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Lecture 1 Introduction to the sustainable tourism concepts and issues

Nguyen Duc Hoa Cuong MSc.TM MBA Autumn 2011

Objectives
1.

Explain the meaning of sustainable development and its application to tourism Tourism and sustainability Making tourism more sustainable Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor.

2. 3. 4.

1. Meaning of sustainable development


Sustainable development is a process to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World
Commission on Environment and Development, 1987)

Husbandary of the worlds resources; Equity in using resources and distributing benefits.

1. Meaning of sustainable development


Three dimensions or pillars of sustainable development: (Agenda
21 the plan of actions from the UN Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, 1991 World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, 2002)

Economic sustainability Social sustainability Environmental sustainability.

2. Sustainability and Tourism


On the positive side, tourism can: Provide a source for enterprise development, employment creation and local services; Bringing a tangible economic value to natural and cultural resources; Be a force for inter-cultural understanding and peace.

2. Sustainability and Tourism


Consersely, tourism can: Place a direct pressure on fragile ecosystems; Compete for the use of scare resources, notably land and water; Be a significant contributor to the local and global pollution.

2. Sustainability and Tourism


Thien Minh Group:

2. Sustainability and Tourism


Chua Xu Lady Temple and Festival:

2. Sustainability and Tourism


From specialties and souvenirs

To polution from craft villages...

3. Making tourism more sustainable


The UNWTO has given the full definition of sustainable tourism as: Tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment and host communities.

3. Making tourism more sustainable

12 aims for an agenda for sustainable tourism:

3. Making tourism more sustainable


How can they benefit from tourism?

3. Making tourism more sustainable


An experience from Nepal - Village tourism development - Community organization, emowerment and colective benefits - Entrepreneurship - Sale of local products - Conservation of traditional cultural identity - Protection of environment and natural resources.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


The ways of channelling visitor spending and associated investments into improved income and quality of life for people in poverty.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


7 different ways in which the poor can benefit directly or indirectly from tourism:

1. Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises 2. Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor 3. Direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy);

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


4. Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor (formal economy) 5. Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor 6. Voluntary giving/support by tourism enterprises and tourists 7. Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


1. Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises:

Benefits for tourism businesses: Making the enterprise more locally distinctive Reducing staff turnover Generally creating a more supportive commercial and political environment.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


How to promote employment of local people? Increasing the occasions on which a preference is exercised for local applicants in recruitment processes Providing relevant skills training, including opportunities for people to progress within the business Offering flexible working hours and part time contracts Making short part time work available to a large number of people.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


2. Supply of goods and services to tourism businesses:

Advantages for tourism businesses: The provision of fresh and locally distinctive food for guests Enhancing the character of their establishment Reduced supply costs.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


How to promote supplies to local businesses?

Improving information networks Auditing local businesses existing sources of supply, and identifying suitable alternatives Encouraging direct retailing of carefully sourced local products Business and technical advice and relevant financial support, to local suppliers Stimulating and supporting cooperative arrangements among small suppliers.

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4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


3. Direct sales of goods and services to visitors: The poor sell produce or services directly to tourists This is the informal economy.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


How to promote informal economy? Organise and manage the informal sector in new ways Training and capacity building Visitor flows - the location of trading points Access to simple support and advice, including finance Links with the formal sector.

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4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


4. Tourism enterprises by the poor: Four indicative types of enterprise development: An individual enterprise A group of individual enterprises A community owned enterprise A private sector enterprise having concessions or entering into a partnership with local community.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


How to promote local enterprises? Participatory planning of tourism activities Capacity building within poor communities Negotiating joint ventures with private sector businesses Development of business support schemes.

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4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


5. Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor: Revenues that are earned by national or local government from tourism, that can be used for alleviation of poverty Taxes and levies can also be raised locally, and used within local communities.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


How to promote taxes and levies? Reviewing taxation policy at a national level Encouraging more local level schemes to raise revenue Transparency and consultation in development of new local taxation schemes.

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4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


6. Voluntary giving and support by tourism enterprises and tourists: Encouraging operators to work together on such schemes in local areas Working with NGOs to establish beneficiary schemes and then promoting these to operators Considering a wide range of ways in which enterprises can support neighbouring communities Improving publicity to visitors on opportunities to support these schemes.

4. Mechanisms for maximizing benefits for the poor


7. Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism: Involving local communities in tourism planning in their area at an early stage Using planning gains and other regulations to derive community benefits from any new development Profiling tourism in infrastructure development programmes, nationally and locally.

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