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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

CHAPTER 1 : RATE OF REACTIONS


A Rate of Reaction

Learning Outcomes You should be able to : state what rate of reaction is identify observable changes to reactants or products for determining rate of reaction determine the average rate of reaction determine the rate of reaction at any given time from a graph solve numerical problems involving average rate of reaction. solve numerical problems involving rate of reaction at any given time.

Activity 1 :

What is rate of reaction?

Rate of reaction is the at which reactants are converted into .. in a chemical reaction. The rate of reaction is a measurement of the change in the quantity of . or . against time. Rate of reaction = Change in quantity of reactant /Product Time taken Activity 2 : Fast (F) or Slow (S) reactions? Write F for the fast reaction and S for the slow reaction. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Fading of dyes on a shirt under hot sun A piece of paper turning yellow Frying an egg The weathering of limestone by acid rain Burning of petrol in a car engine 6. 7. 8. 9. Striking a match Rusting of a water pipe Ripening of tomatoes Digesting food

10. Cooking a chicken using microwave oven

Activity 3 :

Observable changes for measuring the rate of reaction

The change in amount of reactant / product that can be measured by : .. in the mass of reactant .. in mass of product .. in volume of gas released .. of precipitate 1

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Change in pH, temperature or electrical conductivity

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

For each of the reactions below, write a chemical equation and state the observable change/changes can be used as selected quantities to measure the rate of reaction : Example 1 : The reaction between marble chip with hydrochloric acid to produce carbon dioxide gas and chloride salt. Chemical Equation : . Changes : (i) ...... (reactants) (ii) .(product) Example 2 : Reaction between sodium thiosulphate solution with sulphuric acid to produce yellow precipitate of sulphur, water , sulphur dioxide and sodium sulphate solution. Chemical equation : .. Change : (i) (product)

Example 3 : Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to produce water and oxygen gas. Chemical equation : .. Change : (i) (product)

Activity 4 : Determine the Rate of Reaction. 4A 1. Two ways to measure the rate of reaction. Average rate of reaction = Increase in the amount of product/decrease in the amount of reactant Time taken for the change to occur 2. a) Determination of average rate of reaction from the graph:
Volume of gas (cm3)

V4 V3 V2 V1

Overall Average rate of reaction Total Volume of gas collected = V4 Time taken for the reaction = 240 s Average rate of reaction = cm3s-1

60 120

240

2
Time (s)

180

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Average rate of reaction in the first two minutes = volume of gas collected in the first 120 seconds (cm3) time taken (s) = cm3s-1

Average rate of reaction in the third minute Volume of gas collected in the first 180 sec = V3 Volume of gas collected in the first 120 sec = V2 Volume of gas collected in the third minute = ____________ cm3

Time taken for the reaction = 180 120 = _______ s Average rate of reaction in the third minute = m3s-1

b) Instantaneous rate of reaction (Rate of reaction at any given time)

The rate of reaction at t sec


= gradient of the curve at t sec = a cm3s-1 b

c) Determining the rate of reaction at any given time


Volume of gas (cm3)

V2

Instantaneous rate of reaction / the rate of reaction at 120 sec = gradient of the curve at 120 sec = cm3s-1

V1

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 4B


30 120

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction


Time (s)

160

1. In the experiment to determine the rate of reaction between marble chips and hydrochloric acid, the volume of oxygen gas collected at intervals of 0.5 minutes is recorded in the table below : Time (min) Volume of oxygen gas(cm3) 0 0.5 0.00 27.00 1.0 46.00 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 59.00 70.00 79.00 86.00 92.00 95.00 95.00 5.0 95.00

Plot a graph of the volume of gas collected against time.


Volume of gas (cm3)

100

Graph of volume of oxygen gas liberated against time

90

80

70

60 50

40

30

20

10

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5 4

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

Time (min)

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

2. Based on the graph plotted, determine (i) the average rate of reaction in the first 3 minutes

(ii) the average rate of reaction in the third minutes

(iii) the overall average rate of reaction

(iv) the instantaneous rate of reaction at 1 minute

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Activity 5 1. The following figure shows the graph of carbon dioxide, CO2 gas produced when an excess of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 reacts with 40 cm3 of 0.1 moldm-3 hydrochloric acid, HCl.

(a) Calculate the (i) Average rate of reaction in the first 10 sec

(ii)

Average rate of reaction in the first 30 sec

(iii)

Overall average rate of reaction

(b) Based on the results in (a), how does the rate of reaction change with time. .. (c) Explain your answer in part (b) with respect to the concentration of hydrochloric acid. .. 2. The following table shows the volume of a gas collected from an experiment. Time (s) Volume of gas (cm3) 0 0.00 30 17.00 60 29.00 120 36.00 150 36.00

Calculate th average rate of reaction for (a) the first 60 seconds (b) the overall reaction

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

3. The decrease in mass of a reaction mixture is recorded in the following table. Time (min) Mass of reaction mixture (g) 0 2.90 1 1.90 2 1.25 3 0.75 4 0.40 5 0.10

(a) Draw a graph of mass of reaction mixture against time.

(b) Calculate the rate of reaction at the third minute.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE RATE OF REACTION Learning Outcomes


You should be able to : design experiments to investigate factors affecting the rate of reaction. give examples of reactions that are affected by size of reactant, concentration, temperature and catalyst. explain how each factor affects the rate of reaction. describe how factors affecting the rate of reaction are applied in daily life and in industrial processes. solve problems involving factors affecting the rate of reaction. apply knowledge on factors affecting the rate of reaction in everyday activities.

Activity 6 :

Factors affecting the rate of reaction.

State five factors that affect the rate of reaction : 7

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction (a) . (b) .. (c) . (d) .. (e) . Activity 7 : Speeding up the Rates of reaction.

The following changes may speed up the rate of a chemical reaction between an acid and magnesium. Put a tick in the box next to each one that will speed up the reaction (assume that there is initially an excess of acid) and state the specific factors that affect the reaction. (i) Effect of size of reactants Statement of factors that affect the rate of reaction Specific factor Aim : To investigate acid. of reactant in an experiment between marbles and 1. Heating the the effect of size hydrochloric acid on the rate of reaction. 2. Shaking the flask. 3. Using more-concentrated acid . Equation : .. 4. Using powdered metal, not metal ribbon . 5. Using twice the volume of acid 6. Using a suitable catalyst . 7. Increasing the pressure .. 8. Using larger flask

Activity 8 : Experiments to investigate the rate of reaction.

The curve of experiment 2 is . than experiment 1. The rate of reaction of experiment 2 is than experiment 1 8 The smaller the size of reactants, the . the total surface area, the . the rate of reaction.

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

(ii) Effect of concentration Aim : To investigate the effect of concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution on the rate of reaction. Equation : ..

Diagram of an experiment (Refer the apparatus set-up for the experiment in page 7 Practical Book)
Volume of gas (cm3)

Expt 2

Experiment 1 : CaCO3 chips Experiment 2 : CaCO3 powder


Expt 1

Time (s)

The higher the concentration of the sodium thiosulphate solution, the the time taken.

1/ t is The . the concentration of sodium thiosulphate solution, the ..the time taken. 9

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

(iii) Effect of catalyst Aim : To investigate the effect of the presence of catalyst (Manganese (IV) oxide) on the rate of decomposition of hydrogen peroxide.
Concentration (moldm-3 ) of Equation : .. sodium thiosulphate solution

Draw the apparatus set-up for the experiment.

Time (s)

Concentration (moldm-3 ) of sodium thiosulphate solution

1/ time (s-1 )

The curve of experiment 2 is . than experiment 1. The rate of reaction of experiment 2 is .than experiment 1 10 The presence of catalyst, will .................... the rate of reaction.

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

(iv) Effect of temperature Aim : To investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction between sodium tiosulphate solution and sulphuric acid. Equation : .

Diagram of an experiment

Volume of gas (cm3)

Expt 1 Expt 2 Time (s)

Experiment 1 : with catalyst Experiment 2 : without catalyst

The higher the temperature, the .... the time taken.

1/ time is .. The .. the temperature, the the rate of reaction.

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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Temperature (oC)

Activity 9 1.
Time (s) Temperature (oC)

Activity 9 1.

1 / time (s-1 )

Activity 9 1 Food store in a refrigerator lasts longer than food stored in a kitchen cabinet. Explain why. [4 marks] [ Temperature in refrigerator is . The lower temperature caused the bacteria to be less . A little is released by the bacteria. The rate of the food turns bad is . ] // [ Temperature in kitchen cabinet is . The higher temperature caused the bacteria to be reactive. A toxic is released by the bacteria. The rate of the 12 food turns bad is .]

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

2.

One kilogramme of meat, cut into big pieces, takes a longer time to cook compared to one kilogramme of meat cut into small piece. Explain the above statement based on the size of the particles. [2 marks]

Meat cut into small pieces, have .. size compare to the meat cut into big pieces. The the size, the bigger the . of the meat, hence the the rate of reaction. 3. State and briefly discuss two industrial processes that make use catalyst. [8 marks ]

(i) Haber process is a chemical process to produce from nitrogen and hydrogen gas. The equation of this process is ... The suitable condition of reaction are temperature : , pressure : .. and catalyst : .. (ii) process is a chemical process of synthetisising sulphuric acid. The equation of stage III for this process is.. The suitable condition of reaction are temperature : , pressure : .. and catalyst : .. C

COLLISION THEORY Learning Outcomes

You should be able to : relate reaction with energy produced by movement and effective collision of particles. describe activation energy. sketch and describe energy profile diagram relate the frequency of effective collisions with the rate of reaction relate the frequency of effective collisions with factors influencing the rate of reaction describe how a certain factor affects the collision of particles in a reaction

Activity 10

Understandings the Collision Theory

1. What is collision theory ? A theory used to explain chemical reactions in terms of (i) (ii) .. (iii) . 13

WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 2. The collision theory states that :

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

(i) A chemical reaction occurs when the reactant particles .. each other. (ii) Not all collision result in the formation of (iii) A collision is . only when the reactant particles have enough energy to overcome the of the reaction and when they collide in the proper orientation. 3. What is activation energy ? The energy which the colliding reactant particles must have that can result a chemical reaction. 4. Energy profile diagram

In the energy profile diagram, the activation energy is the difference in the energy between the energy of the . and the energy shown by the peak of the curve. Activity 11 On the diagram shown below, identify (i) the activation energy, Ea and (ii) the activation energy in the presence of catalyst, Ea

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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Activity 12

Collision theory and factors affecting the rate of reactions..

(i) Effect of total surface area When the size of a fixed mass of solid reactant is smaller, the _____________________ exposed to collision with the particles of the other reactants is _____________. Thus, the frequency of collision among the reacting particles at the surface of the solid reactant ____________ ___. This leads to an _________________ in the frequency of effective collision and hence, a _____________ rate of reactions. (ii) Effect of catalyst The presence of a catalyst in a chemical reaction allows the reaction to take place through an alternative path which requires a ______________ in activation energy which can be shown in the energy profile diagram. Thus, the colliding particles are able to achieve the activation energy. This means that the frequency of effective collision __________________and hence, a _______________ rate of reaction

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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 (iii) Effect of temperature An increase in temperature will increase the _________________ of the reacting particles. This leads to the following two changes. Firstly, the particles move _________________ and collide more often with one another. Thus, the frequency of collision is ________________ Secondly, more colliding particles have ____________ energy which are enough to overcome the activation energy. Both these factors contribute to the _________________ frequency of effective collision and hence, a _____________ rate of reaction (iv) Effect of concentration and pressure An increase in the concentration of the solution of a reactant or in the pressure of gaseous reactants will result in an __________________ in the rate of reaction. Why? When the concentration of the solution of a reactant increases, the _________________ of particles per unit volume of this reactant also _______________. With more particles per unit volume of the solution, the frequency of collisions per unit time between the reacting particles __________________. Thus, the frequency of effective collision ________________ and hence, the rate of reaction becomes ___________________.

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Use the words below to fill in the blank boxes in the diagram Bigger surface area more particles slow less particles fast bigger size

cold slow

hot smaller size

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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Activity 13 1. A group of pupils carried out three experiments to investigate the factors affecting the rate of a reaction. Table below shows information about the reactants and the temperature used in each experiment. Experiment A B C Reactants Excess magnesium ribbons and 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Excess magnesium ribbon and 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Excess magnesium powder and 25 cm3 of 0.5 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid Temperature / oC 25 35 35 [4 m]

Sketch a graph of these experiments on the same axes.

2.. A student carried out three experiments to investigate the effects of the factors influencing the rate of reaction. Table below shows the results of the experiments. Experiment Set-up of apparatus I II III

Excess hydrochlori c acid 0.2 g magnesium ribbon

Excess hydrochloric acid + copper(II) sulphate

Temperature / oC 30 40 40 Time taken for all the magnesium to 50 20 15 dissolve / s Sketch the graphs for the volume of hydrogen gas against time for Experiments I, II and III using the same axes.

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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 Activity 14

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

1 The table below shows the volume of hydrogen gas released when 50.00 cm3 of sulphuric acid solution reacts with 5.0 g of granulated zinc. Time/s Volume of hydrogen gas released/cm3 (a) 0 0.00 30 80.00 60 125.00 90 165.00 120 190.00 150 210.00 180 210.00 210 210.00

Write the chemical equation for the reaction between zinc and sulphuric acid. ... [2 marks]

(b)

Calculate the overall average rate of reaction of this experiment.

[1 mark] (c) (i) Draw the graph of the volume of hydrogen gas released against time. [4 marks] (ii) From the graph , calculate the rate of reaction at the 80th seconds.

[2 marks] (d) Instead of measuring the volume of hydrogen gas released, state another method that can be used to calculate the rate of reaction in this experiment. ... [ 1 mark]

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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

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WAJA F5 Chemistry 2010 2.

Chapter 1 : Rate of Reaction

Based on the table and graph above, compare the rate of reaction between : (i) Experiment I and Experiment II (ii) Experiment II and Experiment III Experiment I and Experiment II The rate of reaction of experiment II is compared to experiment I. The temperature of experiment II is . The higher the temperature, the the kinetic energy of the particles. The between hydrogen ions, H+ and calsium carbonate happened. The frequency of collision . The frequency of collision also increases. Hence, the rate of reaction is. Experiment II and Experiment III The rate of reaction of experiment III is compared to experiment II. The total surface area of the reactants in experiment III is .. The between hydrogen ions, H+ and calsium carbonate happened. The frequency of collision . The frequency of collision also increases. Hence, the rate of reaction

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