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The aim of this document is to gather and analyze and give an in-depth insight of the complete PEJEN Online ordering system by defining the problem statement in detail. Nevertheless, it also concentrates on the capabilities required by stakeholders and their needs while defining high-level product features.


Background information

PEJEN is a company that distributes electronic products to customers in all countries that have PEJEN outlets. The company is managed centrally from Nairobi head offices where coordination of all outlets is carried out. Each outlet has a manager who gives reports on stock and other transactions to the central management. PEJEN aims at providing quality services to its customers efficiently and also delivery of products faster.

1.2 Problem Statement

PEJEN has considered developing an online ordering system because paper-based ordering systems take long to be cleared. There is also delay in payments as customer cheques take longer to be cleared by respective banks. Management has also become difficult due to increase in number of outlets resulting from high demand of electronic products from different parts of the world. PEJEN is also facing the problem of transaction auditing hence the need to develop a web-based one.

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LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORITICAL FRAMEWORKS 2.1 Segmentation Variables in online shopping

The following table shows the results of research work we did on behavior of online shoppers: Table 1: Identification of Segmentation Variables
Criteria Demographic segmentation relevant variables for identifying the internet consumer Common Segmentation variables Age and gender Size of family and family lifecycle Income and job Education Generation Specific segmentation variables(on-line) Visitor email address or web page Knowledge of the web Navigator programme and version

Geographical segmentation Physical location of the website access

Climate region size of town population density social class life-styles personality

connection network place of connection

Psycho graphical segmentation Attitude towards the website

attitude towards privacy of data and security attitude towards delays and problems with the purchase attitude towards website innovations method of access(directly or via links) time of access(weekends,

Segmentation according to behavior opportunities to use the product user category(non-user,

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Variables associated to website use

potential user, regular user, new) frequency of product use loyalty rating purchase intention against information search

during the week) frequency of internet access user category(new, regular) visits to competitors website shopping behavior level of interactivity with the user(feedback) pattern of information search on the website and between websites

Segmentation according to the benefits sought

importance of the place of use perceived benefits of use of the product perceived benefits of use of brand

benefits from obtaining additional information on the product(search reason, internet in obtaining information) benefits looked for in using internet as purchase channel problems with navigation

A pioneer of particular interest on the typology of online shoppers was carried out by Donthu and Garcia (1999). They found out significant differences between internet shoppers and non-shoppers in terms of sociodemographic (age, income), behavioral (variety seeking propensity) and attitudinal variables (importance of convenience, risk aversion, impulsiveness, attitude towards direct marketing and attitude towards advertising).

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Keng et al. (2003) provide another consumer typology according to demographic characteristics, experience as user and online shopping behavior. These authors combine the demographic and behavioral characteristics of online shoppers to provide perspective (see table 2) Table 2: Keng, Tang and Ghoses Segmentation of e-shoppers

Segment Segmentation variable Shopping behavior On-off shoppers Internet is used as an information channel but shopping is done through traditional channels They look for promotions Relations with the medium Expert surfers They use search engines They consult advertisements They look for offers Little experience of surfing They do not connect to internet to find offers Single 25-29 men +40 men Expert surfers They have hardly any They like to experience compare brands of using and products internet They like the advertisements and look for offers Wide surfing experience Traditional shopper They compare product characteristics, prices and brands before purchasing Dual shopper They mainly buy in traditional stores E-laggards They use internet as complementary channel Information suffer They do not Wide shopping use internet experience as an information channel

Sociodemographic Single 20-24 profile men and women

Single 20-24 men

35 women

Married over 30 men

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The demographic variables show that shoppers are mainly young, possibly due to the fact that internet is not very attractive for more mature shoppers because the image and products offered do not suit their lifestyle. The most highly valued factors in virtual store design are simplicity of navigation and ease of access. Analysis of the different segments shopping experience shows that traditional shoppers are more reluctant to use internet as a shopping channel, while dual and information surfer shoppers make the most online purchases as they us internet as a shopping channel, while dual and information surfer shoppers wake the most online purchases as they use Internet as a complimentary channel. The on-off shoppers are expert surfers who are attracted by companies which are wellestablished in traditional channels and which also design highly information websites. The

study by Keng et al.(2003)shows that the added value of information varies according to the group analyzed as does attitude towards advertising and the importance of accessing to the group analysed as does attitude towards advertising and importance of accessing promotions on the price of the product(table3), demographic, behavioral and attitudinal characteristics are used to classify different segments of e-shoppers in Greece. These authors distinguish between actual shoppers and those interested in adopting internet as a shopping channel (potential shoppers), describing the profile and behavior of both groups. One of the main conclusions of our study was that for both groups the most highly valued characteristics on a website were quality and amount of information provided(on the product and(2003) segments consumers according to purchase motivations, obtaining seven different profiles for e-shoppers(see table 3). This work highlights the existence of multiple consumer motivations and the importance of gender, type of product and previous shopping experience as predictors of the future purchase intention.

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Table 3: segmentation of online shoppers according to purchase motivations Type of shopper Personalised shopper Recreational shopper Economic shopper Involved shopper Local shopper Apathetic shopper Economic shopper Purchase motivations Personal relationship with the seller. Service adapts shoppers needs Enjoys the act of shopping Achieve the best quality-price relationship for the purchase Values item and effort. Enjoys reduced prices Loyal to a brand or shop in their local area Rejects the act of shopping. Values the convenience of internet Achieve the best quality-price relationship for the purchase

Our research shows that there are four different profiles of e-shoppers according to their motivation for shopping online: convenient and practical (convenience shoppers), range of information and products (variety seekers). A wide variety of products and minimum delivery periods are the main recommendation we propose.


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Extreme programming with incremental and spiral techniques was used to develop the system based on values of simplicity, communication, feedback and courage.
The team used a simple form of planning and tracking to decide what should be done next and to predict when the project will be done. Focused on business value, the team produced the system in a series of small fully-integrated releases that passed all the tests the Customer had defined. The team kept the system integrated and running all the time. The programmers wrote all production code in pairs, and all worked together all the time. They coded in a consistent style so that everyone could understand and improve all the code as needed. This team included a business representative the PEJEN who provided the requirements, set the priorities, and steered the project. The team included testers, who helped the Customer define the customer acceptance tests. Analysts served as helpers to the Customer, helping to define the requirements. There was a project manager, who provided resources, handled external communication, and coordinated activities.

The planning process addressed two key questions in system development: predicting what will be accomplished by the due date, and determining what to do next. The emphasis was on steering the project rather than on exact prediction of what will be needed and how long it will take which is quite difficult. With the cost estimates in hand, and with knowledge of the importance of the features, the Customer laid out a plan for the project. There were design steps in release planning and iteration planning, plus teams engaged in quick design sessions and design revisions through refactoring, through the course of the entire project.

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Refactoring was strongly supported by comprehensive testing to be sure that as the design evolves, nothing is broken. Thus the customer tests and programmer tests were a critical enabling factor. This meant that all code got the benefit of many peoples attention, which increased code quality and reduced defects.


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4.1 Overall Description This document contains the problem statement that the current system is facing which is hampering the growth opportunities of the company. It further contains a list of the stakeholders and users of the proposed solution. It also illustrates the needs and wants of the stakeholders that were identified in the brainstorming exercise as part of the requirements workshop. It further lists and briefly describes the major features and a brief description of each of the proposed system. The following SRS contains the detail system perspective from different stakeholders. It provides the detail product functions of PEJEN Online Ordering system with user characteristics permitted constraints, assumptions and dependencies and requirements subsets. 4.2 Specific Requirements The specific requirements are 4.2.1 Introduction This subsection contains the requirements for the system. These requirements are organized by the features discussed in the project proposal. All these functional requirements can be traced using tractability matrix. Provide comprehensive product details. The system shall display detailed information of the selected products. The system shall provide browsing options to see product details. Functionality

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Detailed product Categorizations

The system shall display detailed product categorization to the user. 4.2.3 Provide Search facility.

The system shall enable user to enter the search text on the screen. The system shall enable user to select multiple options on the screen to search. The system shall display all the matching products based on the search The system shall display only 10 matching result on the current screen. The system shall enable user to navigate between the search results. The system shall notify the user when no matching product is found on the search. 4.2.4 Maintain customer profile.

The system shall allow user to create profile and set his credential. The system shall authenticate user credentials to view the profile. The system shall allow user to update the profile information. 4.2.5 Provide personalized profile

The system shall display both the active and completed order history in the customer profile. The system shall allow user to select the order from the order history. The system shall display the detailed information about the selected order. The system shall display the most frequently searched items by the user in the profile. The system shall allow user to register for newsletters and surveys in the profile.


Provide Customer Support.

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The system shall provide online help, FAQs customer support, and sitemap options for customer support. The system shall allow user to select the support type she/he wants. The system shall allow user to enter the customer and product information for the support. The system shall display the customer support contact numbers on the screen. The system shall allow user to enter the contact number for support personnel to call. The system shall display the online help upon request. The system shall display the FAQs upon request. 4.2.7 Email confirmation.

The system shall maintain customer email information as a required part of customer profile. The system shall send an order confirmation to the user through email. 4.2.8 Detailed invoice for customer

The system shall display detailed invoice for current order once it is confirmed. The system shall optionally allow user to print the invoice. 4.2.9 Provide shopping cart facility.

The system shall provide shopping cart during online purchase. The system shall allow user to add/remove products in the shopping cart. 4.2.10 Online and contactual tracking of products during delivery The system shall allow user to enter the order and contactual information for tracking. The system shall display the current tracking information about the order and delivery.

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4.2.11 Provide online Tax Calculations The system shall calculate tax for the order. The system shall display tax information for the order. 4.2.12 Allow multiple payment methods. The system shall display available payment methods for payment. The system shall allow user to select the payment method for order. 4.2.13 Allow online change or cancellation of order. The system shall display the orders that are eligible to change. The system shall allow user to select the order to be changed. The system shall allow user to cancel the order. The system shall allow the user to submit an order later. The system shall allow user to change payment method. The system shall notify the user about any changes made to the order. 4.2.14 Allow Online Product reviews and ratings The system shall display the reviews and ratings of each product, when it is selected. The system shall enable the user to enter their reviews and ratings. 4.2.15 Provide detailed sitemap. The system shall allow user to view detailed sitemap. 4.2.16 Offer online promotions and rewards. The system shall display all the available promotions to the user. The system shall allow user to select available promotion.

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4.2.17 Online Purchase of products The system shall allow user to confirm the purchase. The system shall enable user to enter the payment information.

4.3 Usability 4.3.1 Graphical User Interface

The system shall provide a uniform look and feel between all the web pages. The system shall provide a digital image for each product in the product catalog. The system shall provide use of icons and toolbars. 4.3.2 Accessibility

The system shall provide handicap access. The system shall provide multi language support. 4.4 Reliability & Availability 4.4.1 Back-end Internal Computers

The system shall provide storage of all databases on redundant computers with automatic switchover. The system shall provide for replication of databases to off-site storage locations. The system shall provide RAID V Disk Stripping on all database storage disks. 4.4.2 Internet Service Provider

The system shall provide a contractual agreement with an internet service provider for T3 access with 99.9999% availability.

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The system shall provide a contractual agreement with an internet service provider who can provide 99.999% availability through their network facilities onto the internet. 4.5 Performance The system shall be web-based and has to be run from a web server. The system shall take initial load time depending on internet connection strength which also depends on the media from which the system is run. The performance shall depend upon hardware components of the client/customer. 4.6 Security 4.6.1 Data Transfer

The system shall use secure sockets in all transactions that include any confidential customer information. The system shall automatically log out all customers after a period of inactivity. The system shall confirm all transactions with the customers web browser. The system shall not leave any cookies on the customers computer containing the users password. The system shall not leave any cookies on the customers computer containing any of the users confidential information. 4.6.2 Data Storage

The customers web browser shall never display a customers password. It shall always be echoed with special characters representing typed characters. The customers web browser shall never display a customers credit card number after retrieving from the database. The systems back-end servers shall never display a customers password. customers password may be reset but never shown. The

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The systems back-end servers shall only be accessible to authenticated administrators. The systems back-end databases shall be encrypted. 4.7 Supportability 4.7.1 Configuration Management Tool

The source code developed for this system shall be maintained in configuration management tool.

4.8 Design Constraints 4.8.1 Standard Development Tools

The system shall be built using a standard web page development tool that conforms to either IBMs CUA standards or Microsofts GUI standards. 4.8.2 Web Based Product

There are no memory requirements The computers must be equipped with web browsers such as Mozilla Firefox. The product must be stored in such a way that allows the client easy access to it. Response time for loading the product should take no longer than two minutes. A general knowledge of basic computer skills is required to use the system. 4.9 On-line User Documentation and Help System Requirements On-line help system is a critical component of the system. It shall provide specific guidelines to a user for using the PEJEN Online Ordering system. To implement online user help, link and search fields shall be provided.

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4.10 Interfaces There are many types of interfaces as such supported by the system namely; User Interface, Software Interface and Hardware Interface. The protocol used shall be HTTP. The Port number used will be 80. There shall be logical address of the system in IPv4 format. 4.10.1 User Interfaces The user interface for the software shall be compatible to any browser such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla or Netscape Navigator by which user can access to the system. The user interface shall be implemented using any tool or software package like Java Applet, MS Front Page, php etc.

4.10.2 Hardware Interfaces Since the application must run over the internet, all the hardware shall require to connect internet will be hardware interface for the system. As for e.g. Modem, WAN LAN, Ethernet Cross-Cable. 4.10.3 Software Interfaces The system shall communicate with the Configurator to identify all the available components for configuration. The system shall communicate with the content manager to get the product specifications, offerings and promotions. The system shall communicate with billPay system to identify available payment methods, validate the payments and process payment. The system shall communicate with CRM system to provide support. The PEJEN Online Ordering system shall communicate with Sales system for order

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management. The system shall communicate with external Tax system to calculate tax. The system shall allow the users to complete secured transaction. This usually shall be the third party software system which is widely used for internet transaction. 4.10.4 Communications Interfaces The system shall use the HTTP protocol for communication over the internet and for the intranet communication will be through TCP/IP protocol suite. 4.11 Legal, Copyright, and Other Notices System should display the disclaimers, copyright, word mark, trademark and product warranties of PEJEN electronics. 4.12 Applicable Standards It shall be as per the industry standard.

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5.1 SYSTEM DESIGN 5.1.1 PEJEN Functional models Business use case model

PEJEN online order system

Business use case diagram


Buy Products at departmental stores Customer Buy Products Online



billPaySystem Use Financing options

Novice User

Technical User Use customer support service

Fig 1: Business Use case diagram

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Use case diagram

Figure 2 shows the use case diagram for PEJEN online ordering system.

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PEJEN use case diagram


Provide Product Reviews and Ratings contentManager

Display Product Offerings Customer Search Products SalesRep Provide Support commonRegistrati on



Maintain Customers


Track Shipments Offer financing

<<include>> <<include>> <<include>>

Order Management

Process Payment

Purchase Products


Calculate Tax

Fig 2: Use case diagram for PEJEN Online Ordering System

Page 20 Context Diagram Figure 3 shows the context diagram for the PEJEN online ordering system revealing all external entities related to it.



Deliver request

Product availability info

send product item


Sends quantity ordered Transaction reports Update shopping cart


sets standards provides reports


displays products/order forms maintains Places order


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Sends invoice

Figure 3: PEJEN Context Diagram The customer: Views a display of products sold
Registers: become a client

Logs into the system and finds an order Selects the products he/she wants to buy to fill the order form with Submits or saves details in the order form by clicking an option The ordering system: Displays products(to all users) and order forms(to registered clients) Displays a registration form for a user to fill when registering Displays a log in form for a client to log in and make transaction Keeps track of all registered users Payment system: Processes transactions

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Generates reports Suppliers: Supplies products to PEJEN



5.2.1 INTRODUCTION Php interleaved with java script was used in the server side because it is easy to code with and reduces development time. All databases: customers, products and suppliers were implemented using structured query language and sql server management studio software. This promises an easy way of linking the database with other program modules. HTML was used on the client side to develop user interface elements. NOTE THAT: Graphic software was used to optimize images to a reasonable size since HTML does not support complex graphics. The pages were kept short for easy navigation Videos of products were kept deeper in the website, not included on the home page Image width were kept smaller to optimize the use of search engines available in various web browsers

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CSS was used to link more than two pages

Shopping cart and product forum are occasionally upgraded by the PEJEN staff. 5.2.2 Operations The system has only one mode of operation. However, because of the environment it is used in, it must be able to operate for long periods, without error. The server is able to operate

unattended indefinitely. It should not need physical interaction except for upgrades and failure of hardware elements. Backup and recovery is handled by the DBMS and operating system, or external software running on a timed backup system. Since stateful data should not be stored on any of the devices other than the server, keeping a system image on the server for each device may be a sufficient operational method to facilitate restoration should a device become corrupted. 5.2.3 Site adaptation requirements Site configuration for the PEJEN system is expected to encompass the following steps: Install the server, surface computers and displays Acquire sufficient tablets for all staff that need to use them Network all devices, install operating systems, server software and DBMS Secure network, distribute initial passkeys Install PEJEN software Configure server PEJEN software

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Some customization of PEJEN software elements may be required, including: Layout maps GUI elements, especially for customer-facing UIs



The following section of code is used to generate the homepage screen. <html> <head> <meta name="GENERATOR" content="Microsoft FrontPage 5.0"> <meta name="ProgId" content="FrontPage.Editor.Document"> <title>PEJEN ONLINE ORDERING SYSTEM </title> </head> <frameset rows="115,*,45" framespacing="1" border="0" frameborder="0"> <frame name="top" scrolling="no" noresize target="contents" src="top1.htm"> <frameset cols="181,*"> <frame name="contents" scrolling="no" target="main" src="products.htm"> <frame name="main" src="Loggedin.htm" scrolling="auto"> </frameset> <frame name="bottom" scrolling="no" noresize target="contents" src="footer.htm">

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<noframes> <body> </body> </noframes> </frameset> The screen generated will be displayed as shown below:

Figure 4: PEJEN Homepage

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The system met all the functional and non-functional requirements after several tests by the users and all other stake holders despite the challenges of meeting some of the design constraints. The screen shots of the system displayed were friendly to the users.

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7.1 RECOMMENDATION As designers and implementers of the system, we recommend the following:
In future, PEJEN should consider integrating shipping services to their system. This is

due to the likelihood of increased demand from customers in different parts of the world. Due to increased usage of mobile devices, PEJEN should strongly consider moving from online ordering to mobile ordering system .This is to incorporate a large number of customers who use mobile phones rather than the internet based devices. Because of increased fear of customers sending their credit cards numbers over the internet to unknown merchants, PEJEN should consider incorporating digital checking and digital cash systems as payment methods to reduce credit card fraud. 7.2 CONCLUSION

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Its our hope that this system will increase business opportunities for PEJEN by enlarging the customer base leading to increased revenues and customer satisfaction.

1. 2. 3.

APPENDIX B-SYSTEM TERMINOLOGIES AND ACRONYMS Term DBMS SRS GUI HTML SQL HTTP SSL Description Database Management System Software/System Requirement Specification Graphical User Interface Hypertext Markup Language Structured Query Language Hypertext Transfer Protocol Socket Secured Layer

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Table 4: System Acronyms Term Database Description An integrated self-describing collection of related data E-commerce Purchasing, selling and exchanging goods and services over computer networks Tractability Matrix Tool used to track requirements Table 5: System Terminologies


Home Page

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Create Account

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After Logged-In

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Product View

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Configure Products

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Credit Card Payment

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View Order

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