 39 3.1 28 2.5 24 2.1 24 1.9 27 2.1 30 2.4 26 2.3

18-19 37 2.6 24 2.3 29 2.6 43 3.4 28 2.5 26 2.3 31 2.5 30 2.4 28 2.3 22 1.9

20-24 76 5.3 54 5.1 69 6.3 84 6.6 55 5.0 55 4.9 81 6.5 81 6.4 61 5.0 47 4.1

25-29 103 7.2 75 7.1 75 6.8 84 6.6 64 5.8 70 6.2 90 7.2 76 6.0 78 6.3 54 4.7

30-39 204 14.3 133 12.6 141 12.8 171 13.4 169 15.3 158 14.1 154 12.4 174 13.7 163 13.2 164 14.4

40-49 159 11.1 114 10.8 137 12.5 129 10.1 111 10.0 135 12.0 141 11.3 155 12.2 154 12.5 126 11.0

50-65 132 9.3 77 7.3 112 10.2 113 8.8 121 10.9 115 10.2 116 9.3 112 8.8 125 10.2 122 10.7

Total 785 55.0 523 49.6 607 55.3 686 53.7 594 53.6 609 54.3 658 52.8 673 52.8 657 53.4 581 50.9
Missing/
Refused 16 1.1 8 0.8 9 0.8 4 0.3 11 1.0 3 0.3 1 0.1 2 0.2 2 0.2 4 0.3
Sample size
(n) 1443 1063 1107 1281 1119 1125 1247 1276 1233 1145