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GENERALIZED SYMMETRICAL ANGLE PWM TECHNIQUE FOR A.C. VOLTAGE CONTROLLER

Gama/M. Hashem*,und Mostafa K. Dowish**

**

’Deparrmentof Electrical Engineering, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Facully of information d Engineering systems, Leedk Metropolitan University,Leeds, U.K.

~rmrcrlbar.h~~ni~~~z~~~~~~~~~/.c~~nii7r.darwish~~~rnU.3C.llk

Abstract - Conventional niethods of a.c. i~oltage controllers, such as on-off control and phme-ongle control are known io produce harmonic voltages in the O.C. szippiy litm Thispaper inimdures the use offorced roninrututed techniqires in a.c. voolrage controllers, tiame1jJ; symntetricd angle pulse width moddotion tecliniqiie. The sjw”trica1~v displaced piilses within the sinusoidal voliage woveform is adopted The

advariiages of

freqiiency harmonic currents which are euq, to filter, can be gained in ihe suggested control technique. The resrilting harmonic currents from the proposed techniqiie are ~nalyzedand compared on a basis of the phase-angle controlled technique. Simple LCjilters can be introduced in the supply input side of the voltage controllers to improve the qualip of the supply voliage

woveform. 7he analysis of karmonic currents showed

riniif

displacement factor

and

high

that noticeable reducrion as gained with increasing ihe

number ofpiilses per halfcycle.

Index

Term - A.C. Choppers,PWM, Harmonics

I. INTRODUCTION

Large loads supplied from ax. voltage controllers used in soft starters, transformer controlled primary side for large electro-chemical rectifiers, fumaces, heaters, a.c. motors speed control and theatre dimmers all produce harmonic currents which have bad influence on the utility electrical network. Hannonic currents when passing through the source harmonic impedances produce harmonic voltages, resulting in source voltage waveform distortion [I]. Voltage synchronized equipment supplied from such polluted voltage sources may suffer from malfunctioning and operational failures. A.C. motors supplied from such voltage sources may over heat and produce parasitic torques. Also, high frequency harmonic voltages may cause overheating of reactive power compensating capacitors and lead to premature life time. Another drawback of harmonic voltages and currents produced in ax. sources is the false operation of protection devices due to the jrd harmonic current interfering with zero sequence voltage components. These problems can be solved by using sophisticated advanced control schemes[2]-[9]. A new PWM control technique for ax. choppers is proposed. In this technique, a PWM switching function composed of 2 K pulses is introduced in each cycle of the ac source. The suggested symmetrical angle pulse width modulation SAPWM technique has the

advantages of unity displacement factor and better total current and total voltage harmonic distortion as well as better distortion factor DF. The SAPWM technique produces high frequency harmonic currents, which are easy to filter. This technique has the advantages of enabling linear control of the fundaxnental output voltage component. The higher the number ofpulscs per half cycle K, the higher are the Frequencies of harmonic

currents and the easier is the filtering . The limitation in this technique is the increased switching losses of thyristors and other transistor switches, namely BJT’s, MOSFET and IGBT’s. The study in this paper considers

only number of

pulses. The analysis in this paper concentrates on the fully controlled single-phase a.c. voltage controller. It applies equally well to three-phase controllers of singk-phase operating nature with one mode of operation, namely; four wire star connected loads or delta connected switches. The third harmonic current is present in the supply lines in this case. However, the analysis could be

extended to three-phase ax. controllers of three-phase operating nature, with two modes of operation such as three-wire star connected loads or delta connected loads. Conventional forced commutated thyristor techniques could be used in the suggested controllers. Simpler circuits with better switching characteristics could be achieved using the gate turn off thyristors GTOs. Since fumaces and heating loads supplied from a.c. voltage controllers are relatively large loads with large controllers, it is economically possible to use tuned LC filters across the a.c. line inputs to bypass unwanted hannonics and to reduce other hannonics. Theoretical comparison is made with the conventional phase-angle control technique, and the computed performance indicates the superiority of the proposed technique.

pulses per haIf cycle up to

K =

21

11. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS

The output current waveforms of the chosen different types of ax. voltage controllers are analyzed using Fourier analysis. Resistive loads are considered, since harmonic currents are the worst in this case and output current waveform can bc defined accurately.

Phase-angle Control The conventional circuit diagram of a single phase ax. voltage controller with resistive load full-wave switch is used [I]. The waveforms of output load voltage and

898

gating signals for thyristors TI and T2 are shown in Figure 1, at a tiring angle a =n/4. Therangeofthe

is given as

firing angle a in this method of control follows [I]:

O<a<n

(1)

The instantaneous line current can be expressed by Fourier analysis as follows

the

symmetry, then

and

since

b,

=

2

1,

current

n=I

waveform

sin ot sin not dwt

has

a

half-wave

Figures 2 and 3 show the waveforms of the output load voltage and gating signals for thyristors T1 and f2 from the a.c. chopper supplied resistive load for K=3, and K=4 respectively. It is clear from these figures that all the pulse widths having the same width. The width of afly pulse w is calculated a5 follows :

w=(--Za)

K

The duty cycle W in this case is given as

W=KW= (~-2Ka)

The

wavefonn

in

this

case

has

a

half

(1 1)

wave

symmetry and also i,(wt) = - i,(wt

n). Then a, = 0 for

all values of n. Equation (3) is rewritten for the

integration limits for any values of K as follows

k

integration pervious equation yields to

bn

for

lm

= -

-

n

I -

n = 3, 5, 7,

[I -cos[(

n - 1) a]

n-l

L

J

i=I

q,-l)+a

I;

cos[(

n + 1) a J

n+l

I Considering these terms for simplification

r.

0, = -((I

K

- 1) +U, and

K.

pi= --I

K

-a

for n = 1, (3) after integration yields to

I,,

b,= -[cos2a-I]

2a

The integration yields to

The integration (I 2) yields to

b,

Rr3 (1-r

=$[;.(-:)K]

,-I

Sn (n+ I)p. - sin( o + I)@,

I

n+l

'1

forn = I, (12) after integration yields to

n-l

(12)

(13)

a

=

I '

IT .

sin[( n+l)aI

n+l

-

sin[( n -I)

n-I

a J

1

forn = 3, 5, 7, .,. for n = 1, (6) after integration yields to

The amplitude of the resultant

as

harmonic current is given

1, =

[ an2f b,? 1"'

; for n =I, 3, 5, 7,

(9)

111. SYMMETRICAL ANGLE PULSE

WIDTH MODULATION

In the proposed symmetrical angle pulse width modulation technique SAPWM, the output voltage is controlled by controlling the width ol K pulses pcr half cycle. The pulses are symmetrically adjusted around the 90" axis and the first pulse is delayed by the firing angle a and the next pulse is delayed by twice a from the end of the pervious pulse, and so the rest pulses.

The amplitude of the resultant harmonic current is

'

givenasI,=

b,

for

n=1,3,5,

(15)

IV. RESULTS

The suggested method was numerically verified through the extensive simulations using MATLAB/Simulink software package, To cvaluate the potential of the proposed PWM technique, the phase-angle control technique has been investigated for comparison. The phase-angle control technique, and the proposed SAPWM technique are applied to single-phase ax. voltage conwoller switches. The circuit data is as follows: a.c. supply voltage IS 220 Volts at 50 Hz, and the load resistance is 5 n.

current in

case of phase-angle control technique is shown in figure 4, and for K = 5, IO, and 20 is shown in Figure 5 through Figure 7. For easy comparison, the fundamental current components in all figures, are kept constant at 0.9 P.U. (57.5 Amps.). Of course this P.U. current value

occurred at different values of the firing angle a at each K, so the firing angle IS calculated accordingly. It can be

The harmonic

spectnnn

of

the

load

899

noticed in these figures that the lower order harmonic currents is quite high in the case of low values of K, while they are eliininated or reduced with increasing the number of pulses per half cycle such as in the case K =-- 20 as shown in Figure 7. For easy comparison, each perfonnancc parameter of the a.c. voltage controller at different K values are drawn on the same graph. Figure 8 and 9 show the current T14D and current DF for different values of K as mentioned in the figures. Comparing these wavefonns it is obvious that the worst current THD and current DF is

in the case of phase-angle control technique, while they, noticeable improved with increasing the values K.

Figure 10 and I1 show the fundamental and total rms of

load currents versus the firing angle rz for different values of K. Also in these figures, its clear that smooth controlling of the fundamental and total r1n5 of load currents can be achieved by using the proposed technique.

V. CONCLUSIONS

It has been demonstrated in this paper that the new proposed symmetrical angle pulse width modulation technique can be used to control the a.c. voltagel controller with the advantages of unity displacement factor and reduced lower order harmonics. Studying this

technique at different values of K show that increasing

per-half cycle K, noticeably!

the number of pulses

improves the performance of the a.c. voltage controller. I The switching patterns ,based on the proposed:

technique is easily generated using a simple micro-!

controller or a dedicated built in microchip. This work may be extended to study the performance' of a.c. voltage controllers supplied static resistive-' inductive loads, dynamic loads, as well as three-phase configurations.

I

I

VI. REFERENCES

[I] M. H. Rashld. *' Powcr Elcctronics ," Pren!ire-hal/ biter?ialional. l1fC 1993.

121 Dc-Hyun

Jang: Gyu-Ha Choe and

Ehsdmi.

.W

"

Asymmcirical

PWM tcchniquc with harmonic climination and powcr factor,

control in AC choppers." Poivei- Elrcrrunics, IEEE Ti~anractionh' un. Volume: IO lssuc: 2. Mar 1995 pp.175 -184.

[3] Choc. G.-H. and Wallacc. A.K.:

Park. M.-H.," An improvcd PWM

tcchniquc

for

AC

choppers

,"

Power

Elrcfruttics, IEEE

1

Twnsarfions on, Volume: 4 lssuc: 4, Oct 1989. pp. 496 -505 [4] Iiurriz. F.and Ladoux. P.," Phase-controlled multilcvcl convmcrs, based on dual sir" associations." Power Elecrronics. lEE&

'

Amci. K. and Sakut. M ."A new configuration of

151 Ahmcd, N.A

Trunsooionx on. Volume: 15 Issue: I .Jan 2000. pp. 92 -102.

single-phasc symmcincal PWM AC choppcr voltagc contmllcr :' Indirsrriu/ Eiectronics. IEEE Tronsaclrorts on , Volumc: 46 Issuc:'

5 , Oct 1999.p~.942 -952. [6] Do-Hyun Jang and Gyu-HaChoc," lmprovctncnt of input pow% factor in AC choppers using asymmctncal PWM tcchniquc.", Indirstriui Electronirs. IEEE Transuclionx on , Volumc: 42 Issuc:; 2, Apr 1995. pp.179 -185. [7] Jang-Hyoun Youm and Bong-Hwan Kwon," Switching tcchniquc, for currcnr-controllcd AC-lo-AC convcncrs," Indusmal.

I

!

Electronics. IEEE Transactions on, Volumc; 46 Issuc; 2 . APT! 1999 . pp.309 -3IS.

[RI

El-Sabbc

A.

and

Zcin

El-Din

A.,"

A

Novcl

AC

Voltagc

Rcpula8or." lECON'9R. Pwrreiling oj rhe 24" Anniial ~~~~~fe~~~ofrite IEEE. v01.2.pp607-rii I.

[9]~

B. W. Williams,"

A symincirically_I

~

II_~modulstcd A.C. choppL

/€E€ Trari\ hd. Elecrion

vo1.2Y.pp.181-I 85,1982.

,.

whk

1-(

Figure I A.C. Voltage Controller wavefonns (Phase-angle control) a =d4

15151

I

~immaoamiocm~m

6ldq hgle t0.gnq

Figure 2 A.C. Voltage Controljer waveforms

(SAPWM) K= 3, a = dl2

-

*

*

1

05--/---

j

:

:

;

>

0-'

01mmmmmsm7ro

L

~immmroamm7m

Firingbgle ldqm3

I

I

!

!

Figure 3 A.C. Voltage Controller waveforms

(SAPWM) K = 4. U = d12

900

/""""'i

Hilfnonlc Ordar

Figure 4 Line current hannonic spectrum (Phase-angle control)

f

5

f

5

=

1

06~

0:.

i!

i

.~

i

~

:.:!

.,

,.

:

!

I

.;

,I

~

j

:

I,

.

~~,:

i

!.,

,

:::.

;

~

.;

,

.i

1

,.

,.

.i

:.'

.I:

~~~:~~~

-

Hcnnmic Order

Figure 5 Line current harmonic spectrum (SAPWM) K = 5

I

,

//;:///,:

:

,:.:.

I

::

:

,

<

<

>

,:

,

Figure 6 Line current harmonic spectrum (SAPWM) K = 10

Humonlc Ordsr

Figure 7 Line current harmonic spectrum

(SAPWM) K = 20

-

c

0

9

e

7-

1

I

/

:

:

:

:

i

/

:

:

/ Pk,tA.&ccGm*,

:

:>

:.,.::: I

:

:

:

;

Flrlng Angle

(dsgrsesl

:I

Figure 8 Total Current Harmonic Distortion versus Firing Angle Q

ocp-

yo,^

2 om.

L

fie-

,

I

j;

,

:;:.

.:

:

:

.

;

~~~~~i~

:

~

I

i

!:

:

:

,

iL-:

/

---L

!-

(

.(

<

1

 

:I:

i

: ~!

:~~~ i-

:

:

;

Figure 9 Current Distortion Factor Versus

Number of pulses per half cycle K

!

Figure 10 Load rms Currents Versus Firing Angle a

901

Figure I1

Fundamental Load rms Currents Versus Firing Angle a