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ENGINEERING AND MAINTENANCE

MISS JANET OWUSU-ANSAH

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Engineering and maintenance Introduction
Engineering is basically the practical application of scientific knowledge in the design, construction and control of machines, public services such as roads, bridges, etc, electrical apparatus and appliance, chemicals, etc. Examples of engineering programmes/courses studied in the tertiary institutions elsewhere include electrical engineering, civil engineering, chemical engineering, computer engineering, etc. Work, science or profession of an engineerAn Engineer, is person who design, construct/ builds and maintains engines, machines, bridges, railways, etc, because he/she is skilled in that respect/direction. Engineering is very relevant in the environment in which we find ourselves because it is the means by which is we can obtain and control everything including equipment or machines around us. That is also enhance our lives in many ways Maintenance: To maintain means to cause to continue or keep in existence at the same level, or stand and by regular checks on the performance of a facility. The objective of forming and operating an industrial company is to make profit and hence no business can continue to function unless a profit is made. These facts although obvious, are frequently overlooked by many persons who are not ultimately concerned with company management. All activities within a company should be so organized and co-ordinate that their overall effect and ultimate aim is to increase the profitability of the business. The introduction of any new activity to the modification of an existing one should be critically examined to ensure that it assists the company to achieve us max objective. Industries function by producing goods and services which can be sold for a profit to enable the company to continue to operate. The equipment being used for production must operate efficiently and accurately at the required level of production and hence the need for regular maintenance.

Definition of some Terminologies A current is the flow of electric charge in a circuit. Its SI unit is the ampere (A) A source can also be called the voltage. Example includes the socket at home and offices. A load accepts energy from a system. Example includes blender pressing iron, mobile phones etc

Basic Theory of Electricity a. Electricity is a convenient form of energy that can produce heat, light, b. It can be generated, transmitted, and controlled. a. Electricity is present in all matter. I) All matter is made of combinations of elements called molecules, which are in turn made up of even smaller units called atoms. 2) An atom is the smallest amount of an element that retains all the properties of' the clement. 3) An atom may be broken down into smaller pieces whose relationships have been concealed or as a miniature solar system. a) The center of the atom consists of protons, which carry a positive electrical charge, and neutrons, which carry no charge. b) Electrons, which carry a negative electrical charge, orbit around the center of the atom. c) Two kinds of electrons exist: - Planetary electrons cannot be readily moved from their orbits. - Free or valance electrons are loosely held in the atom's outer orbit and may drift into orbits of nearby atoms. d) When an atom has an equal number of protons and electrons, it is said to be electrically neutral. 1. How is electric current produced? a. An atom becomes electrically charged when it has fewer electrons than protons than protons. b. The random wandering of valence electron from one atom to another does not produce permanent changes. c. The overall material will remain the same if outside influence does not disturb the balance.

but when they are forced to move in the same. c. Compared to a water system. The of electricity is measured by the number of electrons that pa::. d. their collective energy is large and can be used for work. are forced to move in the same direction along the wire. e. disturbs the balance. charge up and then had been involving in different directions. I) when voltage is applied across the ends of a conductor. e. This difference in electron energy levels in a circuit can be compared to the potential energy of water stored in a high water tower and the kinetic energy of water flowing through the pipe. b. When the free electrons move randomly.s a point i:l a wire in one second. Electromotive Force (voltage) a. Measuring Electric Current I.d. an ampere would be similar to a measure of water flow through a pipe. as the motion of the whip is transmitted one to the other. An ampere is a measure of electron flow. This nonrandom flow of electrons is called If' electric current. b. B. f. the electrons. mile per second. c. It represents a of 1 coulomb of electricity (6 billion billion electrons) past a point e in one second. the energy is small. the loosely-held outer electrons will tend to move in one direction. 2) The individual electrons all along the path forced to leave their atom and travel a short distance to another lt need~ an electron. 3) This motion of electrons is transmitted along the path from atom to atom.moving) force or voltage is electrical potential which provides energy for the movement of electron in a circuit. This electrical potential results from a difference in electron energies at two points in a circuit. . If an outside force. such as a battery voltage. An electric current is a flow of electrons a conductor. such as gallon per minute. The speed of this flow is nearly equal to t of light. Electromotive (electron . Electron Flow (Amperage) a.

Materials vary in their number of valence electrons and in the ease with which electrons will be transferred between atoms. Gold and certain Oils. copper. Compared to system. Resistance is the ability of a material to resist electron flow. examples of insulators include.d. The mathematical relation between voltage V. Insulators are materials which to do not allow current to flow through. The unit for measuring electrical energy the watt-hour (more commonly spelled as kilowatt hours with is 1000 watt hours). Ceramic. c. a volt would be similar to a measure of water pressure in a pipe such as pounds per square inch. b. Varnish. Examples of conductors includes. Energy a. 3. e. 4.. Conductors and insulators Conductors are materials which permit current to flow through. and electrical energy E. is: E = Power (watts) *Time T (hours) . Resistance to Current Flow (Resistance) a. An insulator provides great resistance to electron flow. b. Plastic. Glass. platinum. it is usually designated by the letter kWh. Electrical energy is the amount of work that can be by voltage and current over a specific period of time. Air. A conductor is a material through which electrons can flow freely. etc. Paper. Mica. Voltage is measured in units called volts (a difference variable) and is abbreviated with the letter symbols E or V. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. c. Gold. d. aluminum. ampere A. silver. Rubber. Resistance is measured in units called ohms. and the symbol for ohms is the Greek letter Ω (omega). d. The symbol for resistance is R. resistance R. bronze. c. c.

Knowing the rating in watts and the voltage to be used (normally 120 or 240).5. Electrical power is the amount of work that can be done by voltage and current. e. P = power (watts) I = current (amperes) V = electrical potential (volts) Example of Usage of electricity Most household/farm shop appliances and equipment are rated in watts (see the nameplate or manufacturer's specifications).g. resistance and amperes IS: P=I*V where. Power a. The mathematical relation between power and voltage. How much current will the heater drew? Solution: P=I*V Or. b. You have purchased a 120 volt plug-in electric space heater for use in your shop. The unit for measuring electrical power is the watt. the flow of the current in the circuit for the appliance or equipment can be calculated. d. it is usually designated by the letter W. c. A watt of power is equal to one volt pushing one ampere of current through a conductor with one ohm of resistance. I = P divided by V I=P/V . It is rated at 400 watts.

the current amperage doubles. a. 1= 400 divided by 120 = 3. V=I*R d.where. The mathematical relation between power and voltage. I=400/120. E equals potential energy in volts. b. This relationship is expressed in ohm's law as E = IR. Electrons flow constantly in one direction. 3.33 amperes f. b. . R equals resistance in ohms. resistance and amperes can be rewritten as: 1) P = I*V and. If the resistance remains constant. the current amperage doubles. If the resistance to electron flow through an electrical device is cut in half. The physicist. but the voltage is doubled. P = 400 watts V = 120 volts Therefore. Electrons flow first in one direction and then in the reverse direction at a certain rate of reversal (cycles per second). Types of Electricity 1) Direct Current (DC) a. c. Ohm's Law 1. b. I equals current in amperes. George Simon ohm. discovered that the flow of electrical current through a conductor is directly proportional to the electromotive force that produces it and inversely proportional to the resistance in the conductor a. This is the type of electricity produced by all batteries 2) Alternating current (AC) a.

4) Three .phase current a.In the U. e. Single phase current can be provided by two wires. AC current has many advantages over DC. for example.. 5. .phase current 4) Heat 5) Light E. c. Sources of Electricity I) Friction 2) Single-phase current 3) Three . 3) Single-phase current a. copper and zinc in sulfuric acid. It requires at least three wires.g. b. a) Primary Cells I) The combination of certain metals in an electrolyte solution will produce electricity.S. Photovoltaic 6) Pressure 7) Chemical Action e. b. i. 50 cycles per second (50 Hertz) is the standard. 60 cycles per second (60 Hertz) is the standard. This type of current is designed especially for large electrical loads. This is the typical current supplied to households and businesses where power requirements are not very high.g. Three phase current is actually three single ..phase currents combined so that peak voltages are equally spaced. -In Ghana. transformers to increase or decrease voltage can be used only with AC current. b.

and industries. (b) Incandescent Electric lamps In the incandescent lamp. 2) Examples of storage batteries are the lead-sulfuric acid batteries used in automobiles. farm. (a) Electric fires. Application of the heating effect of an electric current When an electric current passes thru a resistor. b) Storage batteries. heat is generated and the temperature of the resistor is raised. and the nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries used in flashlights. 2) Movement of the wire can be provided by: b) Falling water turning a turbines shaft c) Atomic power producing steam which turns a turbine shaft d) An internal combustion engine turning a shaft. since this material has a higher resistivity and is capable of withstanding a high temperature without becoming oxidized when exposed to the air. carbon and zinc electrodes) and mercury batteries. tractors. e) This is the most common method of producing electrical energy in large quantities to serve the home. radios. Fuel Cells 1) A container in which fuels react in the presences of an electrolyte and electrons are made available at the negative electrode terminal. 1) The magnetic field can be provided by a stationary magnet. the filament must be capable of operating for long periods at a higher temperature without appreciable deterioration and for this duty there are only two materials that have proved satisfactory. 2) Oxygen and hydrogen are used as fuels in space vehicles to produce electricity. The following applications are a few examples of the many in which this effect is utilized. etc. Owning to its relatively low efficiency. etc. A flow of electrons is produced in a coil of wire which is moving within a magnetic field. 1) These batteries are similar to primary cells except that the process can be reversed and the battery can be recharged.2) Examples of batteries that produce electricity from primary cells are dry cell (paste-like electrolyte. carbon and tungsten. c. Magnetic Action a. namely. . The heating element is usually an alloy of nickel and chromium. 4. cookers etc. the carbon filament lamp however is obsolete. 3) The zinc is used up in the process and when this happens the batteries go dead.

such as porcelain. The changes in resistivity of semiconductors and insulators with temp are much greater than the change for conductors. for some alloys the resistivity increase. Resistivity of materials Materials fall into three categories when taking consideration. the atoms have electrons which are so easily detached that we can consider there to be a cloud of free electrons in a good conductor.The modern tungsten-filament lamp is gas-filled. (d) Temperature rise permissible in electrical machine. The fusing current depends upon a large number of factors. If the gas were removed from the bulb. with an increase in temperature. A fuse is a wire or strip of metal inserted in a circuit for the purpose of interrupting or opening that circuit when the current exceeds a certain prearranged value. thereby increasing its. Large fuses are often covered with asbestos sleeves to prevent any metal vapor being deposited on the porcelain when the fuse 'below'. thereby raising the temperature of the windings. The category with resistivity of the 0 'del' of 10. loss of heat from the filament by convention would be prevented: but the. resistance and reducing the temperature and the luminous intensity of the lamp. When a generator is supplying electrical power or an electric motor is supplying mechanical power lost in the machine is said to be loaded. and the power lost in the machine is converted into heat. The wire is usually made of a metal such as copper. of the order of I to 103 mm is known as semiconductors. tin. for others it decreases. Metals have resistivity that increase when the temperature increase. For semiconductors and insulators the resistivity decreases with an increase in temp. The vaporization of the filament reduces the cross-sectional area of the filament. The fuse wire should be mounted on a fire proof holder. The electrical properties of materials can be expressed in terms of the bonding between electrons and atoms in a sold. This effect is very similar to the variation of the boiling point of water with pressure. When a potential difference is applied to a piece of conductor these electron are able to move there the material and so give a current. since such a deposit may be sufficient to provide a conducting path between the fuse terminals. In a conductor. the ventilation of the fuse holder and duration of the current. vacuum was the disadvantage that the filament vaporizes at a lower temperature than it does when gas is present. such as the material the diameter and length of the wire. .8 is known as conductors. When the temp is increased the movement of there free electrons is more impeded by oscillations of the atoms and so they are not able to move so fast thru the material and hence the current is reduced. lead or an alloy which melts comparatively easily. the category with resistivity falling intermediate between these two groups. The maximum temperature that is permissible depends upon the nature of the insulating materials employed. On average there is about one free electron for each atom in the material.

. Preventive maintenance: Maintenance carried out regularly a. planted carefully in conjunction with production requircll1ents to prevent the failure of equipment during production. processes. generally about one per million atoms because of this they have resistivity intermediate between those of insulators a conductor. No business can continue to function unless a profit is made. In the case of an insulator there are virtually no free electrons available.Thus an increase in temperature leads to an increase in resistivity. To ensure this. hence decrease in resistivity. thus making increased machine utilization an economic necessity. new techniques. and hence the need for maintenance. The introduction of any new activity to the modification of an existing one should be critically examined to ensure that it assists the company to achieve its objectives. The main objective of forming and operating and industry or a company is to maximize profit. systems and methods are being applied. There must be no unscheduled stoppage. hence a very high resistivity increasing the temperature can however such a few more electrons free from the atoms and so increase the current. All activities within a company should be so organized and coordinated in such a way that their overall effect and ultimate aim is to increase the profitability of the business. Principles of maintenance I. the plant or equipment being used must operate efficiently and accurately at the required level of production. at room temp. It must increase the reliability of the asset or the operating system and to quality standards. Maintenance in industry Maintenance may be defined as any activity designed to keep or restore equipment. machinery or any other assets in a good working or useable condition before or after a failure. Semi conductors hence. Production levels are being raised while rigid schedules must be adhered to continual efforts are made to reduce or stabilize manufacturing costs in spite of rising material and labor costs. some few electrons. In our world today. the intense competitions together with a rapidly advancing technology have wrought many changes in the pattern and outlook of industry. Because of this there can be little current. Replacement instead of maintenance: This includes operating the equipment until it breaks down completely then scrapping it off to buy a new one. 2. New products are continually being developed. all being lightly bound to the atoms.

Types of planned Maintenance Planned maintenance involves the following: • Preventive Maintenance. how much and where to be used. control and records to approved engineering standards. filters. 4. . Planned maintenance: This form of maintenance includes work organized and carried out with a forethought control and records.e. Adjustment: Involve a defined tightening or clamping of component to a specific tolerance.eg iron fillings and oil leakages. sight. one can operate the equipment for a period then sell it off before it either breaks down or requires expensive overhaul. Replacement: Involves units which wear out or which reliability decreases with age. touch/feel. etc. seals. and perhaps smell. sound. Various works carried out on a facility at regular intervals with the aim of preventing or at least minimizing the risk of failure or to keep such failure and or breakdowns within predetermined economic limits.3.g. Break down Maintenance: Work which is carried out and provision has been made in the form of spare materials. Careful preventive maintenance follow-up over a sufficient period will reduce the causes of rush job. Thus. dust. Classification of maintenance Planned and Unplanned Planned maintenance is work organized and carried out with forethought. E. operate the equipment until it breaks down then repair it. Cleaning: Involves the removal of contaminants. contact brushes. taste. • Predictive/Condition based maintenance. caused by the equipment during operation. that is to say. • Corrective maintenance. Elements of preventive maintenance Lubrication: Indicate the type of Lubricant. Inspection: Utilizes only the five human senses. belts. i. labor and equipment.

replace only when performance fails. less vibrations. usually while it is in operation. less energy • Extends Bearing Service life . Breakdown Maintenance . thus enhancing morale of employees • Reliability of facility is assured • Safe and Continuous operation • Lower Energy Consumption . Predictive or Condition Based Maintenance This refers to the act of maintaining a facility depending on its condition using diagnostic instruments and analytical methods. The equipment in use may be for temperature. vibration and oil (Fluid) conditions.reduced vibration & lubrication failures Unplanned Emergency Maintenance It is referred to as emergency maintenance and it is carried out on a facility after failure and for which no advance provision has been made by way of materials (spares). Advantages of the condition based maintenance •Minimizes unnecessary machine shutdown & opening up.e repair only when performance fails. thereby reducing lost production Reducing the cost of maintenance efforts. • Planned breakdown – i.i. This type maintenance IS however highly undesirable. This is designed to return the component to its normal operating condition. Condition Monitoring is the method of establishing the condition of the respective plant and equipment. lab and tools. • Planned replacements . Monitoring can be carried out continuously or at periodic intervals on the plant or equipment being monitored.Corrective maintenance Work carried out after failure but for which advance preparation or provision has been made.e.

Installation of new equipment and services. Benefits of planned Maintenance • Fewer equipment failures • Early detection of impeding problem resulting in corrective action before problems occurs. equipment and building.1) Installation of new equipment (b)Alteration or modification of equipment and bui1jings. employers and other occupants. (a) Power and its generation (b) Power supplies and ventilation systems . 3. (a) Maintenance of existing plant. • Efficient manpower utilization and reduction of idle time • Spare parts inventory control • Effective replacement policy • Greater productivity. defined as work undertaken in order to keep or restore a facility to an acceptable standard. (b) Rebuilding or reconditioning old instrument and equipment 2. • Sound standards of safe working and environmental conditions for employ ces. Pure maintenance. (c) Alteration or modification of utilities and special services.A machine is said to 'breakdown' when it is out of order or operation. (. 1. Its maintenance is considered as an unplanned emergency maintenance. Operation and supervision of particular utilities and special services.

In each case. the main reason for its existence is: -To ensure the availability and efficiency of existing instruments. equipment is available for use when required. instrument must operate in an efficient manner. heating. electricity generating and distribution boards. windows (b) Waste disposal. (d) The down time for maintenai1ce must not interfere with the work of those who make use of the instruments. elevators (lifts) etc. (e) The down time which may be caused be breakdown should a minimum. (c) Five fighting services (d) Site security (laboratory) Whatever duties are assigned to the maintenance department. hot and could water supply. Breakdown can jeopardize delivery dates and then effect on sales and future orders can be forecast. . the cost can be estimated and used by the management to arrive at the effective decision. (b) The instrument. (a) The instrument.roads. (a) Laboratory and site cleaning . equipment must not breakdown during use (c) The equipment. Maintenance in public Service From our earlier discussion. f1oors. Miscellaneous duties delegated to the maintenance department because often it is the only department with the ability to be able to handle or. If this loss production is the result of breakdowns due to insufficient maintenance then the economics of stand-by equipment replacement units or extra maintenance can be calculated and the profit abilities compared. This method can also be applied partly by certain public utilities which are required to pay their way-gas boards water companies public transport.4. ventilation. In the case of commercial offices and hotels the customer is paying for a service which includes engineering functions electrical distribution. equipment and building in a manner required by the users. we considered maintenance in industrial manufacturing concerns in which an outage or loss in production can be measured directly in terms of loss of profit.

* The public services do not exist to make profit. size and type of plant type of production and skilled labor available to name but a few of the determinant factors. public opinions. where are sectors in which the economics and efficiencies of the various factors can be measured and compared. the arms and object of the services and the boundaries within which it must operate. Outside specialized contractors are called in for any faults. There are also many other situations m which failure of engineering and maintenance services cannot be assessed solely in financial terms. The duties of the maintenance department vary from company to company. Because of these diverse and often conflicting conditions. The value placed upon any particular service and the overall expenditure on it varies. their prime function is to provide services for the community. being affected by national and local politics. * Each situation must be judged upon the conditions prevailing.by equipment ready to deal with flooding or other emergencies cannot be overemphasized. The successful functioning of this stand . Any failure could contribute to the spread of pests and disease within the community. When a hotel's building. it is impossible standard by which the efficiency economics of any service can be estimated. but it would cause inconvenience which in the long term can affect productivity. The maintenance department of a small factory may consist or only one or two person(s) who will tackle all types of maintenance to limited extent and of and elementary nature. ROLE OF THE ENGINEERING AND MAINTANANCE DEPARTMENT IN HCIM. equipment. The effective disposal of refuse and sewage together with an efficient drainage system are vital to public Health. as in hospitals measures must be taken to ensure that the equipment is maintained to minimize the risk of breakdown and death.A breakdown of any of these services may not directly. The failure of engineering services would not be disastrous. These priorities frequently change. or result in a loss of profit. or immediately cause a financial loss but would eventually reflect back on the reputation of the establishment which in turn could affect business. * Within any service. In such cases. and . and often from factory to factory within the same company. according to the priorities or the community. In such case. available resources and public or governmental pressures. Hospitals function continuously a breakdown or outage of certain equipment could prove fatal. the policy of the company. A comprehensive maintenance system is reliable at all times. The scope and depth to which it executes it duties depend 01. it is necessary to install stand by equipment to carry out repairs and maintenance on the run. these measurable factors should be isolated and standards set to enable the optimum use or the existing equipment and resources to be made.

silver. The fuse was originally invented by Edison in your 1880 and IS being considered as the weakest link in the electrical circuit. The duty of the fuse element (wire) is to carry the normal working current safely without heating. Fusing element: A fuse is essentially a small piece of metal connected in between to terminals mounted on insulated base forms a series part of the circuit. When quests experience poor facilities such as potholes in parking areas. poor heating/cooling capacities. an effective l&M department achieves other important goals including: • Protecting and enhancing the financial value of the building and grounds for the hotel's owners. In addition to quest satisfaction. It is the simplest protect device and is used as circuit interrupting device short circuit condition. It prevents over heating of the electrical appliances. This is the primary job of the engineering and maintenance (E&M) department. and periodically renovating and modernizing it (design and renovation).grounds are properly maintained. or insufficient hot water. antimony. • Increasing the pride and morale of the hotels staff • Ensuring the safety of those working in and visiting the hotel. but when the normal working current is exceeded it should rapidly heat up to the vetting point. . burned-out light bulbs. etc Arcing time: This is the time accounted for the instant of arc initiated (end of pre-arcing time) to the instant of arc being extinguished or the arc current becomes zero. Zinc. quests will be more likely to enjoy a positive experience during their stay and hotel's ability to increase revenue is enhanced. copper aluminum. and the hotel's sales potential is diminished. leaking faucets. Maintenance of fuses A fuse is a wire or strip of metal inserted in a circuit for the purpose in interrupting or opening that circuit when the current exceeds a certain prearranged values. Its performance is simple and its design does not need special experience. quest dissatisfaction increases. The materials which can be used as fuse wire are tin. using outside consultants and/or contractors of necessary. These goals will be achieved if E&M department. however. • Supporting the efforts of the entire hotel department through the timely attention to their E&M needs. meets its responsibilities for designing and constructing the building (engineering). maintaining the building (maintenance). lead.

Moreover the voltage across each lamp will be the declared by the number of voltage across each lamp = 230v/ = 38. If the consumer connects all his lamps say six lamps in series and one of the lamps fuses.5V the consumer always connects all the lamps.v 6lamps. These feeders terminate into distributors and the consumers are connected by means of service mains to distributors.blast fuses. b) Oil . heaters and other appliances in parallel with supply mains. This indicates that the consumer's supply from the mains is always received on to a distribution panel (board) from which the rest of the loads receive power supply. if the declared voltage is 230 V. iv) Open fuses: Distribution panels (Distribution Boards) Electrical energy is generated at the generating stations by dynamos and is distributed at appropriate voltage which constant.expulsion fuses c) Oil .break circuit breaker fuses. and then no lamp is replaced because the whole circuit has been shorted or short circuited. Also if one of the lamps develops short circuit then the potential across all the lamps will be more than the desired value which cause excessive current to flow in the filament of other lamps thus fusing one or even all of them. fans. The transmission lines which transmit the electrical energy from the generation station to different distribution substations are called feeders. the voltage at the consumer's terminals must not vary beyond + 5 percent (%) of the declared voltage. . heaters etc always connected in parallels.Fuses iii) Liquid Fuses: a) Oil . NB: Therefore all electrical appliances like lamps. the voltage at the consumer's premises must not be more than 241. By convention or rule. The feeders that are found underground way are called cables. This is too low for lamps.Types of (uses The types of fuses include: i) Expulsion-fuses ii) Cartridge .5V and not less than 218. That is to say.

In the year 1900. 4) I t should not operate when an over current flow under healthy conditions. For low voltage circuits. it was riot possible to do day-time work after sunset. the electric filament lamps came in to the field as a source of lights and they proved to be the best competitor to gas as sources of light.3kv up wards) isolation is successively achieved by circuit breakers. -In the beginning of the nineteenth century. it should isolate only the fault circuit without affecting the healthy ones. convenience steady light output and reliability. keeping the delay minimum. Requirements of a circuit Breaker The power dealt by the circuit breakers is quite link between the consumers and suppliers.Switch off all appliances when they are not in use. 2) After occurrence or fault the circuit breaker must isolate the faulty circuit as quickly as possible. Due to proper sources of good illumination much advancement has been made in the sphere of the industrialization of countries as it has reduced the difference between day and might. Energy conservation opportunities . The difference between the fuse and the circuit breaker is that under faulty condition the fuse melts and a new one is to be replaced while the circuit breaker can closed or break the circuit without any replacement.Circuit breaker Is an interrupting device placed in a circuit to isolate fault circuit time of short circuit. The electric lamps are preferred to other sources of illumination for reasons of cleanliness. Every . I) It must safely interrupt the normal working current as well as the short circuit current. 3) It must have a high sense of discrimination if in systems where alternate arrangements have been made for continuity of supply.g. i. 3. fuses may be used to isolate the faulty circuit but for higher voltage (e.e. due to lack of adequate light. The following are the necessary requirement for a circuit breaker.

work which can be done in day-light can equally be done during might time with same efficiency too bright lights may not be confused as good illumination because it may cause viewing a bit painful.e. the angle of incidence in equal to the angle of reflection. brightness is reduced and there will be now image of the source. . The body which is at a higher temperature than the surrounding medium radiated energy into the medium. yellow. Reflecting and diffusing surfaces: In case of reflecting surface. If light fall on a rough and course surfaces as diffusing glass. Reflectors and diffusers are used to reflect the light to a direction where it is required and to avoid brightness or direct glare respectively. The lighting in such cases is diffused in almost all direction. Of the total energy received on earth only 40 percent is in the form of light. the lighting schemes can be divided into the following types. At low temperatures the radiation is only in the form of heat waves. red. then the inherent quantity of the light i. The main source of lig~1t is the sun which gives out energy in the form of heat and light at a very high rate (of order of fifty thousand billion horse power). Sometimes there will be a sharp image of the light sources and such reflection is called specula reflection. In order words. The various types of reflections in use include the following. The energy is released only when it strikes a solid object. An example of it is a room heater. in which case the heat is felt at a distance from the radiator. Depending upon the requirement. but only a fraction of it reaches the earth (about 250 billion hp). The energy radiated in such as fashion is called radiant energy. blue. plastic frosted glass etc. and green. the light falling on at is reflected back with least absorption. but it becomes red hot as it emits light waves in addition to heat waves. Various colors are obtained when monochromatic wave of different wave length is radiated and these include violet. Nature of light Light is a form of energy which is radiated by bodies whose temperatures are increased. Light can be obtained from the incandescent bodies. The energy reaches earth in a very particular way. They energy transmitted by the sun in received without heating or lighting the space in between and without any obvious transmitting agency such as copper conductors in case of electrical energy. The best illumination is that which produces no strain on the eyes.

The light in this case does not fall on the object directly. The shades used are such a type that about 60% of' the light is directed downwards and 40% is projected upwards. No light is directly thrown downwards. in this scheme.1) Direct lighting: As significant from the name. incandescent lamp. 3. The lightings of both schemes must be cleared regularly so as to have good illumination. 4) Semi-indirect lighting system: In this system the light received by any object is due to diffused reflection and is directly thrown. The lamps are placed in opaque type shade and the maximum light is thrown towards the ceiling from where it reaches the object by diffusion or reflection. If the fittings are not properly clean the illumination will reduce tremendously. Light: It may be defined as that radiant energy in form of waves which produces a sensation of vision upon the human eye. At least 80% of the total light in directed upwards. about 60% of the light is directed downward. However with this type of lighting is it found that the requirement of the light is usually more than that of direct lighting? The additional requirement of light falls in the range of 50% to 100%. the light falls directly on the object to be illuminated medium. 3) Semi-direct system: This system is efficient and as well as reduces the chances of glare to the eye to a considerable extent. . 2) Indirect lighting: It is a system which is widely employed for illuminating drawing offices. workshops and other places where shadows are to be eliminated. Some Terminologies in Lighting I. Luminous Intensity: The luminous intensity of an object in the flux emitted by the source per unit solid angle.g. This system is fact is an ideal system. 2. The most important characteristics of such a system provide almost distribution of the light which increases the efficiency of the system. This scheme is usually employed in industries. At low temperatures the radiation is only in the form of heat waves. 4. Lumen: It is the unit of flux per unit angle from a source of candle power. residential lighting and commercial lighting working strictly' under a direct lighting system will cause strain on the eyes. Luminous flux: it is defined as the energy in the form of light waves radiated per second from a luminous body e. 5) General diffusing system: In this case the shades employed will produce equal distribution upwards and downwards. but it becomes red hot as it emits light waves in addition to heat waves.

It should be noticed that. Utilization factor: The total light flux radiated out by the source is not utilized on the working planes. Similarly after some time the walls and surrounding at which lamps are fitted are covered with dirt and dust. etc. so the do not reflect the same amount of light as compared with the initial conditions. for advertisement and for illuminating sports stadium. The fittings employed must be clean and in any case they should not produce any glare. Space light ratio: It is defined as the ratio of horizontal distance between lamps and the mounting height of the lamps. it is economical to have white walls as the reflection from white color is more when compared to any other color. railway yard. there in certain amount of wastage due to over . There is a chance that the glare might exist due to reflection of light from any object other than reflectors. Waste light factor: A surface when illuminated by number of lamps. The light scheme should be such that in addition to providing requisite. improve the quantity of the product and reduce the chances of accident. Depreciation factor: When the lamps are covered with dust. Design of lighting scheme: The lighting arrangement should be such as to provide sufficient illumination. or discharge lamps are employed for the purpose. Flood Lighting It is employed for flooding any open large surface with light. The depreciation factor takes into account all such losses of flux. ii. every care should be taken to eliminate such chance. The luminous flux received per unit. Brightness: It is defined as the flux emitted per unit area or the luminous intensity per unity projected area of the sources in a direction perpendicular to the surface. number of lumens. High filament lamps.lapping of light ways. dirt and smoke they do not radiate out same amount of flux as when they do at the time of filling.5. If an adequate production. It is normally used to enhance the beauty of an old monument. uniform distribution of light and avoid glare and shadow: for designing a lighting scheme the following factors should be taken into consideration: i. iv. Luminance or illumination or Degree or Illumination: When the light falls on surface it is illumination. Factory Lighting The factory lighting should be such as to provide sufficient light without glare to the workmen. The lamps should be mounted at sufficient height to provide even luminous intensity. Brightness is a term which may be applied either for emission of light directly from the source covering a large area such as an incandescent lamp in a globe or for an installation used for production of a certain illumination on the object to be seen in which case actually the light reflected by the object reaches our eyes such as the light from a cinema screen. iii. 6. there should be an equal distribution. .

Reading of the energy meter A practical way of reading the electrical. Some more definitions Maintenance: Work undertaken in order to keep or restore every facility i. and heat energy will be radiated at low temperature. Emergency maintenance: .e. materials labor and equipment. i. Check: . Incandescent lamp When an electric current is passed through a fine metallic wire. making sure that during calibration the demand device is operated so that the additional load imposes by it is taken into account. the following types of electric lamps are normally employed. every part of a site. Incandescent lamp ii.To compare with an acceptable standard by suitable or defined means. in the form of spares. fitted with reflectors. the higher the temperature of the wire. The light emitted by the lamp is projected in a narrow bean. Breakdown maintenance:-Work which is carried out after a failure. whilst the faultily is non-operational.The projectors used for flood light are water tight.Work necessitated by unforeseen breakdown or damage Inspection: The process of ensuring by assessment that a facility reaches the necessary standard of quality or performance and that the level is maintained. the engineering and maintenance department must be informed immediately. Electric discharge lamp. the higher the amount of light energy radiated. Arc lamp iii. it raises temperature of the wire.Period during which a facility is not ready for use. utility meters is demonstrated. Downtime: . At high temperatures heat as well as light energy will be radiated. Utility or Demand meter (indicating Demand meter) Maintenance and serving of the demand part of the meter is purely mechanical and should only be attempted after familiarization with the manufacture's instruction. . Electric lamps: For illumination. but for which advance provision has been made. building and equipment and contents to an acceptable standard. The watt-hour element is identical to meters without the demand feature and is tested and serviced in the same manner. In case of any suspicion of faulty reading or operation.

work injury statistics are compiled from reports made to HSE and local authorities under the Reporting of Injuries. 2 in Scotland. hair dryers. The estimated number of accidental injuries caused by electricity in the home was as follows Home accidents involving electric current 2002 Age in years Injuries Reported * National estimate 0-4 14 287 5-14 18 369 15-64 99 2030 65-74 3 62 75+ 1 21 UNKNO WN 1 21 Total 136 2. all parts of a site. extension leads and cables.Inventory: A list of all facilities. there were a total of 27 deaths involving electric current in the UK. i. building and contents.April 2003 (provisional) were: Reported workplace injuries involving electricity during the period April 2002. a major injury or one which results in more than three days away from normal duties must be reported under the regulations. Accidents involving electricity During 2002.e. Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 95) which came into force on April 1st 1996. Of these. washing machines and dishwashers. and 1 in Northern Ireland. 24 occurred in England and Wales. Included under the heading of reportable major injuries are those resulting from electric shock or electrical burn leading to unconsciousness or requiring resuscitation or admittance to hospital for more than 24 hours. electric sockets and plugs. strimmers and lawnmowers. Work Injuries In Great Britain. Reported workplace injuries involving electricity during the period April 2002. for purposes of identification.788 Articles reported in accidents involving electric shock include light fittings.April 2003 (provisional) were: Contact with electricity or electrical discharge Fatal Major Injury Over 3 day . Any accidental injury which involves a fatality. toasters.

Electrical FAQs                Which is safer. don’t they? How do I know if my electrical equipment is safe? How do I know if my electrical installation is safe? How do I know if someone is competent to do electrical work? Can I do my own electrical work? When should I use a residual current device (RCD)? How often should I test my electrical equipment? How often should I get my electrical installation tested? Who should I talk to about electrical safety? When should I report an accident to HSE? What should I do if I think someone is working unsafely? What should I do to avoid danger from underground cables or wires? How do I work safely near overhead lines? What should I do if I touch an overhead power line? . Dangerous occurrences involving electricity in 2002/2003 were: • Plant or equipment either comes into contact with overhead electric line in which voltage exceeds 200 volts or causes an electrical discharge .Employees Self employed 12 3 124 10 441 8 Dangerous occurrences If something happens which does not result in a reportable injury.7 million turn up at accident and emergency departments seeking treatment. but which clearly could have done. because the accidents happen behind closed doors in isolated incidents they rarely attract public and media attention.287 Home Safety Every year in the UK almost 4. There is the need of campaign for change and provide a large range of resources to inform. educate and help to prevent accidents in the home and garden. Alternating Current (AC). then it may be classified as a dangerous occurrence which must also be reported. or Direct Current (DC)? Everyone gets a ‘belt’ from electricity every now and then.000 people die in accidents in the home and 2.188 • Electrical short circuit which results in stoppage of the plant for more than 24 hours . But.

A reputable servicing company that deals with the type of equipment should also be competent to check its safety. Everyone gets a ‘belt’ from electricity every now and then. then you are lucky. Checks should be carried out often enough that there is little chance the equipment will become unsafe before the next check. Which is safer. More detailed technical information on electrical injury is given in the standard BS PD 6519 "Guide to the effects of current on human beings and livestock . The risk of injury changes according to the frequency of the AC. How do I know if my electrical equipment is safe? You can find out if your electrical equipment is safe by carrying out suitable checks. This may be the original manufacturer or his authorized service and repair agent. You should change how often you carry out checks according to the number and severity of faults found. and write down the results. Someone with special equipment can measure this. is to have it inspected and tested by a person with specific competence on the type of equipment. As a consequence you should always avoid contact with high voltage electrical conductors. don’t they? No. write down the decision. make sure the check is carried out. A simple visual inspection is likely to be sufficient for equipment used in a clean dry environment. No one is immune to an injury from electricity. such as inspection and/or testing.  What voltages are dangerous? When is it safe to work on live electrical equipment?  How do I make my electrical equipment safe to work on?  Who has the responsibility to make sure everyone works safely?  What should I do if I think I have seen an unsafe electrical installation or equipment? Much of the information on these web pages has been summarized to make it suitable for a wide audience. but the effect on a particular person is very difficult to predict as it depends upon a large number of factors.Part 1: General aspects. It is good practice to make a decision on how often each piece of equipment should be checked. regardless of the type of electrical current they are carrying. If you have received an electric shock but were not injured. equipment that is more likely to become damaged or is operated in a harsh environment is likely to require more demanding electrical tests. In addition. and check it is dead before they start work. not if they are careful and follow the simple rules to securely isolate electrical equipment. or Direct Current (DC)? Alternating Current (AC) and Direct Current (DC) have slightly different effects on the human body. The best way to find out if specialized equipment is safe. You should always use the published guidance listed on the resources page when deciding how to work safely and meet the requirements of the law. and it is common for DC to have an AC component (called ripple). . but both are dangerous above a certain voltage. Alternating Current (AC). The level of inspection and/or testing should depend upon the risks. Next time a slight change in events may lead to a very different result.

be aware that many types of socket tester cannot detect certain types of fault. A successfully completed electrical apprenticeship. More specialized work such as maintenance of high voltage switchgear or control system modification is almost certainly likely to require additional training and experience. It is particularly important that anyone who undertakes electrical work is able to satisfy the requirements of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989. For work on electrical installations below 1000 volts ac you should be able to work within the guidelines set out in BS7671 ‘Requirements for electrical installations. but more complex tasks such as modifying an electrical installation may not be. and can identify if there is a wiring fault. and has been able to demonstrate an ability to understand electrical theory and put this into practice. with some post apprenticeship experience is a good way of demonstrating competence for general electrical work. However. run by an accredited training organization. such as an Electrical Contractors Association (ECA) It is possible to do simple checks on your installation using an electrical socket tester. Other work should be carried out according to the guidelines set out in the relevant industry standard.How do I know if my electrical installation is safe? The best way to find out if your electrical installation is safe is to have it inspected and tested by a person who has the competence to do so. This is a device that can be plugged into a socket outlet. Can I do my own electrical work? You can do your own electrical work if you are competent to do so. More complex electrical tasks such as motor repair or maintenance of radio frequency heating equipment should only be carried out by someone who has been trained to do them. Seventeenth edition’. Simple tasks such as wiring a plug are within the grasp of many people. IEE Wiring Regulations. Those who wish to undertake electrical testing work would normally be expected to have more knowledge and to be able to demonstrate competence through the successful completion of a suitable training course. Read the information provided by on Electrical Socket Testers How do I know if someone is competent to do electrical work? A person can demonstrate competence to perform electrical work if he or she has successfully completed an assessed training course that has included the type of work being considered. and could indicate the socket is safe when it is not. .

Seventeenth edition. However. and write down the results of the tests. Any part of an installation that has become obviously defective between tests should be de-energized until the fault can be fixed. such as an approved electrical contractor.When should I use a residual current device? It is advisable to use a residual current device (RCD) whenever possible but particularly in wet or damp locations such as outdoors. RCDs should be regularly tested by pressing the ‘test’ button. unprotected. and by making sure that the RCD trips. You should have your electrical installation inspected and tested by a person who has the competence to do so. or powered by a battery. It is possible to do simple checks on your installation using an electrical socket tester. An RCD rated at no more than 30mA limits the energy in a particular type of electric shock and can save your life. Equipment should be more thoroughly tested by a competent person often enough that there is little chance that the equipment will become dangerous between tests. make sure the testing is carried out. An RCD that is incorporated into an ordinary mains socket. It is good practice to assess how often equipment being used for work purposes should be tested. This means that all circuits fed from that RCD are protected by the RCD. If you are using electrical equipment in particularly harsh conditions it is worth selecting lower voltage equipment powered by a transformer with an output centre tapped to earth. and could indicate the socket is safe when it is not. socket. but it is possible that equipment may be plugged into another. Faulty or inoperative RCDs should be removed from use. write down your findings. will protect anything that is attached to that socket. However. . How often should I test my electrical equipment? 'Electrical equipment should be visually checked to spot early signs of damage or deterioration. IEE Wiring Regulations. offers guidance on this. be aware that many types of socket tester cannot detect certain types of fault. Additional precautions may also be required depending on the specific location. an RCD cannot protect you from every type of electric shock. BS7671:2001 Requirements for electrical installations. Equipment that is used in a harsh environment should be tested more frequently than equipment that is less likely to become damaged or unsafe. Section 7. RCDs rated above 30mA provide very limited protection against harm from an electric shock. and can identify if there is a wiring fault. How often should I get my electrical installation tested? Electrical installations should be tested often enough that there is little chance of deterioration leading to danger. This is a device that can be plugged into a socket outlet. It is best to use an RCD that is incorporated into the switchboard of your installation. so you should still make sure that circuits are securely isolated before you work on them. or plugged into it.

If a person comes into contact with a voltage above about 50 volts. or another person touches an overhead power line. and indirect effects resulting from loss of control (such as falling from a height or coming .Who should I talk to about electrical safety? In the first instance a competent electrical contractor should be able to give advice on electrical safety. OR a person receives an electric shock or burn where the person loses consciousness. What should I do if I think someone is working unsafely? If you think someone is working unsafely you should ask him or her to stop immediately and tell a manager. What voltages are dangerous? A wide range of voltages can be dangerous for different reasons. If you are still unhappy about how someone is working. or cannot undertake their full range of normal duties for more than 3 days. When should I report an electrical accident ? You should report any work related accident that comes under the requirements of the Reporting of Injuries. OR plant or equipment came into contact with overhead power lines. Batteries (such as those in motor vehicles) can also overheat or explode if they are shorted. OR as a result of the injury the person is away from work for more than 3 days. or admission to hospital for more than 24 hours. they can receive a range of injuries including those directly resulting from the electrical shock (stopped breathing. or requires resuscitation. A very low voltage (such as that produced by a single torch battery) can produce a spark powerful enough to ignite an explosive atmosphere. an electrical accident is reportable if:       the person dies as a result of their injuries. How do I work safely near overhead lines? It can be difficult to identify the voltage of overhead lines so you should always assume overhead lines are dangerous when planning work near them. heart. you should notify appropriate authority. Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations (RIDDOR) 1995. Your local electricity distribution company can generally supply stickers describing emergency procedures and containing contact numbers that can be stuck in the cabs of vehicles likely to be used near overhead power lines. In general. OR there is an electrical short circuit or overload that causes a fire or explosion. You can download a free leaflet What should I do if I touch an overhead power line? The free leaflet on equipment describes what you should do if you. etc). and should also be able to direct you to a suitable electrical engineer for advice about specialist areas. OR the person suffers a major injury.

Managers have a responsibility to provide the resources. pressure etc) have been securely isolated and any stored energy has been released from the equipment. You should ask a competent person what to do. using appropriate test equipment. the conductors should be proven dead. and contact them. mechanical. before work commences. pneumatic. and the person doing the maintenance should have all the keys to these locks in his or her possession. It is important that there is no chance that a source of energy can be deliberately or inadvertently re-connected to the equipment whilst it is being worked on. pylons and equipment should have a contact telephone number attached to them. Even if working live can be justified. and this must only be done after it has been determined that it is unreasonable for the work to be done dead. How do I make my electrical equipment safe to work on? You can be reasonably sure that your electrical equipment is safe to work on if all sources of energy (electrical. If work is to be carried out on. When is it safe to work on live electrical equipment? It is never absolutely safe to work on live electrical equipment. and. exposed conductors. or near. Workers have a responsibility to make sure they keep themselves. Electrical distribution poles. contact the manufacturer and get them to send you instructions before you start work. and any local safety rules. If you cannot find the instructions. Who has the responsibility to make sure everyone works safely? It is the responsibility of everyone to make sure that work is safely undertaken. many precautions are needed to make sure that the risk is reduced ‘so far as is reasonably practicable. Warning notices should be posted at the points of isolation. You should then contact a competent person such as an approved electrical contractor who will be able to advise you how to make your installation safe. There are few circumstances where it is necessary to work live. The chance of being injured by an electric shock increases where it is damp or where there is a lot of metalwork. If the installation you think is unsafe is not owned by you or under your control. What should I do if I think I have seen an unsafe electrical installation or equipment? If you think you have an unsafe electrical installation you should first warn everyone to stay away from it. switch it off. Equipment containing dangerous chemicals or other substances may have to be decontaminated before it is safe to work on. . hydraulic. This can be achieved by applying a lock to each isolation device. instruction and training necessary to enable their workers to work safely and so that others are not endangered by the work activity. You should always follow the procedure for doing this described in the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the equipment. gas. if it is safe to do so. you should attempt to find out who does own it.into contact with moving machinery). and others safe.

How much current will the (i i) If the power (P) rating of the heater is 600 watts. (i) Diode (i i) Wattmeter (i i i) Voltage (iv) Motor (v) Gal vanometer (c) Define Engineering and programmes available. 37 (b) Give the symbols for the following components 111 an electrical system. (b )Define the following.I. Explain the following. Electrons v!. 1. (vi) Transformer (vii) Battery (viii) Cell (ix) Earthing (x) Filament lamp gIve five examples of engmeenng (i) Conductor (ii) Insulator (iii) Fuse (iv) Load (v) Source 3. . (a) Explain maintenance and state two reasons why it is important in the Hotel Catering and Institutio~al Management course. (a) State Ohm's law and give its mathematical representation. what will be the energy consumed if it is used continuously for 3hours? 2. (d) Define the following. Energy (':) (i) A )!()lJng woman purchased at220 volts-in electric heater for use in her office. The heater is rated at 600 watts.

a) Deline engineering and give three examples of engineering programme available. c) Enulllcrate ten electrical appliances available in your institution. (a) Indicate the SI unit of each of the following quantities (i) Current (ii) Voltage (iii) Power (iv) Energy resistance (b) (i) State one objective of forming and operating an industry. b) Explain maintenance and state two importance of maintenance III our institutions. (d) Out! ine lour energy conservation opportunities available. Outline four applications of the heating effect of an electric current. (b) Give two sources of lighting available (c) Enumerate five electrical appliances available in your home. 6. 4.(i) Reflecting surface (ii) Diffusing surface (a) State four requirements of a circuit breaker. Give the five lighting schemes available. a) Define the following as may be applied electrical eng1l1eenng. (ii) How would maintenance affect tile" above objective? 5. i) Electricity i i) Electric current i i i) Electromotive force iv) Resistance v) Power vi) Energy vii) Source viii) Load ix) l' use .

wattmeter x. inductor and coil VII. i) Reflecting surface ii) Diffusing surface d) Give five lighting schemes available for use in our institutions. capacitor HI. earth IV. ii) Briefly explain one way to maintain a fuse. what will be the energy consumed in three hours of use? a) give the symbols for the following components an electrical system. . battery v. cell VI.. Vlll. If it is rated at 400 watts. b) Give two sources of light available c) Define the following. filament Lamp 11. transformer IX. 1.x) A tom b) Define the following and give five examples of each. how much current will the heater draw? ii)If the power rating of the heater in (i) above is 400 watts. ammeter a) i) State four requirements of a good circuit breaker. i) Conductor ii) Insulator c) i) A man purchased a 120 volt plug-in electric space heater for use in his home. windings .

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