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PGE368 Fall 2001 Semester September 24, 26, and 28, and October 5

Carlos Torres-Verdn, Ph.D. Assistant Professor

Porosity

Definition:

The volume fraction of the rock occupied by pore space

= Vp / VR * 100 %

Water Saturation

Definition:

The fraction of the pore space containing water Sw = Vw / f

Spatial Scale is Important!

THEORY

REALITY

1 cm Clay Close-Up

Thin Sections

1 cm

POROSITY

WATER SATURATION

TOTAL WATER SATURATION? BOUND-FREE (MOVABLE) WATER? IRREDUCIBLE WATER SATURATION (i.e. clay-bound water and capillary-bound water)?

Electrical Resistivity Spontaneous Potential Acoustic Velocity Radioactive Emissions Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gravity Etc.

EFFECTIVE MEDIUM THEORY

V + Rm

Rock Matrix Pore Fluid

Rf 1 1 1 = + R Rm Rf V R= I

Shale-Free Electrical Model

Double-Layer Dispersed Clay Electrical Models Waxman-Smits Dual-Water Mixed Dispersed-Clay / Laminar-Shale Electrical Model Patchett-Herrick

Archie (1942)

In clean sandstones with saline brines, the resistivity of the rock is proportional to the salinity of the saturating brine. The constant of proportionality is called the formation factor. F = R0 / Rw . The formation factor varies as the inverse square of the porosity. F = 1 / 2 . The saturation index in a reservoir (IR = Rt / R0 ) varies as the inverse square of the saturation. I = 1 / Sw2.

Standard form

In conductivity notation

1 1 m n n t = w Sw = w Sw F a

Archie 1

Archie 1

Archie 2

Summary Archie 1

Archie valid at high salinities > 100ppk at 200F Archie also valid if there are no conductive materials (clays). In very fresh water surface conductance of ordinary grains can also be a problem

General form

where a ~ 1 and m ~2

m=2 or Humble formula carbonates a = 1, m > 2

F=

Ideally the Formation Factor is purely a function of pore space geometry. It is giving us information about porosity and the porosity distribution. In practice ionic conduction is dependent on ion-type, concentration and temperature. In shaly rocks we do not measure the Formation Factor and are dependent on a rock model eg. SEN (1986)

3 . 0 1 . 2 0 . 5 2 . 5 1 1 i 2 . 0

s

2 . 0 . 5

2 . 5

. 0

1 5

. 0

vugs

fractures

1 0

. .

0 5 0 .1 8 2 , 6 p o 8 r 1 o 0 s i 2 t 0 y 3 04 5 0 0

Formation Factor generally, the m exponent are often a function of porosity. Variable m technique has been successful in carbonates.

Carbonate Texture

On the left, a crystalline dolomite with = 47% and m = 1.95. On the right, a moldic bioclastic packstone with = 36% and m = 3.27. This large variation in m illustrates the importance of rock texture on petrophysical evaluation. Environmental scanning electron microscope images, scale bar is 100 mm at left and 200 mm at right.

Spatial Scale of Measurement Becomes a Central Issue Effect of Clay Component Effect of Clay-Bound Water Effect of Capillary-Bound Water Anisotropy

V + I + + + +

?

R

V R= I

Water

Oil

Matrix

Dry Clay

ClayBound Water

Mobile Water

Hydrocarbon

Oil

Water

Matrix

Dry Clay

Mobile Water

Hydrocarbon

Heavy Oil ClayBound Water CapillaryBound Water

Matrix

Dry Clay

Mobile Water

Solid HC

Matrix

Dry Clay

ClayClayBound Water

Mobile Water

Hydrocarbon

Vugs

Data from Sweeney and Jennings (1960) Data from Diederix (1982)

Archie 2 Summary

In water-wet rocks estimations of water saturation from resistivity logs are generally pessimistic

Spatial Scale of Measurement Becomes a Central Issue Effect of Clay Component, Clay-Bound Water Capillary Effect Anisotropy

V(f)

I (f)

+ + + +

?

Z(f)

LABORATORY SAMPLES

Brine-Water Saturation

Fine Grains

Coarse Grains Coarse Grains and Dispersed Clay Super-Fine Sand Grains

Stacked Grains

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Baker Atlas Schlumberger Tony Bermudez

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