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Alhamdulillah, grateful to Gods because We have done do the assignment in subject Hospitality Work Ethic in chapter Ethics and Bar & Beverage Management (HUD 2002) in right duration.

Firstly, We would like to thank to my lecturer, Syed Munir Bin Syed Faozi Barakbah, who teach we how to do this assignment.

Secondly, We also would like to thank to parents and familys that giving advanced and opinions about this assignment. For my member, thank for your support also give idea to make this assignment very successful.

Last but not least, Our We also would like to thank the following people and organizations for their valuable assistance in our assignment by giving advice. Thank for all for the contribution that given for me. Hope the assignment can be the good and the best assignment. Thank you very much..


NO 1 2 3 4 5 Acknowledgements Table of contents



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Definition of Bar & Beverage Management

Bar A bar (also called a pub, tavern, saloon, beer garden or taproom) is an establishment that serves drinks, especially alcoholic beverages such as beer, liquor, and cocktails, for consumption on the premises. Bars provide stools or chairs for their patrons along tables or raised counters. Some bars have entertainment on a stage, such as a live band, comedians, go-go dancers, a floor show or strippers (see strip club). Bars that are part of hotels are sometimes called long bars or hotel lounges. The term "bar" is derived from the specialized counter on which drinks are served and is a synecdoche applied to the whole of the drinking establishment. The "back bar" or "gantry" is a set of shelves of glasses and bottles behind that counter. In some bars, the gantry is elaborately decorated with woodwork, etched glass, mirrors, and lights. When food is served elsewhere in the establishment, it may also be ordered and eaten at the bar.

Beverage A beverage or drink, is a liquid which is specifically prepared for human consumption. In addition to filling a basic human need, beverages form part of the culture of human society.


A bartender (barman, barkeeper, barkeep, barmaid, or tapster, among other names; a particularly experienced bartender specializing in cocktails is sometimes referred to as a mixologist) is a person that serves beverages behind a bar in a bar, pub, tavern or similar establishment. This usually includes alcoholic beverages of some kind, such as beer, both draft and bottled, wine and/or cocktails, as well as soft drinks or other non-alcoholic beverages. She/he "tends the bar". A bartender may own the bar they tend or be simply an employee. Barkeeper carries a stronger connotation of being the purveyor, i.e. owner.[1] In addition to their core beverage-serving responsibility, bartenders also:

take payment from customers (and sometimes the waiters or waitresses) maintain the liquor, cocktail garnishes, glassware and other supplies or inventory for the bar (though some establishments have bar backs who help with these duties)

In establishments where cocktails are served, bartenders are expected to be able to properly mix hundreds to thousands of different drinks. A mixologist is a term for a bartender who specializes in the creation of cocktail recipes; the term usually implies special expertise and professionalism. Bartenders also usually serve as the public image of the bar they tend, contributing to as well as reflecting the atmosphere of the bar. In some establishments focused strictly on the food, this can mean the bartender is all but invisible. On the other extreme, some establishments make the bartender part of the entertainment, expected perhaps to engage in flair bartending or other forms of entertainment, such as those exemplified in the films Cocktail and Coyote Ugly. Some bars might be known for bartenders who serve the drinks and otherwise leave a patron alone, while others want their bartenders to be good listeners and offer counselling (or a "shoulder to cry on") as required. Good bartenders help provide a steady clientele by remembering the favoured drinks of regulars, having recommendations on hand for local nightlife beyond the bar, or other unofficial duties. They are sometimes called

upon for answers to a wide variety of questions on topics such as sports trivia, directions, or the marital status of other patrons. In regions where tipping is the norm, bartenders depend on tips for most of their income. Bartenders are also usually responsible for confirming that customers are of the legal drinking age before serving them alcohol.

Professional Bartender

Types of Beverage Water Despite the fact that all beverages contain water, water itself is not a beverage. The word beverage has traditionally been defined as not referring to water. Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol (commonly called alcohol). Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits. Alcoholic beverages are consumed in most countries of the world. Each nation has laws that regulate their production, sale, and consumption. In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them. This minimum age varies between 16 and 25 years, depending upon the nation and the type of drink. Most nations set it at 18 years of age.[1] The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states.[2][3] Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social events in these cultures. In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction mainly because of alcohols neurological effects. Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed. Alcoholic beverages can be addictive, and the state of addiction to alcohol is known as alcoholism.

Non-alcoholic beverages A non-alcoholic beverage is a beverage that contains no alcohol. Non-alcoholic mixed drinks (including punches, "virgin cocktails", or "mock tails") are often consumed by people wishing to enjoy flavourful drinks without alcohol, recovering alcoholics, people whose religion restricts alcohol consumption, designated drivers, or children. They are often available as alternative beverages where the norm is to drink alcoholic beverages, such as bars. Examples include Shirley Temples, Virgin Marys, and virgin-style Pia Coladas. Non-alcoholic beverages contain no more than .5 percent alcohol by volume. The category includes drinks that traditionally have no trace of alcohol such as sodas, juices, and sparkling ciders. It also includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol

removal process such as non-alcoholic beers and dealcoholized wines. Nonalcoholic beer can contain a small amount of alcohol (the exact percentage varies by country), so purchasers of non-alcoholic beer in some US states must be at least 21.

Soft drinks The name "soft drink" specifies a lack of alcohol by way of contrast to the term "hard drink" and the term "drink", the latter of which is nominally neutral but often carries connotations of alcoholic content. Beverages like colas, sparkling water, iced tea, lemonade, squash, and fruit punch are among the most common types of soft drinks, while hot chocolate, hot tea, coffee, milk, tap water, alcohol, and milkshakes do not fall into this classification. Many carbonated soft drinks are optionally available in versions sweetened with sugars or with non-caloric sweeteners.

Hot beverages A hot beverage is any beverage which is normally served heated. This may be through the addition of a heated liquid, such as water or milk, or by directly heating the beverage itself. Some examples of hot beverages are:

Coffee-based beverages

Cappuccino Coffee Espresso Caf au lait Frapp Flavored coffees (mocha etc.) Latte

Hot chocolate Hot cider

Mulled cider

Glhwein Tea-based beverages

Flavored teas (chai etc.) Green tea Pearl milk tea Tea Yerba Mate Sanka

Herbal teas

Roasted grain beverages

Types of Alcohol Beer Beer is the world's oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and coffee. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches which are mainly derived from cereal grains most commonly malted barley although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used. Alcoholic beverages which are distilled after fermentation, fermented from non-cereal sources such as grapes or honey, or fermented from un-malted cereal grain, are not classified as beer. The two main types of beer are lager and ale. Ale is further classified into varieties such as pale ale, stout, and brown ale. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative. Other flavourings, such as fruits or herbs, may also be used. The alcoholic strength of beer is usually 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (ABV), but it may be less than 1% or more than 20%. Beer is part of the drinking culture of various nations and has acquired social traditions such as beer festivals, pub culture, pub games, and pub crawling. The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. The beer-brewing industry is global in scope, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and thousands of smaller producers, which range from regional breweries to microbreweries . Wine Wine involves a longer (complete) fermentation process and a long aging process (months or years) that results in an alcohol content of 9% 16% ABV. Sparkling wine can be made by adding a small amount of sugar before bottling, which causes a secondary fermentation to occur in the bottle.

Spirits Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits.[7] Spirits are produced by the distillation of a fermented base product. Distilling concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners. Spirits can be added to wines to create fortified wines, such as port and sherry.

Types of Beer Beer style is a term used to differentiate and categorize beers by various factors such as colour, flavour, strength, ingredients, production method, recipe, history, or origin. The modern concept of beer style is largely based on the work of writer Michael Jackson in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer in which he categorised a variety of beers from around the world into local style groups according to local customs and names. In 1989, Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work publishing The Essentials of Beer Style. Although the systematic study of beer styles is a modern phenomenon, the act of distinguishing between different varieties of beer is ancient and widespread, dating to at least 2000 BC. The study of what constitutes a beer's style can be broken down into various elements. These may include the amount of bitterness imparted to a beer from bittering agents such as hops, roasted barley, or herbs; the amount of sweetness from the sugar present in the beer; the strength of the beer from the amount of fermentable material converted into alcohol; the smoothness or viscosity of the beer in the mouth, commonly described as mouth feel; and the appearanceof the beer, including the colour. Ale uses yeasts that ferment at relatively warmer temperatures, usually between 60 and 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Ale yeasts traditionally form a layer of foam on the surface of the fermenting beer, which is why they are referred to as top-fermenting yeasts. Ales are technically ready to drink three weeks after the fermentation process begins, but they are often left to age for longer periods of time. Lager yeasts are very similar to ale yeasts. However, one of the main differences is the ability of the lager yeast to process a chemical compound known as raffinose. This is complex sugar compound that is created in the fermentation process. Lager yeast, unlike ale yeast, collects at the bottom of fermenting beer, and is therefore referred to as bottom-fermenting yeast. Lager yeast is also fermented at considerably lower temperatures, around 50 degrees Fahrenheit. The majority of beers in production today can be considered lager beers.[4] Two other types of beer styles include beer of spontaneous fermentation and beers of mixed origin. Beers of spontaneous fermentation are very hard to come by, and the majority are produced in Belgiumusing wild strains of yeast. These types of beers are often referred to as Lambic. Beers of mixed origin can also be beers of

spontaneous fermentation, or ales and lagers that have also been fermented by wild strains of yeast. Elements of beer Beers may be categorized based on a number of factors. Appearance The visual characteristics that may be observed in a beer are colour, clarity, and nature of the head. Colour is usually imparted by the malts used, notably the adjunct malts added to darker beers, though other ingredients may contribute to the colour of some styles such as fruit beers. Colour intensity can be measured by systems such as EBC, SRM or Lovibond, but this information is rarely given to the public. Many beers are transparent, but some beers, such as hefeweizen, may be cloudy due to the presence of yeast making them translucent. A third variety is the opaque or near-opaque colour that exists with stouts, porters, schwarzbiers (black beer) and other deeply coloured styles. Thickness and retention of the head and the lace it can leave on the glass, are also factors in a beer's appearance. Aroma The aroma in a beer may be formed from the malt and other fermentable, the strength and type of hops, the alcohol, esters, and various other aromatic components that can be contributed by the yeast strain, and other elements that may derive from the water and the brewing process. Flavour The taste characteristics of a beer may come from the type and amount of malt used, flavours imparted by the yeast, and strength of bitterness. Bitterness can be measured on an International Bitterness Units scale, and in North America a number of brewers record the bitterness on this scale as IBUs. Mouthfeel The feel of a beer in the mouth, both from thickness of the liquid and from carbonation, may also be considered as part of a beer's style. A more dextrinous beer feels thicker in the mouth. The level of carbonation (or nitrogen, in "smooth" beers) varies from one beer style to another. For some beers it may give the beer a thick and creamy feel, while for others it contributes a prickly sensation.

Strength The strength of beer is a general term for the amount of alcohol present. It can be quantified either indirectly by measurement of specific gravity, or more directly by determining the overall percentage of alcohol in the beer. Gravity Measurement of the specific gravity of the beer has traditionally been used as an to estimate the strength of beer by measuring its density. Historically, several different scales have been used for the measurement of gravity, including the Plato, Baum, Balling, and Brix scales, with the Plato scale being the most common contemporary measure. This approach relies on the fact that dissolved sugars and alcohol each affect the density of beer differently. Since sugars are converted to alcohol during the process of fermentation, gravity can be used to estimate the final alcohol. In beer brewing, a distinction is made between the original gravity, the gravity of the wort before fermentation has begun, and the final gravity of the product when fermentation has completed. Since the concentration of sugars is directly proportional to the gravity, the original gravity gives a brewer an idea of the potential alcoholic strength of the final product. After fermentation, the differences between the final and original gravities indicates the amount of sugar converted into alcohol, allowing the concentration of alcoholic strength to be calculated. The original gravity of a beer was the basis for determining taxation in both the UK and Ireland from 1880 until the late 20th century, and a legacy of that system remains in the largely arbitrary division ofbitter into "bitter", "best bitter", and "special bitter" substyles. In continental Europe, the strength of a beer in degrees Plato is sometimes used by a brewery to distinguish a particular beer produced in a line. For example, Rochefort Brewery produces three beers, all dissimilar in colour, flavour, and aroma; and sells them as Rochefort 6, Rochefort 8, and Rochefort 10, the numbers referring to the original gravities of the beers. Westvleteren Brewery, meanwhile, produces three beers, and calls them Blonde, 8, and 12.

Alcohol concentration Modern classification of the strength of alcoholic beverages for the purposes of taxation and regulation typically discriminates according to the percentage of alcohol by volume, generally abbreviated as ABV. Additionally, although less common, some brewers throughout the world use also alcohol by weight (ABW), particularly on lowpoint versions of popular domestic beer brands. At the relatively low alcohol concentrations of beer, the alcohol percentage by weight is roughly 4/5 of the ABV (e.g., 3.2% ABW is equivalent to 4.0% ABV)., but this becomes increasingly inaccurate as the alcohol concentration increases. Before the development of modern brewing practices and the complete understanding of the biochemistry of yeast, the final ABV of a beer could not be precisely controlled, making its value inconsistent and therefore unsuitable as a determinant for taxation or regulation. Contemporarily, though, ABV is often used in to determine the duty on beer and cider, and sales of beer and cider above a certain ABV is sometimes restricted or prohibited. For example, in the US state of Alabama the sale of beer over 6% ABV is illegal; meanwhile, in Texas, beers below 4% ABV cannot be sold as stout regardless of other stylistic considerations.

Yeast A variety of different yeasts are used in making beer, most of which are strains of either top-fermenting yeast or bottom-fermenting yeast. Different strains impart different flavour and aroma characteristics, and may vary in which complex sugars they can ferment and how high their alcohol tolerance is, both of which are factors in attenuation. Some beers use other microbe types in addition to one of these, such as Lactobacillus or Brettanomyces. For example, the distinctive flavour and aroma of Belgian Abbey ales largely result from the yeast strains used to ferment the beer. There are a few modern styles, notably lambics, where spontaneous fermentation is used that is, the unfermented wort is allowed to be colonized by microorganisms loose in the environment, rather than inoculated in a controlled fashion with a known organism.

Grains Most beers use barley malt as their primary source of fermentable sugars, and some beer styles mandate it be used exclusively, such as those German styles developed under Reinheitsgebot. Some beer styles can be considered varietals, in the same sense as wine, based on their malt bill. Kilned pale malts form the basis of most beer styles now in production, with styles that use other grains as a base distinguished by those grains (for example bock, which uses Munich malt as a base). The Rauchbier and Alaskan smoked porter styles are distinguished by the use of smoked malt. Some styles use one or more other grains as a key ingredient in the style, such as wheat beer, rye beer, or oatmeal stout. The inclusion of some grains such as corn and rice is often viewed as making less of a flavour contribution and more of an added source of fermentable sugars. Rice in particular "is considered by many [craft] brewers what the nasty industrial brewers use to water down their beer" . This is due in large part to the use of rice by large scale American breweries. While it is commonly held that these breweries introduced these grains to their formulas during war shortages, author Maureen Ogle states "The mythology is that these giant beer makers began adding rice and corn to their beer after World War II to water it down, but that's simply not true. The American brewing industry was built in the late 19th century by first-generation German American immigrants such as Adolphus Busch, Adolph Coors and Frederick Miller. Although these men, craft brewers themselves, initially re-created the full-bodied beers of their homeland, many Americans had not developed a taste for the maltheavy style. They needed a domestic ingredient that would make the beers more effervescent, bubbly and lighter. Rice and corn did that it was a desired flavor, not inexpensive filler."

Hops Hops contribute bitterness, flavour and aroma to a beer in different ways depending on when they are added during the brewing process. How much hop bitterness and aroma is appropriate varies considerably between different beer styles. There are many varieties of hops, some of which are associated with beers from specific regions. For example, Saaz hops are associated with Czech Pilsners; Hallertau and Tettnanger are two of the "noble" hop varieties one expects to find in German beers, and Kent Goldings are an English variety. Water Water is the main ingredient in beer, and, though water itself is flavourless, the chemical composition can have an influence on the finished taste; indeed, some brewers regard it as "the most important ingredient in beer". In particular, two styles of beer are especially noted for their water chemistry: pale ale, for which the process of Burtonisation is widespread; and Pilsener. Other ingredients Fruits and spices are key ingredients in some beer styles. While fruit beers and herb beers are often listed as style categories unto themselves, fruits and spices are sometimes used to contribute to the flavour and aroma profile of other styles. Vegetables have also been used in beers. Honey, molasses, candy sugar, or other fermentable sugars may be added to impart their distinct flavours to a beer. While not an ingredient per se, some brewers have experimented with aging their beer in barrels previously used for bourbon or other distilled spirits, imparting the flavour of both the wood and the spirit to the beer. Alcoholic beverages made from the fermentation of sugars derived from non-grain sources are generally not called "beer," despite being produced by the same yeastbased biochemical reaction. Fermented honey is called mead, fermented apple juice is called cider, fermented pear juice is called Perry (sometimes, pear cider) , and fermented grape juice is called wine. Chinese jiu and Japanese sake are made using much the same process as beer with one additional step in the fermentation as well as using rice instead of primarily barley malt.

Types of Wine

Cocktail A cocktail is a mixed drink containing two or more ingredients. Originally a mixture of distilled spirits, sugar, water, and bitters, the word has gradually come to mean almost any mixed drink containing alcohol. A cocktail today usually contains one or more types of liquor and one or more mixers, such as bitters, fruit juice, fruit, soda, ice, sugar, honey, milk, cream, or herbs.

A typical cocktail, served in a cocktail glass

Mocktail Mocktails are mock cocktails, or those that do not contain any alcohol. Any drink recipe can be modified by simply leaving the alcohol out, however these recipes are some of the more common mocktails. These non-alcoholic drinks are great for serving the entire family and a nice alternative for party guests who prefer not to drink alcohol. Banana Smoothie bananas, vanilla yogurt, honey, vanilla extract, ice Coco Colada pineapple juice, coconut cream Orange Julius fresh or frozen orange juice, milk, vanilla extract, sugar, vanilla ice cream Strawberry Julius fresh or frozen strawberry juice, milk, vanilla extract, sugar, vanilla ice cream Mango Julius fresh or frozen mango juice, milk, vanilla extract, sugar, vanilla ice cream Peach Julius fresh or frozen peach juice, milk, vanilla extract, sugar, vanilla ice cream

Types of Glass

White Wine Glass

Red Wine Glass

Big Beer Glass

Wine Spirit Beer

There are different types of alcohol. Some are used in chemistry laboratories and industry, e.g.isopropyl and methyl alcohol. Isopropanol, or isopropyl alcohol is also used in industrial processes as well as in home cleaning products and skin lotions. It is also commonly known as "rubbing alcohol". Methanol,or methyl alcohol or wood alcohol has been used as anindustrial solvent and is also commonly available asmethylated spirit. It is found incleaning solvents, paintremovers, photocopier developer and anti-freezesolutions. As such, it is often available in large quantitiesinexpensively. It is similar to ethanol but the end product after it is digested by the body is formaldehyde, which ispoisonous. This is responsible for "alcohol poisoning".Methanol poisoning leading to blindness has been knownto occur on consuming even small amounts.Another type of alcohol is ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol. This has been consumed by human beings for itsintoxicating and mind-altering effects. The term 'alcohol',unless specified otherwise, refers to ethanol or ethyl alcohol. It is a thin, clear liquid with harsh burning taste and highvolatility. It is usually consumed in diluted concentrationsof absolute (i.e. 100 per cent) ethyl alcohol. Ethyl alcohol is also used as a reagent in some industrial applications. Forsuch use, ethyl alcohol is combined with small quantitiesof methanol, with the mixture being called "denaturedethanol" to prevent theft for human consumption. Brief description of alcoholic beverages Wines are made from a variety of fruits, such as grapes,peaches, plums or apricots. The most common wines areproduced from grapes. The soil in which the grapes aregrown and the weather conditions in the growing seasondetermine the quality and taste of the grapes which inturn affects the taste and quality of wines. When ripe, thegrapes are crushed and fermented in large vats to producewine. Beer is also made by the process of fermentation. A liquidmix, called wort, is prepared by combining yeast andmalted cereal, such as corn, rye, wheat or barely.Fermentation of this liquid mix produces alcohol and carbondioxide. The process of fermentation is stopped before it is completed to limit the alcohol content. Thealcohol so produced is called beer. It contains 4 to 8 percent of alcohol. 18 Whisky is made by distilling the fermented juice of cerealgrains such as corn, rye or barley. Scotch whisky was originallymade in Scotland. The word "Scotch" has becomealmost synonymous with whisky of good quality. Rum is a distilled beverage made from fermentedmolasses or sugarcane juice and is aged for at least threeyears. Caramel is sometimes used for colouring. Brandy is distilled from fermented fruit juices. Brandy isusually aged in oak casks. The colour of brandy comeseither from the casks or from caramel that is added. Gin is a distilled beverage. It is a combination of alcohol,water and various flavours. Gin does not improve withage, so it is not stored in wooden casks. Liqueurs are made by adding sugar and flavouring such asfruits, herbs or flowers to brandy or to a combination ofalcohol and water. Most liqueurs contain 20-65 per centalcohol. They are usually consumed in small quantitiesafter dinner.