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Electrical Workshop

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

PREPARED BY

IAT Curriculum Unit

December 2008

© Institute of Applied Technology, 2008

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

Module 3: Basic Electrical Components

Module Objectives

At the end of this module, students will be able to:

1. Identify basic electrical components such as:

• Lamps, motors and buzzers.

• Resistors, LDRS, capacitors and inductors.

• Diodes

2. Understand the applications of each component.

Module Contents

3.1 Introduction 3.2 Basic Electrical Components 3.3 Components Coding 3.4 Class and Lab Activities

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

3.1 Introduction

you tried so, have you seen the electrical boards with many components mounted on

them? Figure 3.1

shows an example of a PC electrical board with different

components. In this module, we will study these components and understand their

usages and applications.

Figure 3.1: PC Electrical Board

3.2 Basic Electrical Components

 Component Symbol Function Picture Lamp Light Indicator Motor Motion Indicator Buzzer Sound Indictor

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

 Compone Symbol Function Picture nt Resistors limit the current flow Resistor Variable resistors control the current in the circuit: - Adjust lamp brightness - Adjust motor speed Variable Resistor LDRs are variable resistors where resistance value changes with light LDR (Light Dependen t Resistor)

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

 Compone Symbol Function Picture nt Capacitors store electrical charge and are used in: - Timer Circuits Capacitor Inductors store magnetic field and are used in: - Electric bells - Door locks Inductor Diodes allow current to flow in one direction only. Diode has two terminals: 1. Cathode (K)(-) : Diode located to the line perpendicular to the point of the arrowhead 2. Anode (A) (+): located at the opposite end of the cathode.

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

3.3 Components Coding:

1. Resistance Coding: Resistors are specified by their resistance value and their

tolerance. One way to indicate the resistance value and tolerance is color

code method, which is explained in Figure 3.2.

1.Resistance is measured in ohms () 2.Most resistors have 3 bands:

The 1 st band gives the first digit.

The 2 nd band gives the second digit.

The 3 rd band indicates the number of zeros.

The 4 th band gives the tolerance

Figure 3.2 Resistance color code

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

Exercises:

State the resistor’s value and tolerance for the following resistors:

 Yellow Violet Brown Silver 4 7 0 ±10 %

R = 470 ± 10%

 Violet Red Black Gold 7 2 ±5 %

R = 72 ± 5%

 Red Green Orange Silver

R = ---------------------------------------------

 Red Green Black Gold 2 5 ±5 %

R = 25 ± 5%

 White Yellow Orange Silver 9 4 000 ±10%

R = 94000 ± 10%

 Blue Green Orange Gold

R = -------------------------------------------

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

2. Capacitor Coding: Capacitors are usually specified by three quantities; capacitor value, tolerance and voltage rating. A number code is often used on small capacitors where printing is difficult.

The 1 st number is the 1 st digit,

The 2 nd number is the 2 nd digit

The 3 rd number is the number of zeros to give the capacitance in pF

Ignore any letters - they just indicate tolerance and voltage rating.

Example 1:

You have a capacitor with "104" stamped on it.

- The first two digits are: 1 0

- The third digit is: 4 so add four zeros to the 1 0 1 0, 0 0 0 0 pF

Exercises:

State the capacitance value for the following capacitors:

102
683
222
C = 1000 pF
C=68000 pF
C = 2200 pF
154
471
541
C = ---------
C = ---------
C = ---------

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

3.4 Class and Lab Activities:

Activity 1: Identify resistors from color code

Items Required:
Resistors with various values
Steps:

1. Using the color coding method, identify the resistance value of various resistors

2. Fill the table below:

 No 1 st band color and value 2 nd band color and value 3 rd band color and value Resistanc Toleranc e (Ω) e 1 2 3 4

ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

Activity 2: light intensity control using potentiometer

 Items Required: Potentiometer 9V Battery 9 V Light Bulb Alligator Clips Steps:

1. Connect the following circuit:

2. Rotate the spindle of the potentiometer. What do you observe on the light brightness?

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3. State an application of potentiometers?

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Activity 3: Demonstrate LDR Operations

 Items Required: LDR 9V Battery 9 V Light Bulb Alligator Clips Steps:

1. Connect the following circuit:

2. Expose the LDR to light. What happen to the brightness of the lamp?

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3. Put the LDR in the dark. What happen to the brightness of the lamp?

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4. State some applications of LDRs.

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ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

Activity 4: Identify capacitance for various capacitors

 Items Required: Capacitors with various values Steps:

1. Identify the capacitance value of various capacitors.

2. Fill the table below:

 No Number displayed on the capacitor Capacitance (F) 1 2 3 4

3. state some applications of capacitors.

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ATE212 – Electrical Workshop

Activity 5: Draw the symbols for the following components:

Components

Symbol

LDR

Diode

Variable Resistor

Capacitor

Resistor

Inductor