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Assumptions 1. The sampling distribution is normally distributed. In the independent t-test this means that the sampling distribution of the differences between score should be normal, not the scores themselves. 2. Data are measured at least at the interval level. 3. Variances in these populations are roughly equal (homogeneity of variance) 4. Scores are independent (because they come from different people).

Question An educator claims that the college student average IQ score is 115. A random sample of 30 student with IQ score is shown in Table 1. Is there enough evidence to reject the educators claim at = 0.05? Assume the sample was normally distributed.

Solution (using traditional method) 1. Hypotheses Ho : = 115 (claim) H1 : 115 2. Test statistic

Definitions

3. Critical value tcritical = (from t-test table; d.f = n-1 = 29, two-tailed, 4. Decision

Since the test value didnt fall into critical region, we do not reject the H0 5. Conclusion There is not enough evidence to reject the claim. In conclusion, we can say that the college students average IQ score is 115.

Using SPSS to analyze the data. 1. To label the data, go to variable view and change the name into Students and IQ Score. For decimal, change into 0.

2. Select the test variable IQ Score and set the test value = 115 because we are testing to see if the data have could really come from a population with mean of 115.

3. The output from the one sample t-test contains only two tables. The first table (SPSS Output 1.0) provides summary statistics for the experimental conditions. From this table, we can see that the number of students is 30 (column labeled N). The mean is 112.03, with standard deviation of 8.604. Whats more, the standard error of mean (standard deviation of the sampling distribution) is 1.571 ( ).

SPSS Output 1.0

4. The second table of output (SPSS Output 1.1) contains the main test statistics. The tstatistic is calculated by dividing the mean difference by the standard error of the sampling distribution of differences . The value of t is then assessed against the value of t you might expect to get by chance when you have certain degree of freedom. For one sample t-test, degrees of freedom are calculated by subtracting the number of samples . SPSS produces the exact significance value of t, and we are interested in whether this value is less than or greater than .05. In this case the two-tailed value of p is .069, which is greater than .05, and so we would have to conclude that there was no significant difference in mean of this sample. In terms of the experiment, we can conclude that the college students average IQ score is 115.

Exercise The Government claims that the car traveling pass your house average 55km/h, but you think they are actually traveling much faster. You borrowed a police radar gun and record the speed of the next twenty six cars that pass your house. 55, 60, 65, 55, 65, 60, 55, 75, 65, 78, 90, 56, 88, 50, 42, 63, 66, 54, 53, 67, 52, 88, 54, 78, 68, 66

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