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Satellites orbiting round the earth have provided scientists with a vast amount of information about conditions in outer space. By comparison, relatively little is known about the internal structure of the earth. It has proved easier to go up than to go down. The deepest hole ever to be bored on land went down 7,72 meters considerably less than the height of Mount Everest. Drilling a hole under the sea has proved to be even more difficult. The deepest hole bored under the sea has been about 20,000 feet. Until recently, scientists have been unable to devise a drill which would be capable of cutting through hard rock at great depths.

It is obvious in the passage that A) B) C) D) It may be concluded
It is obvious in the passage that
It may be concluded from the passage that
It can be understood from the passage that




There are lots of satellites around the earth. The internal of the earth is a complete secret for the scientists.


C) Space is larger than scientists think.

D) Water makes it difficult to drill a hole through the center of the earth.

Satellites turning round the earth are very complex in their structures. Scientists know nothing as to the internal structure of the earth. Scientists acquire a large amount of information about outer space thanks to the satellites orbiting around the earth. It is easier to drill a hole under the sea.

According to scientists, it is impossible to go the center of the earth. In contradiction to the vast amount of knowledge about the outer of the earth little is known about the interior of the earth. Even a long time ago it was possible to find a device which could cut the hard rocks. Lands make it more difficult to drill a hole.



Africa was one of the places where agriculture started. Archaeological investigations suggest that knowledge of agriculture moved west from ancient south Palestine and arrived in the Nile delta in Egypt about the fifth millennium before Christ. Agriculture then traveled down the Nile valley and moved west across the southern edge of the Sahara to the central and western Sudan. By the first century B. C. agriculture existed in West Africa. From there it spread to the equatorial forests. African farmers learned to domesticate plants, including yams and sorghum. Cereal-growing people probably taught African farmers to plant regular fields. Gradually, African farmers also learned to clear land by burning but which was also accepted as detrimental to the soil by western farmers.

It is obvious from the passage that A) African people were the only ones to
It is obvious from the passage that
A) African people were the only ones to know agricultural facilities.
B) Agriculture first began in the Nile valley.
C) Archaeological investigations are made in Palestine.
D) There are also other places where agriculture began as well as Africa.
After arriving in the Nile delta, agriculture first
It is understood from the passage that




moved western countries. reached the south Palestine. moved down the Nile valley. moved west across the southern edge of the Sahara to the central and western Sudan.

Equatorial people taught the African farmers to domesticate plants. Agriculture spread the earth from Africa. It is certain that African farmers learned to plant regular fields from cereal- growing people.

D) Burning land was seen dangerous for the earth by western farmers.



Every summer many people, girls and women as well as boys and men, try to swim just for fun from England to France or from France to England. The distance at the nearest points is only about twenty miles, but because of the strong tides, the distance that must be swum is usually more than twice as far. There is a strong tide from the Atlantic Ocean. This divides in two in order to pass round the British Isles. There is also a strong tide which goes round the North of Scotland, then into the North Sea, and then south, towards the Dutch and Belgian coast. The two tides meet near the mouth of the Thames, and strong currents they cause make it impossible to swim in a straight line across the channel.

It is concluded from the information given in the passage that A) B) C) D)
It is concluded from the information given in the passage that
It is due to the strong tides that
A) the swimmers have to pass big waves.
B) the distance becomes, at least, two times longer.
C) the deepness reaches forty miles.
D) the swimmers cannot swim properly.
The strong tide from the Atlantic ocean
A) divides in two to reach the Belgian coast.
B) is divided into two parts to pass the British Isles.
C) makes the water impassable for the swimmers.




People swimming from England to France or from France to England do it just to enjoy themselves. Only men try to swim from England to France or from France to England. The nearest point to the British Isles is twenty miles. The British Isles are divided into two parts by the current from the Atlantic Ocean.

D) separates the British Isles into two parts.



Do you want to be a good speaker? If so, then think before you speak, and think while you speak. Take care to pronounce well. Do not speak your words too hastily. Use words in a way that your audience can readily understand cut out all mannerisms such as making the same gesture over and over again. Do not point or jab your finger at the audience. And don’t forget to use your voice to express your feelings in a good way.

It may be understood from the paragraph A) B) C) D) One of the things
It may be understood from the paragraph
One of the things that you should do to be a good speaker
A) is wearing good clothes.
B) is stopping by every word you utter.
C) is choosing the word that the listeners understand easily.
D) is making the same gesture over and over again.
While speaking, do not forget




Everybody may become a perfect speaker by working hard. Pronunciation is not as much important as being kind to the audience. As well as doing lots of things to become a good speaker you should also remember to use your voice well. Jabbing your finger at the audience is very important in a speech.

to speak your words quickly to use your voice in order to coax your audience into what you want them to do. to use your voice in explaining your ideas well. to point or jab your finger at the audience.



The London newspaper that is best known outside Great Britain is probably The Times. It began in 1785, and has a high reputation for reliable news and serious comment on the news. It is an independent paper, not giving its support to a particular political party. Its leading articles give the opinions of its editorial staff, not those of the owners of the paper.

The correspondence columns of The Times are always interesting and often amusing. Most of the letters are on serious subjects, but from time to time there will be a long correspondence on a subject that is not at all serious, perhaps on a new fashion of dress, or the bad manners of the younger generation compared with the manners of thirty years ago.

The Times, of course, does not publish the cartoons that are common in the cheaper and popular papers. It does, however, publish a cross-word puzzle every day, with clues that are both clever and amusing. Many Times readers try to solve the puzzle every morning as they travel to town by train from their homes in the suburbs.

It is obviously understood from the passage that A) B) C) D) It is clear
It is obviously understood from the passage that
It is clear in the passage that
A) As well as serious subjects, The Times also consists of other subjects.
B) The Times doesn’t publish other than cross-words and puzzles ever day.
C) The readers of The Times solve the puzzles in it solely at home.
D) Everybody in Britain reads The Times every day.



The Times is the best newspaper in all over the world. The Times is a neutral newspaper. It is The Times that is sold much more than any other newspaper in the world. The cheaper and popular newspapers do not publish cartoons as well.

15. The word ‘’they’’ in the passage refers that

A) Newspapers

B) General readers

C) The readers of The Times

D) The times



Henry Ford was the first person to build cars which were cheap, strong, and fast. He was able to sell millions of models since he mass-produced them; that is, he made a great many cars of exactly the same type. Ford’s father hoped that his son would become a farmer like him, but the young man didn’t like the idea and he went to Detroit where he worked as a mechanic. By the age of 29, in 1892, he had built his first car. However, this car ‘the first mass produced car in the world, the famous ‘Model T’ didn’t appear until 1908-five years after Ford had started his great Motor company. This car proved to be so popular that it remained unchanged for twenty years.

Since Ford’s time, mass-production methods have become common in industry and have reduced the price of many articles which would otherwise be very expensive.

It may be concluded from the passage that A) Henry Ford was the first person
It may be concluded from the passage that
A) Henry Ford was the first person who built the car.
B) Henry’s father was also a car producer.
C) Even before Henry, people produced cars.
D) The first car in the world was built in 1892 by Henry Ford.
One can understand from the passage that
In the passage, the word ‘him’ refers to




Mass-production made it easy to produce cheap cars. Mass-production techniques were used solely by Henry Ford. Model T car was produced in 1908 and became so popular and remained unchanged for two decades. Though Henry wanted to become a farmer, his father sent him to Detroit to become a mechanic.

A) Henry Ford

B) Henry’s father

C) A farmer

D) A mechanic



Silas Minton’s funeral was a quiet affair. It was attended by the only relations he had in the world, his niece and nephew, and by a few friends. The priest who had traveled over a hundred miles into this wild part of the country was now getting ready for the simple ceremony. Minton, or ‘Minty’ as his friends used to call him, had led a hard life looking for gold in a lonely part of Australia. He had always refused to work in a gold mine because he believed that he could do better on his own. Although he was not a boastful person, he had often declared that one day he would find a lump of gold as big as his head and with that he would retire and live in comfort for the rest of his life. However, his dreams of great wealth never came true. For many years he had hardly earned enough money to keep himself alive. Two men now gently lifted the rough wooden box that contained Minty’s body, but they almost dropped it when they heard a loud cry from the grave digger. His spade had struck something hard in the rocky soil and he was shouting excitedly. Then he held up a large stone shone curiously in the fierce sunlight; it was unmistakably a heavy piece of solid gold.

Minton’s life was a demanding one since A) there were any priests around his hometown.
Minton’s life was a demanding one since
A) there were any priests around his hometown.
B) he hunted for gold in the suburbs of Australia.
C) a few people joined his funeral.
D) refused to work in a gold mine.
A) he wanted to have a hard life.
B) wage given to him was very low.
C) he wanted to become wealthier.
D) he thought he, himself, could manage better and find gold.



The reason why Minton refused the idea to work in a gold mine was that

21. The word ‘he’ in the passage refers to

A) Silas Minton

B) Minty’s body

C) The digger

D) The priest




report from the Global Campaign for Education (GCE) organization has said that


contrast to average leveled countries the world’s richest countries have broken

their promises to send the world’s poorest children to school. Five years ago, 22 rich nations decided to give $5. 4 billion to developing countries for primary school education. GCE has written “school report cards” on these countries and their performance-most score badly. They graded the quantity and quality of education aid program. The USA and Austria received an “F” grade, which means a total failure in giving the support; Norway and Holland are top of the class with “A’s”. There are still millions of children who have no schools to go to. The report says that: “For about the cost of four Stealth bombers, we could get 100 million more

children into school.” The report also said: “Put simply rich countries are preventing children in
children into school.” The report also said: “Put simply
rich countries are
preventing children in poor countries from going to school.” The report ended with
a warning of what might happen if children have no education: We are
throwing away
the best chance we have to put an end to world poverty,
and secure a more peaceful and stable future for us all.”
It is obviously understood from the passage that
The USA and Austria received an ‘’F’’ grade that
A) and it means that they paid much more than any other for the poorest students.
B) which is thought to be one of the best grades.
C) means they made no support for the poor students to go to schools.
D) which shows us how generous these countries are.


The world’s richest countries will fulfill their pledge in the short term. Apart form the richest countries, there are also some other countries that promised for the support. Austria is one of the countries that supported the campaign most. For the time being, the number of the students that have no schools is decreasing.


24. The report also showed that

A) it is not easy to keep one’s promise.

B) future of the world will be more peaceful.

C) we are losing the chance of having a peaceful future.

D) the rich don’t adhere to their promises.



After a hard and closely fought election, Liberia’s Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf will soon become Africa’s first ever democratically elected female president. Ms. Johnson Sirleaf is Liberia’s former finance minister and studied economics at Harvard University. With 97 percent of the vote already counted, she has 59. 4 percent of the votes. This is an unbeatable lead over her rival George Weah, the former world soccer player of the year. Liberia’s “Iron Lady” said: “Africa is ready for a

Women have the education, the character, the ability,

female president

Supporters of Mr. Weah are angry and are claiming the election was spoiled by fraud. There were violent clashes in front of polling stations and peacekeepers in riot gear fired tear gas and in order to keep people calm. Mr. Weah has asked protestors to avoid using violence. More unrest may return Liberia to the civil war which recently killed a quarter of a million Liberians. Ms. Johnson-Sirleaf said she was not worried about the protests or the possibility of civil war. She said she was eager to “start the process of renewal and rebuilding”. She also said she would make Africans proud of her performance

and the honesty to lead the nation.” A very suitable title for this passage is
and the honesty to lead the nation.”
A very suitable title for this passage is
A) The life of Ellen Johnson Sirleaf
B) Mr. Weah and his rival
C) Elections in Africa.
D) Victory of Ellen Johnson in the election in Africa.
It may be concluded from the passage that
A) Mr. Weah is the former president of Africa.
B) It is not common in Africa to have a female president.
C) The election was certain to be spoiled by fraud.
D) African people are proud of Ms. Leaf



27. It is clearly certain from the information given in the passage that

A) Ms. Johnson Sirleaf is determined to be successful.

B) Ellen will definitely manage to conduct the country affairs successfully.

C) If there hadn’t been fraud in the election, success was impossible for Ellen.

D) Possibility of civil war seems impossible in the country.



A Nepalese couple has become the first people ever to get married on top of

Mount Everest. They felt, and were, on top of the world on their wedding day. Moni

Mule Pati, 24, and Pem Dorjee Sherpa, 23, exchanged wedding vows on top of the world’s highest peak. Their ceremony on the summit truly was a match made

in heaven. The couple is now on cloud nine. There were no wedding dresses,

tuxedos or wedding bells. Just oxygen tanks, climbing equipment and some plastic flowers. The groom carried some traditional red powder, which he put on his bride’s forehead as a symbol of marriage. The happy couple and their one guest had to climb down after ten minutes. The conditions were bitingly cold and becoming dangerous. The newlyweds had kept their plan a secret. They were worried about not being able to reach the top together. They also had concerns over what their families might say about their different cultural backgrounds. Pem Dorjee said: “With our interracial marriage, we also wanted to give the message

that caste and race are no barriers when it comes to marriage.” It is clearly
that caste and race are no barriers when it comes to marriage.”
It is clearly concluded from the passage that
A) The couple’s only aim was to protest the discrimination among races.
B) It is dangerous to stay longer than 10 minutes on top of month Everest.
C) Since it was a big surprise the newlywed kept their wedding plan a secret.
D) Month Everest’s peak is the coldest place in the world.
A very suitable title for this passage would be
A) An unusual wedding ceremony
B) A Nepalese couple and their lives
C) Marriage without wedding dresses
D) The happy couple and their guests
It may be understood from the passage that




A) the marriage also showed that racial differences aren’t important in marriages.

B) the newly couple will have their honeymoon on top of mount Everest.

C) it is not unusual to get married to on top of a mountain.

D) race difference is a hindrance for marriage.



British Foreign Secretary Jack Straw will host talks with European Union leaders in Luxembourg today. He will try to solve the latest crisis over talks about Turkey becoming a full member of the EU. Mr. Straw said: “Last December, the EU agreed that negotiations with Turkey should [start] October 3, subject to Turkey

These conditions have been met.” However,

Austria has suddenly decided Turkey should not have full membership of the Union, but instead have a weaker "privileged partnership. "

Turkey is angry and said talks must continue as scheduled. A Turkish government spokesman warned the EU would be damaged internationally if it failed to “keep its word”. A leading Turkish politician stated: “Either Europe remains in sync with the changes in the world and accepts our joining, or by hurting our membership bid it will turn into an old, nostalgic bloc that loses its influence in world politics.” Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan said: “European leaders will show political maturity and become a global power.”

fulfilling various conditions

It may be concluded from the passage that A) B) C) D) The best title
It may be concluded from the passage that
The best title for the passage is that
A) Latest affairs on Turkey’s partnership in the EU.
B) The EU and its members
C) What to do to join in the EU.
D) New talks with the EU.



Jack Straw is against the attendance of Turkey in the EU. Even tough Turkey has taken the necessary steps, the EU hasn’t kept its promise. Because Austria sees Turkey as privileged, it is on the side of European countries. A lot of people reacted negatively to the full membership of Turkey.

33. According to an important Turkish politician

A) Everyone in Turkey has the right to protest against Austria.

B) If Turkey’s membership is not accepted into the EU, It will not have its present station in world politics.

C) In case of its joining into the EU, Turkey will not start a war.

D) The president shouldn’t be so sure on The EU acceptance of Turkey.



A powerful earthquake has killed at least 3,000 people in Pakistan and India. The violent and devastating quake measured 7. 6 on the Richter scale. Its force was so strong that it reduced whole villages to rubble. Large areas of Pakistani and Indian Kashmir have suffered very high casualty figures. The full force of the quake rocked areas as far away as New Delhi, Kabul and Dhaka. Officials are warning the death toll will climb dramatically as searches continue over the coming days. Many isolated areas will take some time to report their casualty figures.

Thousands of mud huts and cheap houses collapsed in the quake. Many buildings were not built to high earthquake standards and had little chance of surviving. One apartment block that was totally destroyed, which was a total shock for the authorities, was the luxury Magalia Towers in Islamabad. Television news pictures show the building is now a mountain of stone and steel. The 75-apartment complex collapsed like a deck of cards. Hundreds of desperate rescuers are currently searching for survivors. They are stripping away the concrete and twisted metal with their bare hands. A local official predicted there would be “massive casualties”.

It is concluded from the passage that A) The death toll may rise. B) Lots
It is concluded from the passage that
A) The death toll may rise.
B) Lots of people died of contaminated food after the quake.
C) The 7,6 Richter scale is the biggest number measured so far in Pakistan.
D) Casualty figures are higher in Kashmir than areas of Pakistan.
The main reason why so many people died of earthquake in Pakistan
A) is that they are very poor.
B) is due to the lack of professional life saving teams.
C) is that the buildings were not built to high earthquake standards.
D) is because of the strong earthquake.



36. Luxury Magalia Towers in Islamabad

A) is the biggest tower in Pakistan.

B) remained undestroyed after the quake.

C) is the building that lots of people died under its wrecks.

D) was thought to be powerful building but in contrast to the belief it was completely destroyed.



Arnold Schwarzenegger finally played real life Terminator earlier today as he allowed the execution of multiple murderer, Donald Beadslee, 61, to be put to death by lethal injection. This is the first California State execution for Arnie and the first in the state in three years. Arnie rejected the pleas for mercy that commonly surround capital punishment in America, saying Beardslee was fully aware of how serious his crimes were. The Republican governor stated, “The federal courts have affirmed his conviction and death sentence, and nothing in his petition or the record of his case convinced me that he did not understand the gravity of his actions or that these heinous murders were wrong". Beardslee’s defense lawyers, however, tried to get the death penalty overturned on the grounds that he was suffering from brain disorders when he killed two women over a drugs deal in 1981. He had previously served seven years in prison for strangling a woman in 1969, and had been on Death Row since 1984. About 300 protestors staged a vigil outside the infamous San Quentin prison hoping for the last minute reprieve, which never came. California restored the Death Penalty in 1978 and now has the largest Death Row population in America, with 600 inmates awaiting execute.

It is understood from the passage that A) the murderer killed more than person. B)
It is understood from the passage that
A) the murderer killed more than person.
B) Donald Beadles is now dead.
C) Arnold also allowed some other executions before.
D) Arnold is 61 years old now.
It is clear in the passage that



Donald’s plead wasn’t accepted by Arnold. Donald killed solely women. Before 1978, death penalty hadn’t been applied in California. California is the only state in America which hasn’t abolished the death penalty.

39. The reason that Donald’s defense lawyers submitted on overturning the death penalty decision

A) was completely meaningless.

B) that he didn’t l kill the two women.

C) was that he was suffering from mental disorders.

D) was not enough to save his



The exploration of history provides many benefits. Firstly, we learn from the past. We may repeat mistakes, but, at least, we have the opportunity to avoid them. Secondly, history teaches us what questions to ask about the present. Contrary to some people’s view, the study of history is not the memorization of names, dates, and places. It is the thoughtful examination of the forces that have shaped the courses of human life. We can examine events from the past and then draw inferences about current events. History teaches us about likely outcomes.

Another benefit of the study of history is the broad range of human experience which is covered. War and peace are certainly covered as are national and international affairs. However, matters of culture (art, literature, and music) are also included in historical study. Human nature is an important part of history:

emotions like passion, greed, and insecurity have influenced the shaping of world affairs. Anyone who thinks that the study of history is boring has not really studied history.

A) Studying history helps us to live in today’s world. B) Studying history is riot
A) Studying history helps us to live in today’s world.
B) Studying history is riot just memorization.
C) The role of education is to help students deal with real life.
D) Students should study both national and international history.
A) graphs
B) articles
C) conclusions
D) circumferences

40. What is the main idea of this passage?

41. In the first paragraph, inferences means

42. Which method of teaching history would the author of this passage support?

A) Applying historical events to modern society.

B) Using flash cards to remember specific facts.

C) Weekly quizzes on dates and events.

D) Student competitions for most books memorized.



Wonderful news has come from America’s National Zoo in Washington D. C. A giant panda has been born. It is the first time in 16 years this has happened. Mother Mei Xiang gave birth in the early hours of the morning. Zoo staff waited nervously and jumped for joy when the new arrival appeared. Its gender is not yet known. Zookeepers must leave Mei Xiang and her baby alone to let the cub’s immune system develop. The first few days are very dangerous for a baby panda. The birth of a giant panda in captivity is very rare. Survival of the cub is not guaranteed. Most baby pandas born in zoos do not live beyond a week. Any cubs that are born at the zoo belong to China and are returned when the panda reaches the age of two. For now, the panda team members are keeping their fingers crossed that the cub survives. The public will have to wait three months before the baby panda is shown to the world. However, a sneak preview is provided online at the zoo’s website

At present, the public A) cannot see panda anyway and should wait at least three
At present, the public
A) cannot see panda anyway and should wait at least three months.
B) are really curious to see the newly born panda.
C) can see the panda on the internet only.
D) are waiting for the panda to be born.
According to the passage it is not common
A) to see a panda before it is at least three months old.
B) to see a giant panda born in captivity.
C) to let the cub’s immune system develop by itself.
D) to return to China for a cub.
It can be concluded from the passage that
A) It is the first time in America’s national zoo to have a baby panda.




B) The rarity of the birth of giant panda in captivity is because of the violence of the staff on animals.

C) The birth of the giant panda in America’s national zoo is not the first.

D) All baby pandas in zoos have the immunity system at birth.



A 28-year-old South Korean man has died after playing an online computer game for almost 50 hours non-stop. The man, known only by his family name of Lee, started playing the popular battle simulation game Starcraft on August 3 and was fixed to his seat for over two days. His marathon gaming session was apparently broken only with the occasional toilet break or five-minute nap. Reuters News Agency reports police sources saying the man died from cardiac arrest “stemming from exhaustion”. Lee was on a mission to become a professional gamer. This is an increasingly attractive and well-paid profession in South Korea. Top players can earn substantial amounts of money each year. Lee had recently been fired from his job because of absences due to his obsession with gaming. The dangers of being addicted to fantasy games are resulting in many social problems. In particular, MMORPGs, or massively multiplayer online role playing games, keep thousands of players glued to their screens for many hours.

It is understood from the passage that A) The south Korean man played games with
It is understood from the passage that
A) The south Korean man played games with his friends.
B) The man’s first name has not been known yet.
C) The man played the game without any break.
D) The man took only toilet break and then continued his game.
It is obvious in the passage that
It may be concluded from the passage that




Lee was too young to die. Lee died of a kind of disease which is most probably an inheritance from his parents. Lee’s aim was to become a professional player Lee never went to work due to his obsession with gaming.

A) A professional gamer earns a lot in South Korea.

B) Lee wasn’t addicted to fantasy games.

C) It was obvious that Lee was alone at home during his play time.

D) Playing computer games are just a wasting time.



Coffee is good for you. That is the conclusion of researchers at the University of Scranton in Pennsylvania. A team led by Dr. Joe Vinson found coffee is a rich source of antioxidants. Coffee is the biggest provider of these vitamins in the U. S. diet. Antioxidants help fight cancer and reduce cell damage and the effects of aging. Dr. Vinson said both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee provides similar levels of antioxidants. He recommended no more than two cups of coffee a day. Vinson analyzed the antioxidant content of more than 100 different food items and beverages. Coffee finished top based on serving size and frequency of consumption. However, Vinson advised people not to think of coffee as a health drink. He stressed that high antioxidant levels in coffee do not mean the vitamins will find their way into our bodies. The dangers of coffee are that it causes stomach pains, increases blood pressure and can lead to heart problems. Vinson said more research is needed to understand its health benefits.

Although coffee is thought to be good for us A) B) C) D) It is
Although coffee is thought to be good for us
It is clear from the passage that
According to the passage,




you shouldn’t drink caffeinated one. Antioxidants are very detrimental to our bodies. Further research should be done to understand if it causes heart diseases. It is not all good to our health and is needed much more research to make comments on its benefits.

Decaffeinated coffee is richer in antioxidants. Dr. Joe Vinson is the leader of the team. Coffee is the most consumed beverage in the USA. If one drinks too much coffee, it is inevitable that he suffers from stomach pain.

A) Americans mostly provide their needs of antioxidants from coffee.

B) Effects of aging is inevitable for people.

C) All Americans think that coffee is a health drink.

D) You should drink at least one cup of white coffee a day.



Eating fish every week may keep our brain more active during our older years. This is the conclusion of research conducted by the Rush University Medical

Center in Chicago. The study found that older people who eat fish regularly have quicker and better memories. Over a lifetime of eating fish, people could be three to four years mentally younger in age. Lead researcher Martha Clare Morris said:

“We found that people who ate one fish meal a week had a 10 percent slower

annual decline in thinking. People who rarely eat fish have a

decline in their thinking ability over time.” Morris’s team collected information on the diets and memory loss of 6,158 people aged 65 and older. She concluded:

“Eating fish may help to slow people’s decline in thinking ability as they age.” She thinks several fatty acids contained in fish may help the brain’s development.

Eating fish has previously been associated with a lower risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease or having a stroke. Oily fish, like salmon and tuna, are a rich source of the acids. The report on the benefits of consuming fish appears in the October 10 online issue of the Archives of Neurology


A) B) C) D) A) B) C) D)

52. It is obvious in the passage that

eating fish is inevitable for the one who wants to be healthy. A further research is needed to get a better result on fish eating One should eat at least one fish meal during a week in order to be mentally younger in age. People who rarely eat fish have a faster increase in their thinking ability over time.

53. That eating fish may help to slow people’s decline in thinking ability

has not been scientifically proved yet. is the conclusion of Morris’ team. is a conclusion of Morris’ team reached by examining 65 people. showed the scientists that without fish meal it is impossible not to be caught by Alzheimer’s disease.

54. In the passage ‘she’ refers to

A) Martha Clare Morris’ team.

B) One of the team members.

C) The leader of the team.

D) A 65 year old woman.



A new health report says that having good friends in your old age helps you live

longer. The report also says that having close friends may be more important than

having close family ties. Researchers interviewed 1,500 Australians over the age

of 70 about their social and family ties. The results suggest that people with close

friendships were 22 per cent more likely to live longer. The researchers said this is

because of the positive effects on the body of social activity and recreation.

The researchers analyzed data from an Australian study, which began in 1992. The 10-year-long study measured how behavioral, economic, environmental and social factors affected the health of 70-year-olds. The senior citizens were monitored annually for four years and then at three-yearly intervals. The team found that those with the strongest network of friends were less likely to die by the end of the ten-year period. This was true even when the senior citizen lost a spouse. The message is to keep in touch if you want to live longer.

It is not stated in the passage that A) Having good friends in one’s old
It is not stated in the passage that
A) Having good friends in one’s old age helps him or her live longer.
B) Having close friends is as important as having close family ties.
C) All the Australians interviewed were over 70 years old.
D) In order to be healthier one inevitably needs a close friend.
It is easy to understand from the passage that
One can infer from the passage that




Positive effects of having close friends and being sociable are confirmed by researches. If you don’t join in a group of people, you won’t lead a very happy life. It is certain that you will live 22 percent more than anyone else living alone, if you have a close friendship. Not only having a good friend but also making physical activity is beneficial for your health.

A) The senior citizens, after a ten-year period, died because they didn’t carry on their friendships.

B) In having a healthy and longer life, social factors are of utmost importance.

C) When compared your friendship with your partnership in your family, it is friendship that takes the higher place in making you live longer.

D) If you want to know your friend well enough, you should take a long journey with him.



The Arctic ice is melting at a dangerous speed and may completely disappear by the end of this century. This is according to scientists at America’s National Snow

(NSIDC). Experts said recent satellite images

showed the volume of sea ice was the lowest it had ever been. An area five times larger than the UK has disappeared since 1978 and the melting is getting faster.

This year was the warmest Arctic summer in 400 years. Dr. Mark Serreze from the NSIDC said the worrying trend of melting ice caps is because of global warming.

The NSIDC’s leader Dr. Ted Scambos said the Arctic Circle is melting so quickly that it may never recover. He said the Arctic is caught in a dangerous process that man cannot reverse. Less sea ice means the Earth cannot reflect the suns rays and cool itself. Warmer seas then melt more ice. The loss of sea ice in one year increases the loss in the next year. Current ice loss is estimated at eight percent per decade. This means there may be no ice at all during the Arctic summer of 2060. Dr. Scambos warned: “It is pretty certain a long-term decline is underway.”

and Ice Data Centre

It is clear in the passage that A) B) C) D) It is implied in
It is clear in the passage that
It is implied in the passage that



Besides the Arctic there are also other icebergs melting around the arctic region. The arctic ice now is the lowest ice level that has never seen before. it is certain that the arctic region will remain under the water by the end of this century. The arctic is five times larger than the United kingdom.

To stop melting in the arctic circle is impossible for humankind. Less sea ice level is hazardous to sun. The arctic has been melting for at least 400 years. Satellite images are not sufficient evidence for the scientists to make comments on melting.

60. The loss of sea ice means

A) the earth cannot take sun rays.

B) losing more sea ice in the next year.

C) there is not going to be any ice at all during the arctic summer of 2060.

D) that there comes a time when everything will float on water.



Scientists have told us for many years that the sun can harm our health. Researchers have produced many studies that link exposure to the sun to cancer. Doctors continually warn us about the dangers of ultraviolet (UV) rays. Well, all of this might now change. Doctors and scientists may soon be telling us the opposite. New research suggests that sunshine is necessary for our bodies. Our skin absorbs the UV rays and produces vitamin D, also known as the “sunshine vitamin”.

Dr. Edward Giovannucci of Harvard University says that vitamin D contains many anti-cancer benefits. He believes vitamin D might help prevent 30 more deaths than those caused by skin cancer. It might now be time to put the sunscream away. Doctors may soon recommend we spend fifteen minutes a day in direct sunlight. They say this will allow our skin to produce the vitamin D we need. Researchers highlight the fact that there are fewer people with cancer in sunnier parts of the world.

A) we should spend at least fifteen minutes in direct sun. B) our skins produce
A) we should spend at least fifteen minutes in direct sun.
B) our skins produce vitamin D.
C) there are fewer people with cancer in sunnier parts of the world.
D) sunlight is indispensable for our bodies.
A) Sunshine was actually very useful for our skin.
B) Sun shine consisted of vitamin D so it was called sun shine vitamin.
C) Our body needed vitamin D.
D) Sunshine could be detrimental to our health.

62. In the past, scientists thought and told us that

63. It may also be concluded from the passage that

61. One of the evidences that show us sunlight prevents cancer is that

A) we shouldn’t be exposed to direct sunshine.

B) Sunshine is necessary for our bodies; however, it has also detrimental violets.

C) Vitamin D is solely enough to prevent cancer.

D) Cancer is a very dangerous disease that results in death.



An amazing new invention by a British student will help children who are overweight. It will also reduce the number of hours of television they watch every day. The technology is nicknamed “Square-Eyes”. It is a tiny, computerized sensor that fits into children’s shoes. It measures the number of steps the child takes during the day and sends this information to the family computer. Software then tells the child how many hours of TV he or she can watch that evening. One hundred steps equal one minute of TV. If children use up all of their viewing time, they must do more walking.

The designer Gillian Swan says this “will help children to include exercise in their daily routines from an early age.” She said that ten years ago children were healthier because they played outside with their friends. She said today’s children spend too much time in front of the TV and don’t exercise. This means children have weight problems and become fat. “Square-eyes” is a nickname often given to children who watch too much television. It may now have a new meaning. The new technology is the beginning of computers becoming a part of our clothes. What we wear will soon monitor our health.

It is because children spend too much time in front of TV A) that the
It is because children spend too much time in front of TV
A) that the parents get angry.
B) that they don’t do their homework regularly.
C) that they have weight problems and become fat.
D) that they have to wear square-eyes.
Square-eyes is the name given



both the device that measure the number of the steps of a child and the ones who watch too much TV. the parents whose children watch too much television. the children who don’t walk enough during a day and watch always TV. the children who should walk much more.

66. It is concluded from the passage that

A) The new device will definitely be useful for the ones who want to lose weight.

B) Getting fat will not be a problem for children anymore.

C) the designer of the device is a female.

D) If a child takes 1000 steps during the day he can watch TV one hour at night.



British Prime Minister Tony Blair has won the British election. He has also entered British political history books by becoming the first Labour leader to win three

elections in a row. However, his record-setting victory is not all good news: Mr. Blair’s party lost over 100 seats in the British parliament. This was mainly because of his decision to go to war in Iraq. It was very unpopular in Britain and many Britons voted for other parties. Mr. Blair said: “I know that Iraq has been a deeply

But I also know and believe that after this

divisive issue in this

election people want to move on.” Mr. Blair’s election success is largely because of the strong British economy. Britain has enjoyed economic growth for the last 13 years and has very low levels of unemployment and inflation. In his next term of office, he has promised to focus on health, education, social welfare and the

terrible British transportation system that the public wants a quick solution.

It may be concluded from the passage that A) B) C) D) It is obvious
It may be concluded from the passage that
It is obvious in the passage that
Because of the decision to go to war in Iraq




He is the first leader in England, who has won 3 elections. Among the problems in England, British Transportation system requires a quick solution. It is not a good news for Tony Blair to become prime minister. Mr. Blair has been the prime minister of England for three decades.

In the previous election Mr. Blair’s party won 100 seats more than the latest election. Decision on Iraq war is an absolute failure for Mr. Blair’s party. Mr Blair is not aware of the danger of Iraq war for England. For 13 years, Britain has been suffering from worsening economic condition of the country.

A) England lost lots of its soldiers.

B) A lot of innocent people died.

C) Mr. Blair’s party lost at least 100 seats.

D) England acquired a large number of opponents.



Working mothers take heed. A new report published in the journal Developmental Psychobiology suggests that mothers who work in jobs that offer little satisfaction and are emotionally draining pass on their stress to their children. The researchers, from the UK’s Bath, Kent and Bristol universities, found that young children are particularly susceptible to picking up on their mother’s stress. According to the report, putting a child in childcare, where youngsters will play and happily interact with other tots, can help to counter the problem. Co-author Julie Cobb said childcare provides a sanctuary for children that protects them from the adverse effects of their mother’s “emotional exhaustion”. Ms. Cobb urged companies to support both mothers and children.

Researchers analyzed data gleaned from observing 56 nursery school children aged three and four. In addition, the study team quizzed mothers about their working conditions and domestic life over the course of six months. The subsequent results showed significantly higher levels of the stress hormone cortisol in children whose working mothers found their jobs less rewarding. Cortisol regulates blood pressure and the body’s immune function and is secreted at greater rates when people are stressed. Further, researchers found the chemical’s prevalence in the toddlers increased considerably if their mothers were fatigued as well as dissatisfied. In many cases, cortisol levels were double those of children whose mothers enjoyed their job.

It is clear in the passage that A) B) C) D) One of the solutions
It is clear in the passage that
One of the solutions that the report suggests




All working women reflect their stress to their children. Young children are not happy with their mother’s working. If a working mother is not happy with her job, she,most probably, reflects her stress to her children. To put the child in childcare is the best solution for the parents.

is that a woman shouldn’t work if it is possible. is that putting the children in childcare prevents, partially, them from adverse effects of stress of their mothers. is to lead a satisfactory life at work. is trying to be more affectionate towards our children.

72. In the passage ‘’their’’ refers to

A) mothers

B) jobs’

C) children’s

D) researchers’



Findings from a new study released on Friday proves that global warming is caused by human activity, and not by natural environmental factors. Researchers at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography have found clear evidence of human- produced warming in the world's oceans that is likely to impact water resources in regions around the globe. This finding removes much of the uncertainty associated with debates about global warming. Many world leaders have closed their ears to this fact so they don’t have to limit their economic activity or introduce expensive pollution controls. This is one of the reasons America has not signed the Kyoto Treaty on climate change. The US government prefers to believe global warming is a natural phenomenon, caused by volcanoes and solar energy. Professor Tim Barnett said, “This is perhaps the most compelling evidence yet that global warming is happening right now and it shows that we can successfully simulate its past and likely future evolution.” Barnett says the results hold implications for millions of people in the near future. In the decades immediately ahead, the changes will be felt in regional water supplies, including areas impacted by accelerated glacier melting in the South American Andes and in western China, putting millions of people at risk without adequate summertime water. Perhaps now more countries will sign up to the Kyoto Protocol.

A) B) C) D) It may be concluded from the passage that, Kyoto treaty A)
It may be concluded from the passage that, Kyoto treaty
A) was submitted by Japanese people.
B) rooted to Korea in the origin.
C) is about volcanoes and solar energy.
D) is about climate change.



One of the reasons that America hasn’t signed the Kyoto protocol is that

They don’t believe that global warming is occurring as a result of human activities. there aren’t sufficient evidence that shows global warming is related to environmental factors. they don’t want to limit their economic activity or spend money on expensive pollution controls. they know nothing about the danger of global warming.

75. It could be inferred from the passage that,

A) If you live far away from America it will be a definite benefit for you.

B) When faced with global warming, people try to migrate from one place to another.

C) it is certain for now that in a few years the effects of global warming will be seen in our country.

D) If it is of great benefit, people could sometimes ignore the ecological balance.



The threat of a lethal bird flu pandemic may be closer than we think, warned scientists today. In a worse case scenario tens of millions could die around the world, as it is now believed the virus could be transmitted from human to human. Most of the cases of avian flu deaths have so far been the result of direct contact with infected chickens, however, scientists believe a new strain has mutated and has jumped species, enabling it to spread from person to person. The New England Journal of Medicine reports the case of a Thai woman who was infected with the virus from her daughter. The mother had never been in direct contact with chickens. Although so far an isolated case, researchers have warned of “the urgent need to prepare for a future influenza pandemic”.

This news has put governments around the world on alert in preparing for a possible outbreak. The advent of international travel means any virus might spread like wildfire between the world’s major cities. A sobering reminder of just how deadly and global a bird flu virus can be is the 1918 pandemic which killed 40 million people worldwide. Thailand's deputy prime minister Chaturon Chaisaeng said yesterday, "We are deeply concerned about human-to-human transmissions, which would be very dangerous, and it is close.” Neighboring Vietnam, where nine people have died from bird flu this month, is bracing itself for a major outbreak, with all

It is obvious in the passage that A) The spread of lethal bird flu could
It is obvious in the passage that
A) The spread of lethal bird flu could be faster than people think.
B) Nobody has been infected by the bird flu from humans.
C) A cure has been found for the bird flu.
D) The Thai woman died of lethal bird flu.
According to the passage




It is easy to conclude from the passage

Although bird flu is dangerous, there hasn’t been any recorded death so far. In past, bird flu passed only to people who had a direct contact with infected chickens. Meetings will be held all around the world on how to protect people from bird flu. There is no precaution taken against bird flu, although most of the countries are aware of the danger.

A) Transmission of bird flu is easier from human to human than it is from animal to animal.

B) All countries in the world are on alert in preparing for a breakthrough.

C) In fact, bird flu is not dangerous as scientists claim.

D) Bird flu doesn’t merely interest one country as it is possible to travel all around the world.



An important characteristic of entrepreneurs is that they often take financial risks. Most production activities are undertaken in prediction of demand. Companies will produce those goods which they think will yield a profit they do not know that they will do so, because the future is not known. Entrepreneurs must bear the costs involved during this time which passes between the decision to produce and the final marketing of the product. They must pay rent for their land, interest on the money borrowed, wages to labor and meet the costs of materials used. These payments must be made without any certainty that such costs will be covered by receipts. If the income from sales exceeds their expenses, they will make a profit-if not, they must bear the loss, the risks they bear arise from uncertainty. Economic conditions are constantly changing and past experience is not necessarily any good guide to future prospect.

A) B) C) D) E) the passage, a lot of expenses must be met A)
the passage, a
lot of expenses
be met

79. The main point of the passage is that the entrepreneurs

can never be certain that any product will succeed until it has actually done so are prepared to pay a high interest on the money they borrow make a loss as often as they make a profit soon become a good judge of economic issues and hardly make a mistake E)are sound businessmen and don't bear risks

80. According to entrepreneurs

by the

and these expenses increase rapidly as soon as the product is on the market and they are very seldom offered a credit but they are sure that their profits will exceed their expenses before a particular product is even brought into the market but the biggest one is labor costs

81. We can infer from the passage that the success or failure of a product

A) becomes clear only after it has gone onto the market

B) is always a matter of lick indeed

C) is firmly related to the quality of the materials used

D) can be accurately judged shortly after it goes into production

E) is of very little importance to experienced entrepreneurs



The international Labor Organization (ILO) was brought into being in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles, in the idea 'that universal and lasting peace can be established only if it is based on social justice'. In July 1961 it reached 100 member countries including all the great powers, A unique feature of the ILO is that its meetings are attended not only by representatives of governments, but also by those of employers and workpeople as well, and these participate in the proceedings by voice and by vote, independently of their governments. The major policy-making body, for example, consists of four delegates from each member state and of these two represent the government. One represents employers and one employee. From the very beginning, the organization has taken steps to collect full and up-to-date information about work and social conditions throughout the world and to pass on the results to member states in the form of statistics and reports.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)


82. We learn from the passage that the international Labor Organization (ILO) was established in 1919 under the Treaty of Versailles

to gather statistical evidence relating to various approaches to social justice as a party of the attempt to make a permanent and all-inclusive peace in the hope of getting people to vote and act independently of their governments with an aim to establish good relations between employers and governments to finance research into working conditions all over the world

83. It is pointed out in the passage that, as an international organization, the International Labor Organization is extremely unusual

because it has an ever-increasing membership, particularly, of the developing nations as it is given the permission to investigate social conditions worldwide even among no member countries as some delegates do not represent their governments at the meetings but participate and vote independently because all member countries have to send at least four delegates to all meetings, and more if they want since its sources of income vary and mostly consist of the contributions made by industrialized countries

84. It is clearly indicated in the passage that one of the functions of the ILO has always

to stimulate the employer and employee representatives to stand up against their governments

B) to train the labor force in the principles of social justice

C) to make labor more informed about its international rights

D) the collecting of data concerning social conditions worldwide and the sharing of this knowledge

E) the development of the same working conditions throughout the member nations.



The question of 'how to fit the job to the man' starts with planning methods of work. At this point the industrial psychologist's major interest is to see that they are planned with due regard for the capacities and inclinations of the people who must use them. More specifically, his objectives are to make sure that methods of work are closely related to the range of 'tolerance' of the workers available to do them, and that appreciable fluctuations in these ranges (caused by, for instance, changes in the work supply) are recognized and allowed for. He doesn't make any claim to all round competence in planning methods of work: his only role is collaborative. Administrators, engineers and physiologists are usually his fellow planners; but this is only because the majority of systematic and detailed inquiries into methods of work occur in occupations related to industrial activities.

The main point of this passage is A) B) C) D) E) We learn from
The main point of this passage is
We learn from the passage that the industrial psychologist


to solve the special problems of a labor force that operates machines to set down and explain the aims of the industrial psychologist to advise administration on how to organize and run a work force the insufficiency of respect industrial psychologists receive from engineers the methods of training a labor force in industry


is not responsible for designing work systems, but he advises on them regarding worker 'tolerance' is expected to give advice to administration on the promotion of the labor force cannot be blamed even if there are slight fluctuations in output in factories is supposed to cater to the wishes of administration but not to those of the labor force is responsible for any redundancy that may arise from his advice as an efficiency expert


lt is obvious from the passage that the industrial psychologist is usually consulted

A) when a lot of unrest is noticed in the labor force

B) when work is in very short supply

C) in work places where industrial activities take place

D) since administrators and engineers cannot agree if certain methods are suitable

E) as there is disagreement between managers and physiologists



When job satisfaction, especially in manufacturing industries, is lost, some serious social problems rise. Managers in many industrial countries are seriously considering various projects aimed at 'job enrichment' so as to solve these problems. There are some attempts to reverse recent trends by enlarging the role and responsibilities of the workers. Several factories have tried to abolish the assembly line by organizing production again so that teams of workers are responsible for assembling the entire or a major component of a product. Each team can freely decide how the various tasks will be distributed and the speed the job is carried out. In every team the jobs may be rotated in order to increase variety in the work done.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

88. It is pointed out in the passage that, particularly in the manufacturing industries,

the teams are unable to organize themselves so management has to help them the rotation of jobs within the team has slowed down the work workers have perfect satisfaction with assembly line conditions great efforts are being made to provide the workers with more job satisfaction workers are demanding for higher salaries since they are being given more responsibilities

89. It can be understood from the passage that in several factories the assembly line is

still being protected because it is the ideal educational ground for new workers still used especially when procedures are complicated becoming more favorable since the workers find the work less demanding and easier felt to yield a higher standard of product being replaced by teams of workers who assemble a whole product or at least a whole unit

90. It Is obvious from the passage that, under the new teamwork system, the workers

A) carry more responsibility theoretically, but not in practice

B) have more responsibility and get fully involved in the decision-making process related to their work

C) require a more thorough training period

D) find they can work faster than they expected to

E) have the opportunity to be promoted and even become managers



Though forests are being consumed at great speed in developing countries for agricultural purposes, there is another side to the picture. Agricultural projects can include components that explicitly conserve natural forest or reforest lands where the trees have been cut down, and thus enhance agricultural production in a very cost-effective manner. A case in point is a World Bank-assisted irrigation project in Indonesia. To prevent deforestation of the watershed above the Dumoga Slawesi irrigation works, the Dumoga National Park was established on 2,700 square kilometers. The cost was less than 1 per cent of the total project costs, and went mainly to establish and demarcate park boundaries, develop a management plan, hire personnel, and provide the necessary infrastructure and equipment. This relatively small investment protects sedimentation and maintenance costs, and water necessary for optimal nice production. The park also preserves much of the rich flora and fauna that are unique to the island of Sulawesi.

A) especially when funding is no problem B) in particular when people have learned the
A) especially when funding is no problem
B) in particular when people have learned the value of their flora and fauna
C) and gives the example of an irrigation project in Indonesia
D) even when rainfall is scarcely adequate
E) because it was built on a river

91. The passage makes the point that agricultural projects need not always bring about the destruction of forest land,

92. The passage describes the making of the Dumoga National Park and emphasizes

its main function is to preserve the rich flora and fauna of the region that the cost of making it was very small indeed now much time and planning and experience went into creation the uniqueness of the scheme how difficult it was to persuade the authorities to agree to this part of the project.

93. We understand from the passage that the Dumoga National Park serves a very useful function,

A) even though the costs of its upkeep are proving higher than was expected.

B) though most people still refuse to admit.

C) though reforesting this area was a long slow process and extremely expensive.

D) as it is the only part of the island that is forested.

E) as it protects the Dumoga Sulawesi irrigation works immediately below it by reducing sedimentation.



Advertising by its very nature is obtrusive and attracts attention to itself as well as to the goods and services it offers. Its economics are extremely complex. !t is not surprising that it has become a popular subject of controversy. Nor is it likely that the arguments that rage around it will soon be settled one way or the other. Since a significant proportion of the national income of industrial countries Is spent on advertising and it is a subject of concern to many people, it is to be hoped that economists and sociologists both within the industry and outside it will devote more time and money to its objective study. Much of the inquiry into advertising that has so far taken place has been partisan. There remains a need for objective investigation into all its effects and implications. It is encouraging that advertising continues to be a subject for debate, inquiry and study.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E) A) is of little interest
A) is of little interest to anyone other than economists and sociologists.

94. According to the passage, advertising is a topic that has given rise to a great deal of heated discussion

nearly all of which takes place outside the industry that has served no useful purpose whatsoever but so far, no one has even thought of making a serious study of the matter and is likely to, and indeed ought to, continue to do so most of which is surprisingly objective

95. The passage makes the point that much attention is rightly being focused on

since the amount of money being spent upon it is, in relation to the national income, quite considerable since a great deal of money is being unnecessarily wasted upon it as so many of the claims made by advertisements contain very little truth especially by the firms that make use of the advertising industry and are growing increasingly discontented with the services it offers though this is largely because people enjoy a controversy that doesn't seriously affect them.

96. In the opinion of the writer of this passage, the subject of advertising

B) has been adequately researched at least as regards its effects and implications.

C) needs to be thoroughly examined and assessed in an open and entirely unprejudiced Manner.

D) has aroused an unreasonable amount of interest and this should be discouraged.

E) has become exceedingly popular, but there is no rational explanation for this.



In the world of thought, Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations survives as probably the richest source book of modern economic theory. This book is important because it raised the right issues, including industrial production, the distribution of incomes and employment saving. These are the issues that economic science has been working on ever since. Adam Smith had a rich, sensitive and generous mind, not a rigidly logical one. The result is one can't find inconsistencies in the text. This is actually an advantage, for it opens the subject up. All his hints can be traced up to the present day in different currents of thought. It is indeed Smith's very talent for containing inconsistencies that has motivated economic speculation, His direct inspiration also continues. For It was Smith who first realized the importance of economic cooperation between the nations if they were to live together peacefully. And this is still a vision.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E) A) is to be found
A) is to be found in the flexibility of his approach to economics

97. It is clear from the passage that Adam Smith

was more interested in the economics of production than of distribution believed that economic cooperation could be a basis for peace in the world concentrated on the practical problems such as income distribution that were relevant in his day, and avoided theories evolved certain theories that later generations hotly contested produced theories that are now outdated.

98. The writer of the passage clearly admires the Wealth of Nations because

the guidelines for economic studies set down there are still the accepted ones later generations have not felt the need to reconsider that issues he raised each issue is dealt with in a purely factual and logical manner it raises many questions and offers final answer to them in it the real and essential issues of economic science are raised so as to invite further speculation.

99. According to the writer of this passage, one aspect of Adam Smith's genius

B) is that there are no inconsistencies in his theories

C) is his wide knowledge of subjects that are really outside economic theory, such as industrial production

D) is to be seen in the fact that he found lasting, even final solutions to several economic problems

E) lies in his ability to grasp long-term trends and not give too much importance to short-term fluctuations.



Although women have made huge strides in catching up with men in the workplace, a gender gap persists both in wages and levels of advancement. Commonly cited explanations for this gap range from charges of sex discrimination to claims that women are more sensitive than men to work versus family conflicts and thus less inclined to make sacrifices for their careers. Recent research, however, suggests there may be another factor. In one study carried out early in the year, several groups of six students were paid to solve simple maze problems on a computer. In some groups, the students were paid 50 cents for each problem they solved during the experiment. In others, only the person solving the most problems got rewarded-but at the rate of $3 for each maze solved. Regardless of the sexual makeup of the groups, men and women, on average, did equally well when students were paid for their own performance. But when only the top student was paid, average male performance rose sharply-by about 50%-while female performance remained the same. From this it was concluded that females tend to be far less responsive to competition than males-a tendency with important implications for women and business.

A) men are better at delegating work B) a lot of women work part time
A) men are better at delegating work
B) a lot of women work part time
C) women take longer to do the same amount of work
D) men are better at most types of work
E) women are usually reluctant to put work before family
A) show that women dislike being in competition with women
B) show that men prefer to be in competition with men
C) suggest that men are far more competitive than women
D) emphasize the fact that women aren't interested in money
E) explain why women are particularly successful! in managerial roles

101.The findings of the experiment described in the passage

100.According to the passage, a reason traditionally given for the fact that men often hold higher-level positions in the workplace than women do is that

102.In the experiment described in the passage, when each student received 50 cents for each problem he/she solved

A) men and women, on average, performed alike

B) the women performed more or less alike

C) the men did slightly better than the women

D) the men performed much better than the women

E) the achievements of the men varied greatly



Volcanic activity and erosion by wind and water have combined to create, over many thousands of years, a considerable number of extraordinary natural

monuments in Turkey. Most famous of all their strange and startling creations are undoubtedly the rock pillars of Cappadocia and the great white travertines of Pamukkale. But Turkey has other enchanting natural formations which fascinate travellers as much as they do geologists. One such is to be seen on the island of Orak of Foca on the Aegean coast. The rocks here are named after the sirens mentioned in Homer's Odyssey, and were home to Mediterranean seals until! recent years. At Karapinar in central Turkey, the eight-kilometer-long Lake Meke

another of nature's masterpieces. This is a volcanic lake which has formed in

main crater containing smaller volcano vents. Islands like red bumps rising



from the greenish water are the work of these now extinct secondary volcanos. Then there is Yalç ınkaya, in the province of Eskisehir, which has carved inscriptions in the still undeciphered Phrygian language. It is famed for its great

rocks bearing carved Phrygian reliefs and the monument of King Midas.

A) B) C) D) E) A) are a particularly rare example of Phrygian writing B)
A) are a particularly rare example of Phrygian writing
B) are all related to King Midas
C) have been particularly badly eroded by wind and rain
D) help us to understand what is happening in the Phrygian reliefs there
E) have so far not been decoded.

103.The main aim of this passage is to,

describe some of the monuments of Turkey created by natural forces so as to make them attractive make people aware of the fact that Turkey's natural monuments need to be cared for better establish the historical importance of Turkey's natural monuments explain, in geological terms, how these natural monuments came into being give a purely factual account of the natural monuments of Turkey and their relative importance

104.We learn from the passage that the Phrygian inscriptions on the great rocks at Yalç ınkava

105.According to the passage, Lake Meke, in central Turkey,

A) is of interest to geologists but the general appearance is very ordinary

B) is the only lake in Turkey to have formed in a volcanic crater

C) is in a constant state of change due to continued volcanic activity

D) together with its islands, was formed by successive volcanic action

E) has only very recently been attracting any attention



There has been a frequent and often heated debate in recent years about the effects of violence in video games. Some believe that these games increase levels of aggression in children, whereas others argue that such games actually reduce aggression. People think games are often graphically violent, and that children will copy this in their everyday interactions with others. Some also point out that even cartoon characters might be imitated by young children. Those disagreeing with this view believe that children may find an outlet for their strong emotions by playing the games and end up feeling relaxed. Both points of view are plausible and exponents of both sides hold up their views firmly. Ultimately, ethical considerations prevent researchers from experimental manipulation, such as exposing behavior. To date, the evidence is inconclusive about the effects of playing violent video games on children's behavior.

A) and suggests that they are rapidly growing more violent B) and whether the violence
A) and suggests that they are rapidly growing more violent
B) and whether the violence in them makes children more or less aggressive
C) because they seem to have an adverse effect on the behavior of children
D) and whether more parental! control is desirable
E) and what could be done to improve them
A) are not realistic enough for children to relate them to real life
B) frighten children and so cause many problems
C) are more amusing than serious
D) actually help children to get rid of any violent emotions
E) contain no actions that children might be tempted to copy

106.The passage is about the on-going debate about video games

107.According to the passage, some people think that video games based on violence

108.The author of this passage presents a debate,

A) which he considers to be rather unimportant

B) but doesn't seem interested in the outcome

C) and shows clearly that he is against video games based on violence

D) and hopes that research will soon put an end to it

E) but favors neither side



A large amount of natural resources is not sufficient to guarantee economic growth.

A number of less-developed countries are fantastically rich In natural resources.

However, they have not been overly successful in exploiting these resources. Natural resources must be converted to useful forms. For example, in the United States the Indians had many natural resources available to them, but they were unable to increase their standard of living or experience economic growth. People must devise the methods to convert natural resources into usable forms. Countries with similar natural resources vary in their ability to do this. In short, abundant natural resources are not sufficient in themselves. People are necessary to develop resources into useful things. Less-developed nations require this type of human

resource before they are able to exploit the natural resources they possess. A) B) C)
resource before they are able to exploit the natural resources they possess.

110.We understand from the passage that the Indians In the US

109.An important point made in the passage is that

living standards always rise when there is economic growth an abundance of natural resources in a country is not on its own sufficient to make that country rich the exploitation of natural resources requires a large capital outlay the economic position of a country is directly related to its natural resources a country's natural resources should be used carefully as they are often very limited

failed to make use of the natural resources at their disposal managed to achieve a reasonable standard of living though they had no natural resources were envious of people with a better life-style wasted their natural resources and so remained poor had no desire to change their life-style

111. According to the passage, several of the less-developed countries

A) are already learning to exploit their natural resources.

B) have an abundance of natural resources.

C) have used up all their natural resources.

D) could achieve economic growth if only they had sufficient natural resources.

E) are completely lacking in natural resources.



People don't have to run marathons to gain the health rewards of physical activity. In fact, people who are extremely inactive can expect to get the greatest health benefits by taking part in regular, moderate-intensity, endurance-type activity. The authors of an extensive study on fitness and mortality concluded that "moderate levels of physical fitness that are attainable by most adults appear to be protective against early mortality". It makes sense, then, to encourage the least active people to participate in whatever activities they can readily perform since they may benefit most.

A) whose reasons for physical activity are varied B) who are experts in the problems
A) whose reasons for physical activity are varied
B) who are experts in the problems related to physical activity
C) who are rarely involved in any sort of physical activity
D) for whom physical activity is a prime aim in life
E) with whom he takes part in various physical activities
A) is an ordinary type of activity that doesn't require much physical effort
B) is one that is suitable for adults only
C) should only be undertaken under expert guidance
D) is specifically recommended for people of middle age
E) benefits the young rather than the elderly

112.Sn this passage, the author is really speaking to people

113.The physical activity that the writer is referring to in this passage

114.The writer points out that, in order to benefit from physical activity

one must, in the first place, enjoy good health we must at first follow a fixed schedule which includes a variety of activities some endurance-type activities are essential

D) the change from inactivity to activity must be a gradual one

E) one doesn't have to perform strenuous or exhausting activities



More than ever before, people are now learning about nutrition as they watch television, read newspapers, turn the pages of magazines, talk with friends, and search the internet. They want to know how best to take care of themselves. In some cases, they are seeking miracles: tricks to help them lose weight, foods to forestall aging and supplements to build muscles. People's heightened interest in nutrition and health translates into billions of dollars spent on services and products sold by both genuine and fraudulent businesses. While consumers who obtain genuine products can improve their health, those who are deceived by clever advertising may lose their health, their savings or both. Ironically, such deception in nutritional matters prevents people from attaining the health they seek by giving them false hope and delaying the implementation of effective strategies.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

115.As is pointed out in the passage, in recent years

people have been giving great importance to their heath and always consult qualified doctors if there is a problem nutritional standards everywhere have risen noticeably people know a lot more about nutrition but continue to eat what they know is bad for them a great deal of money is being spent on health aids and the results are always worth it people have become increasingly interested in nutrition and health

116.The passage contains a warning that

many nutrition-related products make false claims about what they can achieve much information that can be obtained from the internet is completely unreliable too much interest in health actually has an adverse effect on one's health efforts to forestall aging have proved particularly dangerous there are more fraudulent health products and services than genuine ones

117.According to the passage, many of the health Items on the market actually have adverse effect upon the consumer,

A) which the manufacturers find very worrying.

B) but this is rarely made known to the public.

C) but some do achieve the miracles they promise.

D) because they make one delay seeking proper medical advice.

E) but never of a serious nature.



The concept of "stress on the job" is both common and difficult to define. We all have had the experience of being driven to the margin of physical and psychological capability by strenuous physical exertion, hot climate, schedule pressure, unreasonable behavior of bosses or colleagues, oncoming illness or the feeling of useless efforts. Some of " these reasons for stress are physical, others are psychological; some are related directly to a person's individual character, whereas some are grounded in external factors. Yet the concept is a difficult one because what may be stimulating under one circumstance may become excessive under other circumstances. A circumstance may generate a positive stress which stimulates more activity or it may result in a negative stress that overloads the person and generates ineffectiveness, evasive behavior, anxiety, even illness.

A) hold different opinions about bosses and colleagues B) find different ways to avoid stress-provoking
A) hold different opinions about bosses and colleagues
B) find different ways to avoid stress-provoking circumstances
C) react in different ways to similar situations
D) have surprisingly similar ways of extending their psychological capabilities
E) behave in uncharacteristic ways in hot climates
A) always have a lasting effect upon a person's health
B) invariably produce illness
C) are the main cause of conflicts in the work-place
D) are not always negative
E) can be overcome simply by a change in the work schedule

118.It is clearly pointed out in the passage that different people

119.One point made in the passage is that the results of stress

120.Circumstances are

A) various measures which can be taken to avoid stress

B) some of the ways in which stress can be prevented

C) a number of conditions that can produce stress

D) that everyone is liable to suffer from stress to the same degree

E) that strenuous physical activity is the best way of overcoming stress



Americans today choose among more options in more parts of life than has ever been possible before. To some extent, the opportunity to choose enhances our lives. It is only logical to think that if some choice is good, more is better. Yet recent research strongly suggests that, psychologically, this assumption is wrong. Although some choice is undoubtedly better than none, more Is not always better than less. This evidence is consistent with large-scale social trends. Assessments of well-being by various social scientists reveal that increased choice and increased wealth have, in fact, been accompanied by decreased well-being in the US and most other rich societies. Of course, no one believes that a single factor explains decreased well-being, but a number of findings indicate that the explosion of choice plays an important role. Thus, it seems that as society grows wealthier and people become freer to do whatever they want, they get less happy. In an era of ever greater personal autonomy, choice and control, what could account for this degree of misery?

A) something that only the rich can enjoy B) an evil with the appearance of
A) something that only the rich can enjoy
B) an evil with the appearance of good
C) the main cause of present-day unhappiness
D) suitable for some people, but not for others
E) desirable, but to a limited extent only
A) will in all probability continue at the same rate
B) has a variety of causes
C) had been expected for some time
D) did not come as a surprise to psychologists
E) is far more apparent in the US than elsewhere

121.The author of this passage clearly regards choice as

122.According to the passage, the decline in happiness that is happening in wealthy societies

123.As we understand from the passage, the idea that an increase in options has led to a decrease in happiness

A) is being strongly contested

B) is presented as a very logical development

C) is supported by the findings of several research projects

D) seems to be true for all countries in the world

E) has so far attracted the attention of very few scientists



Looking back at the past century, it's interesting to note that a number of new theories on teaching and learning have emerged. Among those theories which have been popular and become influential are the socio-cultural theory and constructivism. According to the socio-cultural theory, social interaction plays a fundamental role in the development of knowledge. Constructivism, on the other hand, states that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge, if we go deeper into these theories, we will come to an understanding that they focus on the learner, while the teacher's role is that of an inquirer, observer and creator of "rich" learning environments from which the learner can make his/her own discoveries. These two perspectives (socio-cultural theory and constructivism) became the foundation of learner-centered instruction, which is often contrasted with the teacher-centered approach.

A) B) C) D) E) A) the level of education everywhere was particularly low B)
A) the level of education everywhere was particularly low
B) the teacher-centered theory of education was first introduced
C) the learner lost his respect for the teacher
D) educational theory received considerable attention
E) educational theory was far behind educational practice

124.According to the passage, the socio-cultural theory and constructivism

give very definite guidelines for teachers to follow represent opposing theories of education have contributed almost equally to the teacher-centered approach to instruction are both extreme theories related to education and are no longer taken seriously by anyone in the teaching profession have both played an important role in establishing the learner-centered approach to instruction

125.We understand from the passage that the 20th century was one in which

126.It is clear from the passage that, in the learner-centered approach to education,

A) everyone is free to choose his own study programmed

B) the function of the teacher is to help the learner find things out for himself/herself

C) constructivism cannot be practiced

D) the learner works absolutely independently of the teacher

E) vast amounts of equipment and resources are essential



People may be overweight, not because they eat too much, but because they spend too little energy. More than one-third of the overweight populations report no physical activity at all during their leisure time. Some overweight people are so extraordinarily inactive that even when they eat less than thin people, they still have an energy surplus. Reducing their food intake further would be a threat to their health. Physical activity, then, is a necessary component of nutritional health. People must be physically active if they are to eat enough food to deliver all the nutrients they need without unhealthy weight gain. One hundred years ago, 30 per cent of the energy used in farm and factory work came from muscle power; today only 1 per cent does. Modern technology, resulting in such things as computers and washing-machines, has replaced physical activity at home, at work, and in transportation. Under activity is probably the single most important contributor to overweight. And in most cases, television watching makes the biggest contribution to physical inactivity.

point emphasized in the passage concerning the problem overweight, is that A) it is threatening
overweight, is that
A) it is threatening the lives and the happiness of a great many people
B) the best solution is to eat less
C) it is by no means a modern phenomenon
D) people need to be made more aware of how it can be overcome
E) it is usually the result of too little physical activity
A) rarely bother to turn the television on
B) do not regard being overweight as a problem
C) are quite as physically active as the average person
D) may actually eat less than thin people
E) seem to enjoy excellent health
many factors


128.According to the passage, some overweight people




modern-life under activity, but the main one is

A) driving to work instead of walking

B) watching television

C) labor-saving devices in the home

D) the use of computers in offices

E) fast-food services



The conventional photography industry is facing difficult times now that digital cameras have come to the fore in all parts of the world. People with digital cameras take more picture than do those with conventional cameras, but make fewer prints. They tend to share pictures over the internet and get any prints they do want from their computers, instead of going to a photography shop for prints. Further, a new threat has now appeared: camera-equipped mobile phones. These could change the nature of photography entirely, because they make the sharing of digital photographs far easier. In all probability they will soon be quite the most popular form of camera.

A) do not need the services of the photography industry B) regard themselves as professional
A) do not need the services of the photography industry
B) regard themselves as professional photographers
C) can't take better photographs than people with conventional cameras
D) take fewer photographs than one might expect
E) are not interested in camera-equipped mobile phones
A) photography has been made rather easy
B) the photography industry has been enjoying a period of prosperity
C) no one ever bothers to print any photographs
D) more and more people have started to use the internet
E) people are taking more photographs than before.
A) will only enjoy a short period of popularity

130.It is clear from the passage that people with digital cameras

131.We understand from the passage that, with the introduction of digital cameras

132.According to the passage, it seems likely that camera-equipped mobile phones

B) are going to bring radical changes to the field of photography

C) will soon be able to produce photographs of higher quality

D) will always be a luxury item

E) will soon be replaced by a much smaller camera.



Born in 1564 in Stratford, Shakespeare probably attended the Stratford grammar school, where he received a classical education under its excellent schoolmaster. The years from the mid-1580s to about 1592 are called “the lost years” in Shakespeare’s life because nothing is known of him. By 1592, at any rate, he was a rising young playwright in London. This was an exciting period in the English theatre mainly because of a group known as the University Wits, which included Marlowe, Nashe and others. These brilliant young men turned out sophisticated plays for the aristocracy and sensational plays for the general public.

A) wrote exclusively for upper class audiences B) were less popular than Shakespeare after he
A) wrote exclusively for upper class audiences
B) were less popular than Shakespeare after he came to London
C) had done very little to make the London theatre popular
D) wrote two very distinct types of play
E) regarded Shakespeare as their inferior
A) he soon began to experiment with the writing of plays

135.One can understand from the passage that, whenShakespeare his local school,

133.It is pointed out in the passage that the group known as the “University Wits”

134.The phrase “the lost years” in the passage refers to

the years during which Shakespeare wrote no plays the period in Shakespeare’s life about which we have virtually no knowledge the period before Shakespeare became famous for his plays the years of hardship Shakespeare experienced in Stratford the period of writing before Shakespeare met the University Wits


B) his schoolmaster recognized his literary talent and gave him great encouragement

C) he was disappointed because so much emphasis was put on classical subjects

D) the quality of education there was remarkably good

E) he met Marlowe and Nashe, who became his future colleagues



Elephants have to keep in touch across large distances. Even when they are out of hearing range of one another, in forests or the great plains of East Africa, they are often spotted moving in the same direction. Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down, which leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet. Such cells would enable them to pick up low frequency vibrations from the ground, waves that travel distances of up to 16 km.

A) become nervous and stamp their feet B) feel very insecure C) can still communicate
A) become nervous and stamp their feet
B) feel very insecure
C) can still communicate with each other
D) try many different ways of making contact with each other
E) feel exposed to attack
A) the forest lands and plains of East Africa is their ideal environment

136.We understand from the passage that, when elephants are a good distance apart, they

137.As it is clear from the passage, some scientists are of the opinion that

the sensitive cells in the feet of elephants serve a wide variety of functions the power of elephants to communicate is very weak some elephants have adapted themselves well to the specific environmental conditions of East Africa it is not natural for elephants to move in the same direction elephants have cells in their feet that are sensitive to vibrations

138.According to the passage, one scientific assumption about elephants is that

B) they can sense all levels of vibration equally well

C) the up-and-down movement of their feet is a means of communication

D) their sense of hearing enables them to pick up sounds up to 16 km away

E) their whole body is covered with extremely sensitive cells



When George Orwell was asked by a journalist about his career as a writer, he gave the following account of himself: “From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when I grew up I should be a writer. Between the ages of about seventeen and twenty-four I tried to give up this idea, but I knew that sooner or later I should have to settle down and write books. I was the middle child of three, but there was a gap of five years on either side, and I barely saw my father before I was eight. For this and other reasons I was somewhat lonely, and I soon developed disagreeable habits which made me unpopular throughout my schooldays. I had the lonely child’s habit of making up stories and holding conversations with imaginary persons; ambitions were mixed up with the feeling of being isolated and undervalued.”

A) used to entertain the other pupils with his funny stories B) collected a lot
A) used to entertain the other pupils with his funny stories
B) collected a lot of material to use in his writings
C) was an extremely ambitious pupil and often got very high grades
D) was disliked because his behaviour was rather odd
E) was held in great respect on account of his literary talents

139.We learn from the passage, that during his years at school, George Orwell

140.According to the passage, although at one period in his life Orwell rejected the idea,

he later decided to go in for journalism it was his father who encouraged him to be a writer he actually knew all along he would have to be a writer at a later period he devoted himself to the cause of lonely children at school at another period he tried to write plays

141.In the passage, Orwell suggests that his habit of inventing stories and talking to imaginary characters,

A) was essentially a result of his loneliness

B) was a gift he had inherited from his father

C) made him popular with his school friends

D) was to continue all through his life

E) had no bearing upon his career as a writer



Engineering is akin to writing or painting in that it is a creative endeavor that begins in the mind’s eye and proceeds into new frontiers of thought and action, where it does not so much find as make new things. Just as the poet starts with a blank sheet of paper and the artist with a blank canvas, so the engineer today begins with a blank computer screen. Until the outlines of a design are set down, however tentatively, there can be no appeal to science or to critical analysis to judge or test the design. Scientific, rhetorical or aesthetic principles may be called on to inspire, refine and finish a design, but creative things do not come of applying the principles alone. Without the sketch of a thing or a diagram of a process, scientific facts and laws are of little use to engineers. Science may be the theater, but engineering is the action on the stage.

A) B) C) D) E) A) only have a role to play after a design
A) only have a role to play after a design has taken some sort of form
B) are only relevant in details concerning safety
C) are a constant factor all through the creative process of design
D) play an important role only when it comes to finalizing certain details
E) are rarely applicable at any stage in his projects

144.The point is made in the passage that aesthetic principles

142.The writer’s main aim in this passage is to

show how many different types of creativity there are stress the creative and constructive aspects of an engineer’s work compare and contrast the way poets and painters work show that literary creativity is superior to the painter’s creativity establish the fact that it is the engineers’ scientific knowledge that makes him creative

143.We understand from the passage that, for the engineer, scientific laws

A) have no place in an engineer’s design

B) are central to the very best works of art

C) and creativity are two very different things

D) cannot be taught or learnt

E) can infuse life into an ill-conceived poem



Just as every teenager thinks he is brighter than his parents, every decade considers itself superior to the one that came before. Over the past few months, we of the 2000 decade have made it quite clear that we are morally heads above those who lived in the 1990s. We’ve done it first by establishing a reigning cliché for that period. Just as the 1960s are known for student unrest, the 1980s for Reagan, Thatcher and the Yuppies, the 1990s will henceforth be known as the second Gilded Age. They will be known as the age when the real problems in the world were ignored while the illusions of the dotcom types were celebrated. It was the age of effortless abundance, cell phones on every ear, stock markets that only went up and Mercedes sport utility vehicles. Never before had business leaders enjoyed so much prestige, and never before had capitalism had fewer mortal enemies. Bill Gates couldn’t be on enough business-magazine covers; tycoons like him felt free to assume the role of global sages, writing boks with such weighty titles as “The Road Ahead.”

A) capitalism, blindness and possessions B) hard-work, greed and the need to communicate C) indifference,
A) capitalism, blindness and possessions
B) hard-work, greed and the need to communicate
C) indifference, immorality and selfishness
D) generosity, spontaneity and individuality
E) disagreements, competition and prejudice

146.In the opinion of the author of the passage, the 2000 decade

145.According to the passage, the decade of the 1990s was characterized by

differs very little from the decade of Reagan, Thatcher and the Yuppies inherited a failing global economy from the previous decade is far more moral than the preceding one still admires the values of the business leaders of the 1990s and the books they wrote is fast losing its idealism and growing more and more like previous decades

147.The term “Gilded Age” as it is used in the passage means

A) to be admired

B) golden age

C) with moral principles

D) with surface shine

E) in bad taste



BBC4, a comparatively new TV channel, has a character of its own. From the start it aimed to be “a place to think”, and it was always designed as something “that the commercial market would never do”, says Roly Keating, its controller and formerly head of arts at the BBC. Its first week’s schedule indeed verged on a parody of non-commercial TV, with township opera from South Africa and a performance by a Senegalese singer in a London church hall. A top-rated show will typically draw some 50,000 viewers – almost negligible in television terms. Yet that narrow appeal makes BBC4 a model of what a publicly financed broadcaster ought to do. It has roamed into territory where its ratings-driven sister channel, BBC1, seldom dares to tread. Despite a tiny 35m budget, it boasts an intelligent prime-time talk show and a world news programme so internationally minded that its London provenance is barely visible. BBC4 may wear its gravity a little too heavily at times, but it supplies a variety and thoughtfulness unavailable on prime time BBC1. The more the other BBC channels chase the ratings, and the more that BBC4 refuses to be dictated to by them, the more the channel looks like a model for what BBC television could look like.

A) has to give viewers the kind of programs they want B) has a large
A) has to give viewers the kind of programs they want
B) has a large budget with which to work.
C) is under no pressure to attract large numbers of viewers
D) is under an obligation to offer a great variety of program.
E) is often severely criticized for the subjectivity of its news programs.
A) it is obliged to put on popular program.
B) its appeal is a very narrow one
C) it sees BBC4 as its greatest rival
D) it feels very secure and can take risks
E) it never experiments or tries out a new type of program.

148.It is clear from the passage that, since BBC4 is publicly financed, it----.

149.In the passage, BBC1 is described as being “ratings-driven”; this means

150.Before he took over the running of BBC4, Roly Keating

A) was involved in commercial TV enterprises.

B) was criticized because his program were too intellectual and too serious.

C) was a severe critic of the BBC1 channel.

D) had taken a firm stand against the trend to let ratings dictate programming.

E) was arts director at the BBC.



The natives of the Lewis Island know wind – sometimes too well. Every winter the Atlantic gales come blasting across the northern tip of Scotland’s Outer Hebrides. The wind hardly slows down even after striking land; in the island’s marshy interior, gusts regularly exceed 160kph. Everyone stays indoors but the sheep. Tourists arrive in summer, lured by mild temperatures and unspoiled countryside; even so, there’s rarely a calm day. “The weather here is changeable”, says Nigel Scott, spokesman for the local government. “But the wind is constant”. The brutal climate could finally be Lewis’s salvation. The place has been growing poorer and more desolate for generations, as young people seek sunnier prospects elsewhere. But now the energy industry has discovered the storm-swept island. The multinationals AMEC and British Energy are talking about plans to erect some 300 outsize wind turbines across a few thousand hectares of moorland. If the 500 million-pound project goes through, the array will be Europe’s largest wind farm, capable of churning out roughly 1 per cent of Britain’s total electrical needs – and generating some badly needed jobs and cash for the people of Lewis.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

153.According to the passage, Lewis Island

151.We understand from the passage that, in summer, the island of Lewis

attracts visitors as nature there has remained unspoiled enjoys a warm, wind-free climate is one of the most attractive of the islands that make up the Outer Hebrides has little to offer its inhabitants by way of a living other than fishing can offer its inhabitants even less in the way of a livelihood than it can in the winter

152.It’s clear from the passage that for a long time now the young people of Lewis

have been looking forward to the establishment of a wind farm on their island have been leaving the island intent on finding a better way of life elsewhere have realized that the island’s most valuable asset is its climate have been reluctant to leave the island on a permanent basis feel no sympathy for the old traditions and ways of life of the island

A) has the climate and conditions favorable to agriculture

B) suffers more than any other island in Scotland’s Outer Hebrides from Atlantic gales

C) will undergo many important changes unless a wind farm is established there

D) may one day be home to Europe’s largest wind farm

E) has an aging population that regards the wind-farm scheme with distrust



In this century, the wealth and success of nations will depend like never before on the ability to produce and use knowledge. Universities have long been instrumental in generating knowledge and ideas. But in an increasingly globalized world, and in the face of rapid scientific change, they will need to think about a set of new challenges and how best to prepare their students for the coming decades. Universities will need to teach a new kind of literacy, in which global awareness will play an important role. They also need to deal with the dilemmas posed by the accelerating pace of change brought on by scientific and technological advances. We are on the brink of once-in-human-history progress in combating disease through the application of modern science. Doctors will have at their disposal blood tests that will tell you with substantial predictive power how long you will live and from what diseases you are likely to suffer. The Internet and the application of information technology may well represent the most profound change in the way knowledge is disseminated since the printing press. We are close to understanding the first second of the history of the cosmos.

A) have the chance to work alongside foreign students B) are equipped to deal with
A) have the chance to work alongside foreign students
B) are equipped to deal with the changing conditions of the coming decades
C) are introduced to international perspectives in every area of study
D) are taught not specific facts as much as broad ways of thinking
E) all have a good grounding in science and technology

155.One point that is given considerable emphasis in the passage is

154.According to the passage, universities are under an obligation to ensure that their students

the need of all students to get acquainted with foreign cultures and global issues that the universities have a commitment to the pursuit of truth for its own sake that the universities are in a position to further greater global integration the incredible speed with which knowledge is increasing that universities must stick to the values that have made them successful in the past

156.It is clear from the passage that science and the application of science

A) will not help to further global awareness

B) is largely confined within the universities

C) has grown so complex that it is beyond the understanding of all but a very few

D) cannot go on advancing at this rate

E) is opening up startling new possibilities.



Aging involves multiple harmful biological events that accumulate in different tissues over time and gradually reduce an organism’s state of maintenance and function. Calendar time, however, serves as an imperfect measurement of the physiological processes involved in aging. We all know individuals who are the same chronological age but appear to be very different when it comes to physiological age. Rather than counting years — or gray hairs, for that matter — modern gerontologists turn to biological markers, or biomarkers, of aging. These physiological parameters indicate an individual’s functional level and some biomarkers, such as insulin levels, correlate with mortality. The presence of such biomarkers depends indirectly on patterns of gene expression, which are induced by a variety of internal or external stimuli.

A) B) C) D) E) A) one’s genetic defects become more obvious B) the body’s
A) one’s genetic defects become more obvious
B) the body’s ability to maintain itself starts to deteriorate
C) the physiological processes accurately reflect chronological time
D) there are functional changes in the body but these are hard to detect
E) one’s insulin level remains stable

158.It is clear from the passage that as one ages

159.It is pointed out in the passage that the process of aging

157.We understand from the passage that biomarkers

do not always produce reliable results in measuring a person’s biological age are closely related to insulin levels and calendar time must be taken into account in finding out about a person’s health are of primary importance for gerontologists in learning about a person’s physical condition can undermine an organism’s state of maintenance and function

A) can best be determined through biological markers

B) has a pattern which varies very little among individuals

C) cannot be clearly understood without taking into account the graying of a person’s hair

D) is best indicated by the amount of years a person has lived

E) has an adverse effect on very few functions of an individual’s body



Cardiac transplantation, once considered an experimental procedure, has emerged as the therapy of choice for many appropriately selected patients with life-threatening

irremediable heart disease. Congestive heart failure (CHF), the primary indication for cardiac transplantation, is the most commonly reported reason for hospital admission.

A knowledge of cardiac transplantation medicine is therefore important for all

physicians, as transplantation should be considered a therapeutic option for many of these patients. In the past, post-cardiac transplant care was largely performed by

specialized transplant physicians, primarily cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons.

survival after cardiac transplantation has improved markedly over the last decade,

the population of patients who are long-term survivors after heart transplantation has grown. Primary care physicians, as well as cardiologists not based at cardiac transplant centres, often assist in the care of these patients, most often in consultation with cardiac transplant physicians. In addition, a physician may be called on to assist in

the management and evaluation of a potential cardiac donor.


A) was an experimental procedure rather than a therapy B) was carried out on every
A) was an experimental procedure rather than a therapy
B) was carried out on every patient with CHF
C) had a very low success-rate indeed
D) could only be practised at special cardiac transplant centres
E) was generally regarded with disapproval in the medical world

160.We learn from the passage that, to start with, cardiac transplantation

161.It is pointed out in the passage that cardiac transplant physicians

are no longer involved in post-cardiac transplant care are often assisted in post-cardiac transplant care by primary care physicians are the only ones qualified to select cardiac donors are still experimenting in developing an improved method of cardiac transplantation are primarily affiliated with cardiac transplant centres outside hospitals

162.According to the passage, in recent years

almost every patient with heart disease has come to recognize cardiac transplantation as an indispensable therapeutic option more and more patients with CHF have chosen to undergo cardiac transplantation

C) the number of cardiac transplant centres in the world has increased due to advances in cardiac transplantation

D) there has been a noticeable improvement in the survival of post-cardiac transplant patients

E) cardiologists and cardiovascular surgeons have been engaged in extensive research for the improvement of post-cardiac transplant care



When a patient sees a doctor, the patient is seeking help –-to regain or retain health. The physician’s task is to work for the patient’s health. The doctor does so by treating disease, by relieving discomfort, by assisting the patient with any disability, by preventing premature death, and by maximizing contentment. (Some have summarized these activities as tackling “the five D’s” of health – disease, discomfort, disability, death, and dissatisfaction). Often there is success in all these areas. In the best of circumstances, the doctor is able to prevent disease and help the patient remain healthy. In other cases, disease and death defeat us. In some cases none of the goals are achieved, but even that outcome must not stop us from trying. By focusing on the health of the patient, the doctor tests the myriad activities of clinical medicine against the health outcome of the patient.

A) a doctor should never admit to failure B) it is, unfortunately, discomfort that is
A) a doctor should never admit to failure
B) it is, unfortunately, discomfort that is most frequently overlooked
C) a doctor’s priority must be the accurate diagnosis of the disease
D) the psychology of the patient is of paramount importance
E) a doctor is not likely to achieve success in all areas, all the time
A) either to recover from disease or to maintain health
B) only when he/she is in acute pain
C) only after a condition has become chronic
D) because friends or family have urged him/her to do so
E) if there seems to be a serious medical problem calling for clinical tests

163.According to the passage, as regards “the five D’s” of health,

164.It is stressed in the passage that a patient seeks medical help

165.We understand from the passage that, in offering medical help to a patient, the physician

A) needs to know something about the patient’s medical history

B) also seeks professional self-satisfaction

C) does contribute, to a significant extent, to the patient’s well-being

D) often feels it is advisable to consult a colleague and get a second opinion

E) has to take into account the psychological needs of the patient



Cancer describes a class of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells. Cancers kill by the destructive invasion of normal organs through direct extension and spread to distant sites via the blood, lymph, or serosal surfaces. The abnormal clinical behaviour of cancer cells is often mirrored by biologic aberrations such as genetic mutations, chromosomal translocations, expression of fetal or other discordant ontologic characteristics, and the inappropriate secretion of hormones or enzymes. All cancers invade or metastasize but each specific type has unique biologic and clinical features that must be appreciated for proper diagnosis, treatment and study. About 1. 2 million new cases of invasive cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States, and about500,000 people die annually of the disease. Cancer is the second most deadly disease and is expected to surpass heart disease early in the twenty-first century to top that vicious list. Over the past half century, the frequency of most cancers has been stable, but some dramatic changes have taken place. Steady declines in stomach and uterine cancer have occurred, the latter undoubtedly due to routine cytologic screening for cervical cancer. The cause of the decline in stomach cancer is unknown. The most striking change has been the increases in lung cancer in both men and women, undoubtedly related to smoking.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

167.As it is pointed out in the passage, cancer

166.It is pointed out in the passage that, over the next few decades, mortality due to cancer

will start to decline as new methods of treatment are introduced will be higher than the mortality caused by heart disease will start to threaten younger people will be greatly reduced through an increase in early diagnosis will increase at an alarming rate as very many more people are starting to smoke

has been on a steady increase since the mid-twentieth century has caused much higher mortality in the United tates than anywhere else in the world is a disease with a great deal of variety, which requires different treatments and studies is still a disease much deadlier than heart disease of the stomach is the one that causes the most problems

168.We learn from the passage that, among the different cancers, lung cancer

A) shows a downward trend in the United States

B) is the one that most needs to be dealt with immediately

C) is the one that most readily yields to treatment

D) has appeared with increasing frequency over the years

E) affects as many non-smokers as smokers



Medicine is not a science, but a profession that encompasses medical science learning as well as personal, humanistic, and professional attributes. Nonetheless, the delivery of Western medicine depends totally on science and the scientific method. Since Flexner issued his famous report on the subject in 1910, American medical education has striven to develop a strong scientific base as an integral part of medical education at every level: premedical, medical, residency and continuing medical education. Biomedical science is fundamental to understanding disease, making diagnoses, applying new therapies and appreciating the complexities and opportunities of new technologies. The process of becoming a physician and being committed to lifelong learning requires that one possess the scientific base not only to acquire and appreciate new knowledge but to see new ways for applying it to patient care as well. The physician must be able to understand reports of current research in the medical literature in order to grasp and evaluate the newest and latest approaches, no matter how complicated the field may become.

A) B) C) D) E) A) is quite unrelated to patient-care B) has only come
A) is quite unrelated to patient-care
B) has only come to be appreciated in recent decades
C) is only fully valued by those involved in serious research
D) is of great importance in really all of a physician’s activities
E) bears little relation to other areas of science
A) it is almost impossible to keep up with recent developments in medicine

169.It is clear from the passage that, as a result of Flexner’s report,

the humanistic aspect of the medical profession has received much more attention residency has come to the fore in American medical education the whole system of patient care in American hospitals has been restructured specialization rather than general medical practice has become widespread in the United States medical education in the United States has undergone a process of transformation

170.We understand from the passage that biomedical science

171.We understand from the passage that, for a physician,

B) it is what he learned during residency that most influences his approach to his patients

C) medical education is not limited to medical school and residency, but is actually a process of lifelong learning

D) new developments outside his own field of specialization can be ignored

E) the scientific base of his medical knowledge is far more important than any new technologies and approaches



In the past, lead poisoning was thought to arise from pica (abnormal ingestion) among children living in old, broken-down houses with peeling layers of lead-based paints. In the past two decades, lead intoxication has occurred with decreasing frequency. This may in part be related to less use of lead in paint and leaded gasoline; several studies relate environmental lead contamination to traffic density patterns. In the United States, hundreds of occupations involve potentially significant exposure. It is estimated that more than 800,000 American workers have potentially significant lead exposure. Lead and other metal workers or miners, storage battery workers, and pottery makers are particularly heavily exposed. Workers in auto manufacturing, ship building, paint manufacture and printing industries are also at substantial risk, as are house painters and those who repair old houses. In past centuries lead was added to wine to sweeten it, a deception that was eventually made punishable by death. Recently, adding lead to various herbal and folk medicines has resulted in poisoning. Bullets left in the body can result in lead poisoning, especially if a joint is involved, because synovial fluid appears to be a good solvent for lead. The interval between the bullet getting embedded in the body and clinical evidence of lead poisoning has ranged from 2 days to 40 years.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

173. According to the passage, there is scientific evidence to suggest that

172.It is stated in the passage that lead exposure

has been recognized by many employers as a deadly threat to their work force has been increasing at an alarming rate in many industries in the United States

is a very serious concern in various occupations and industries has led to the introduction of various preventive measures in certain occupations and industries and its consequences have only recently become a major concern of clinical research

a bullet induces lead poisoning as soon as it is lodged in the body heavy traffic causes lead contamination in the environment most cases of lead poisoning have resulted from lead-based paints the risk of lead poisoning is equally likely to occur in all the different metal

industries and occupations the quality of wines can be improved substantially through the use of lead chemicals

174.It is pointed out in the passage that, a reduction of lead in paint and petrol,

A) was recommended decades ago but never enforced

B) will do little to overcome environmental contamination

C) will bring substantial benefits to house painters and those repairing old houses, but to no one else

D) has produced as many negative results as positive

E) may have contributed to the decrease in cases of lead poisoning observed in recent years



The US Supreme Court is not a radical institution, nor is it likely to become one as a result of any particular presidential election. The risks for the judiciary in presidential elections are a lot lower than many people imagine. This is not because there are no significant ideological or methodological differences among judges. Differences do exist, and they display party affiliation to some extent. And they matter – not just on public issues such as abortion rights and racial discrimination but also in those procedures that actually guide the way lower courts handle a large variety of legal cases. That said, the courts have pretty strong institutional defences against radicalism of any kind. For one thing, the judiciary’s power is spread among more than 800 federal judges, no one of whose views matter all that much in the broad scheme of things. Even on the Supreme Court the idiosyncrasies or ideological extremism of any one judge can have only a limited effect. Without four like-minded judges, his or her views are just noise.

A) they play only a very small role in their deliberations B) they are far
A) they play only a very small role in their deliberations
B) they are far fewer than they used to be
C) these in no way concern party politics
D) it is almost impossible to avoid radicalism
E) this only becomes apparent at election times
A) is feared by the lower courts
B) is a breeding ground for radicalism
C) is cut off from the lower courts of justice
D) avoids, as far as possible, public issues like abortion
E) can only be slightly affected by a presidential election

176.According to the passage, the Supreme Court of the US

175.It is pointed out in the passage that though there are differences of opinion within the judiciary,

177.According to the passage, all rulings of the Supreme Court

A) are reconsidered after an election

B) can be influenced by the federal judges

C) must have had the support of at least five judges

D) aim at preventing ideological extremism

E) are, to a very large extent, influenced by party affiliation



American schools need more time if they are to teach efficiently. The school year is fixed at or below 180 days in all but a handful of states – down from more than 190 in the late nineteenth century, when Saturday-morning sessions were common. The instructional day is only about six hours, of which much is taken up with nonacademic matters. In 1994, a national commission calculated that in four years of high school a typical American student puts in less than half as much time on academic subjects as do students in Japan, France and Germany. Extending the school day or the school year can get expensive and complicated, and reducing nonacademic electives and physical education brings complaints from parents and students alike. But there is one quite cheap and uncomplicated way to increase study time: add more homework. You may not be surprised to learn that homework raises student achievement, at least in the higher grades. For young children homework appears not to be particularly helpful. Even among older students it is hard to be sure of the extent to which more homework may lead to higher achievement.

A) are of little concern to the parents, and so they tend to ignore them
A) are of little concern to the parents, and so they tend to ignore them
B) are at present being reviewed by a national commission
C) do not put much emphasis on academic learning
D) are run on similar lines to those in the rest of the world
E) have been extensively revised since 1994

178.We understand from the passage that school programmes in America

179.It is pointed out in the passage that in some countries, like Japan, France and Germany,

the school curricula allow roughly equal time for academic and nonacademic subjects the school year is far too long and this makes it unproductive students are given less homework than their American counterparts achievement correlates well with the length of the school day the amount of time students spend on academic learning far exceeds that spent by American students

180.According to the passage, any extension of the instructional day in American schools

A) is not to be recommended on account of the expenses involved

B) would arouse much discontent among parents and students

C) needs to be reviewed by a national commission

D) should aim to bring them up to the level of Japanese schools

E) would have to have the approval of all the states



During the Renaissance, especially in the sixteenth century, it was customary to debate the pre-eminence of the arts, particularly as between painting and sculpture. The more commonly accepted opinion is represented by Benvenuto Cellini, who thought that sculpture is eight times as great as any other art based on drawing, because a statue has eight views and they must all be equally good. A painting, he said, is nothing better than the image of a tree, man, or other object. In fact, the difference between painting and sculpture is as great as between a shadow and the object casting it. Leonardo, on the other hand, thought that painting is superior to sculpture because it is more intellectual. By this he meant that as a technique it is infinitely more subtle in the effects that it can produce, and infinitely wider in the scope it offers to invention or imagination. Michelangelo, when the question was referred to him, in his wise and direct way said that things which have the same end are themselves the same, and that therefore there could be no difference between painting and sculpture except differences due to better judgment and harder work.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

182.It is clear from the passage that, during the 16th century,

181.As pointed out in the passage, according to Cellini

the generally held belief on the pre-eminence of the arts was totally unfounded Leonardo’s skills as a painter did not exceed those of Michelangelo the Renaissance debate on the pre-eminence of the arts should not be taken seriously the art of the sculptor is less demanding than that of the painter a painting is inferior to a work of sculpture because it has no solidity

the art of Leonardo was more highly regarded than that of Cellini there was much discussion as to the hierarchy of the arts sculptors and painters liked to cooperate on major projects most artists were both sculptors and painters Leonardo and Michelangelo were keen rivals but each admired the work of the other

183.We understand from the passage that Michelangelo’s view concerning the relative merits of painting and sculpture

A) does not reflect his own position as an artist

B) can be regarded as a humorous attempt to bring about a peace between Cellini and Leonardo

C) is a light-hearted attempt to avoid the issue

D) is unbiased and favors neither

E) has no relevance outside the Renaissance period



Governments have learned to value innovation these days for good reason. Far from being simply some missing factor in the growth equation, innovation is now recognized as the single most important ingredient in any modern economy. It actually accounts for more than half of economic growth in America and Britain. In short, it is innovation, more than the application of capital or labour, that keeps the world economy going. As a result, economists have decided that the innovators of the world are due some special recognition. It is not possible to recognize all the countless innovations that have helped to spread wealth, health and human happiness around the world. But a handful of people who have made the biggest contribution to the wealth-creation process in their own fields over the past few years, have been nominated for awards.

A) the world economy has acquired a certain level of uniformity B) the American economy
A) the world economy has acquired a certain level of uniformity
B) the American economy has under-performed
C) capital has now returned to the fore in economic policies
D) the quality of human life on earth has greatly improved
E) countries like Britain have fewer labour problems than formerly
A) rely more and more on the management of the labour force
B) now take into account the importance of innovation
C) regard the wealth-creation process as the main target
D) in Britain have undergone very little change over many decades
E) throughout the world are undergoing many changes

184.One point made in the passage is that, due to innumerable innovations

185.It is pointed out in the passage that government economic policies

186.It is pointed out in the passage that the American and British economies

A) have been in the forefront in the creation of wealth

B) have tended to ignore innovations

C) have grown largely on account of innovation

D) have had an adverse effect upon the world’s growth equation

E) have always been primarily concerned with the prosperity of their citizens



A nonprofessional-class working mother, who has been forced unwillingly into the

labour market, is oppressed by various unique forces. She is oppressed by the

fact that her work is oftentimes physically exhausting, ill-paid, and devoid of benefits such as health insurance and paid sick leave. She is oppressed by the fact that it is impossible to put a small child in reliable day-care if you make only a minimum wage, and she is oppressed by the terrible child-care options that are available at an inexpensive rate. She is oppressed by the fact that she has nothing

fall back on. If she is out of work, and her child needs a visit to the doctor and

antibiotics, she may not be able to afford those things and will have to treat her

sick child with unprescribed medications, which themselves are far from cheap.


A) she may neglect the child but not herself B) there are always opportunities available
A) she may neglect the child but not herself
B) there are always opportunities available on the labour market
C) and her child gets ill, she probably cannot get proper medical help
D) she has to be prepared to accept a lower-paid one
E) she invariably has a great deal of trouble finding a new one
working mothers
A) enjoy health insurance which also covers their children
B) are, on the whole, satisfied with their jobs
C) feel their children are being suitably cared for
D) are paid far more than the recognized minimum wage
E) only work because they have to work


187.It is clear from the passage that, when a nonprofessional working mother loses her job


189.We understand from the passage that a working mother, without a career,

A) works so that her child can enjoy good day-care

B) is usually granted several fringe benefits

C) rarely stays in her job for a long period

D) faces a very hard life

E) has a great deal of choice in the kind of work she does



Because a play presents its action through actors, its impact is direct, immediate, and heightened by the actor’s skills. Instead of responding to words on a printed page, the spectator sees what is done and hears what is said. The experience of the play is registered directly upon his senses. It may therefore be fuller and more compact. Where the work of prose fiction may tell us what a character looks like in one paragraph, how he moves or speaks in a second, what he says in a third, and how his auditors respond in a fourth, the acted play presents this material all at once. Simultaneous impressions are not separated. Moreover, this experience is interpreted by actors who may be highly skilled in rendering nuances of meaning and strong emotion. Through facial expression, gesture, speech rhythm, and intonation, they may be able to make a speaker’s words more expressive than can the reader’s unaided imagination. Thus, the performance of a play by skilled actors, expertly directed, gives the playwright a tremendous source of power.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

190.It is emphasized in the passage that the effectiveness of a play’s action

disappears as soon as the performance is over is maintained only temporarily depending on the audience is largely created through facial expression and the playwright’s skill is increased both through skilled performance and through professional direction can be further strengthened through character analysis

191.It is pointed out in the passage that the performance of a play on the stage

enables the audience to be more closely involved has the same impact on the audience as that of the printed text depends much more on the director than on the actors for its success can best be accomplished through close attention to the playwright’s instructions should not guide the way the audience feels

192.It is clear from the passage that unlike a staged play, a work of prose fiction

A) mainly focuses on character and action

B) is very effective in arousing the reader’s emotions

C) allows no possibility of multiple interpretation

D) makes much use of various literary devices

E) makes its impact slowly



How have terrestrial organisms met the environmental challenges of living on land? Life began in the oceans, but many life forms have since adapted to terrestrial life in a sea or air. Every single organism living on land has to meet the same environmental challenges: obtaining enough water; preventing excessive water loss; getting enough energy; and in polar regions, tolerating widely varying temperature extremes. How those challenges are met varies from one organism to another, and in large part explains the diversity of life encountered on land today. Some animals avoid colder temperatures by migrating to warmer climates for the winter, whereas others avoid the cold by passing the winter in a dormant state called hibernation. Many plants also spend winter in a dormant state. The aerial parts of some plants die during the winter, but the underground parts remain alive; the following spring they resume metabolic activity and develop new aerial shoots. Many trees are deciduous; that is, they shed their leaves for the duration of their dormancy. Shedding leaves is actually an adaptation to the “dryness” of winter. Roots cannot absorb water from ground that is cold or frozen; by shedding its leaves the plant reduces water loss during the cold winter months when obtaining water from the soil is impossible.

A) B) C) D) E) A) B) C) D) E)

193.It is pointed out in the passage that all terrestrial organisms

in warm regions find it very hard to tolerate extreme temperatures in polar regions live out the winter through hibernation face the danger of extinction due to environmental challenges have, one way or another, adapted themselves to environmental conditions are most adversely affected by excessive water loss and cold temperatures

194.It is pointed out in the passage that the diversity of life on Earth

is far more extensive in temperate climates than in colder ones results from the variety of ways whereby organisms meet environmental challenges is related to plants rather than other organisms becomes far more apparent in spring than in winter must be maintained through the conservation of the environment

195.One can understand from the passage that, for deciduous trees, the shedding of leaves

A) increases the amount of water loss, which is a serious environmental challenge

B) increases their metabolic activity throughout winter

C) is an effective mechanism of resistance to heat

D) is a regular metabolic activity which is not related to environmental conditions

E) is a kind of hibernation that enables them to survive the cold winter months



Henrik-Jan van Veen has carried out a great deal of research into spinning. This is especially true for “graveyard spins”, the term for what happens when fighter pilots get so disoriented they miscalculate how to get their plane back on course. They can end up in a dangerous and often fatal spin. Van Veen works at a research lab run by the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, the TNO. The range of research covered by the TNO is vast, and it sees itself as a practical problem solver. And for the Dutch air force, the graveyard spin is certainly a problem that needs solving. Van Veen’s specialty

is “vibrotactile devices”, which use vibrations to convey information. His latest project is a

vest studded all over with small discs that can each vibrate independently. In a test room,

pilot is strapped into a seat in a “cockpit”. At the push of a button, the lights go out and

the chair starts spinning. After a while the chair is stopped. “He’ll think he’s spinning the other way now”, says van Veen. The pilot is told to correct the spin, but instead, he overcorrects massively, and the chair begins spinning again. In the next test, the pilot dons van Veen’s vest and is told that the patch of the vest that is vibrating will indicate the direction he should force the joystick to correct a spin. This time, when the chair stops spinning the pilot manages to keep the seat still. Van Veen thinks the vibrotactile vest could do more than save the lives of fighter pilots. He’s now working on linking the system to a GPS receiver so that tourists in a foreign city or blind people in an unfamiliar

environment can use the vest to find their way around.


A) B) C) D) E) A) they are referred to as “graveyard spins” B) van
A) they are referred to as “graveyard spins”
B) van Veen has been testing a number of devices that could prevent spins
C) the TNO is making spin-prevention devices a major research project
D) many aircraft have been indefinitely grounded
E) all pilots are required to wear a vibrotactile vest

196.It is clear from the passage that the vibrotactile vest

has contributed significantly to environmental research could be developed to serve a variety of purposes has been in use in military aviation for many decades is the product of an expensive research Project undertaken by the Dutch military could be used to transmit secret military information

197.It is understood from the passage that, because spins in fighter flights can be fatal,

198.We understand from the passage that the Dutch research centre, the TNO,

A) works in very close association with the Dutch armed forces

B) oversees all major research projects being carried out in the country

C) has put a lot of pressure on van Veen to extend the uses of vibrotactile devices

D) encourages the application of research for the solving of problems

E) puts safety devices high on its list of priorities