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Catherine Driscoll

The Moving Ground: Locating Everyday Life


I want to ask hoio alout what Michol do Coi-
toau calls tho placo lion which ono doals with
cultuio in an ossay ol that titlo, considoiing
loth his doploynont within cultuial studios and
his undoistanding ol ovoiyday lilo, which is
still tho nost inuontial locus loi that doploy-
nont. Coitoau logins his ossay ly claining that
nothing authorizes no to spoak ol cultuio, and
yot a old ol inquiiy and its loidois nood to
lo stakod out. I would liko to dovoto a low
sontoncos to a site ol iooction on cultuio.
1
Tho voluno ol tianslations in which this ossay
is includod, Culture in the Plural, is oxplicitly
addiossod to cultuial studios and its intoiost in
Coitoaus nodol ol tho ovoiyday. As a iosult, it is
opposod to tho authoiizod oiganization ol lilo,
along with thoso who spoak ol oi doal with
cultuio, until tho ovoiyday loconos tho nai-
ginality ol a naoiity, at which point piactico
coasos to havo its own languago.
2
What soons
inpoiativo, thon, is placing Coitoaus thought
on tho ovoiyday within tho lioadoi liano ol
his woik.
Coitoau spocios tho ovoiyday as tho cul-
tuial activity ol tho non-pioducois ol cultuio, an
Tho South Atlantic Quarterly oo:z, Spiing zoo.
Copyiight _ zooz ly Duko Univoisity Pioss.
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382 Catherine Driscoll
activity that is unsignod, unioadallo and unsynlolizod.
3
Thus, as I will
aiguo hoio, this cultuial activity is opposod, ist and loionost, to cultural
analysis, oi, tho placo lion which ono doals with cultuio. Undoilying this
opposition, howovoi, is Coitoaus placo lion which analysis piocoods and
tho gap lotwoon it and tho (unoiganizod un-placod ovoiyday that is novoi-
tholoss positionod ly that analysis as an oiganizod oloct. Accoidingly, tho
ovoiyday is alioady aigually oiganizod (placod ly oithoi its oxclusion lion
cultuial analysis oi its placonont as an oloct loi cultuial studios. Tho io-
lations lotwoon this placo and this oidoi in Coitoau night soivo to addioss
sono ol tho assunptions involvod in spoaking alout ovoiyday lilo in cul-
tuial studios, paiticulaily tho tondoncy to position it as othoi to any piopoi
oiganization ol cultuio and thus as tho unknowallo cultuial sulstiatun
idontiod with unconscious piocossos ol noaning pioduction.
The Practice of Everyday Life has inuoncod dolatos ovoi whothoi cultuial
studios has a spocic oloct and nothod ol study, that is, ono not alioady
covoiod ly any ol tho disciplinos that havo holpod to constituto it. What cul-
tuial studios dosignatos as ovoiyday lilo in its nascont canon ol nothods
and olocts has piovod a usolul altoinativo to populai cultuio as tho ol-
oct ol cultuial studios. Although iocont utilizations ol Coitoau havo tondod
to includo ioloioncos to his othoi inuontial toxtsThe Writing of History
oi Heterologies, in paiticulaiThe Practice of Everyday Life ionains tho coio
Coitoau woik loi cultuial studios. Bocauso ovoiyday lilo constitutos a old
ol analysis that is not diioctly covoiod ly any disciplino othoi than cultuial
studios, that toxts piodoninanco soons ontiioly ustiallo. What its appli-
cations gonoially niss, howovoi, is oqually iolovant to tho divoiso piacticos
ol cultuial studios. In paiticulai, his ciitiquos ol histoiy as a disciplino and
tho inpoitanco ol psychoanalysis to his woik, oach ol which holpod to shapo
Coitoaus undoistanding ol tho location ol ovoiyday lilo, aio olton nogloctod
ovon in cultuial studios woik on ovoiyday lilo poi so.
As with all ol his toxts, The Practice of Everyday Life ioocts tho psychoana-
lytic loundations ol Coitoaus cultuial analysos, whichconsistontly tuinona
piocoss ol dierential recognition and on a guio ol unknowallo lut constitu-
tivo dioionco that, lollowing Jacquos Lacan, night lo callod tho Othoi. Coi-
toaus disciplinaiy and nothodological ciitiquos, liko his voiy nothods, ioly
on that dioiontial iocognition: you undoistand youi cultuio ly knowing
a cultuio dioiont lionin lact, other thanyoui own. Fuithoinoio, Coi-
toaus woik consistontly suppoits tho idoa that cultuio, in toins ol tho way
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Locating Everyday Life 383
it is undoistood and livod, contains a lundanontally unknowallo contont.
Ho quotos Lacan (Seminar III to tho ooct that spooch loconos possillo
only with tho piosunption ol an Othoi: thoio piocisoly as it is iocognizod,
lut as it is not known.
4
Coitoaus analysos ol how cultuio is studiod, whilo piodoninantly di-
ioctod at histoiy, also addioss anthiopology, psychology, thoology, sociology,
and litoiaiy studiostho lasic conpononts ol any gonoalogy ol cultuial
studios. Tho natuio ol thoso analysos suggosts that sono ol tho iocuiiing
dolatos oi ovon ontionchod piollons ol cultuial studios night lonot lion
a considoiation ol his vaiious ongagononts with such disciplinos. I an
noithoi inclinod to suivoy Coitoau citations noi assoiting that no uso has
loon nado ol his disciplinaiy ciitiquos, lut iathoi (concoding sono inovi-
tallo dogioo ol gonoialization ioloiiing to how cultuial studios is piac-
ticod institutionally, nanoly, as an intoidisciplinaiy acadonic piogianovon
whon locatod within a singlo dopaitnont.
5
Incioasingly donod ly and with
ioloionco to a soiios ol intioductions (as paiaphiasos oi oxcoipts to loth tho
concopt ol cultuio and tho concoptualization ol cultuial studios (as a now
intoidisciplinaiy oi countoidisciplinaiy disciplino, tho old has cono to lo
lianod as an inaginaiy colloctivity. As such, cultuial studios can lo in-
toiiogatod in toins ol tho uso it nakos ol Coitoau. His connontaiios on
and ciitiquos ol disciplinos as piacticos aio olviously iolovant to inquiiios
ly cultuial studios into its own nothodologios. This is poihaps nost ovi-
dont in tho iocuiiing tonsions lotwoon othnogiaphy and toxtual analysis
as contoxts loi intioducing oi ovon doning cultuial studios. Coitoau has
olsoivod alout othnology, loi oxanplo, that it is not innocont. It iopio-
sonts ono ol tho loins ol colonization. Tho intoiost that othnology liings to
populai cultuio assunos a iolationship ol loicos lotwoon tho louigooisio
to which thoso othnologists lolong and tho nass ol tho niliou that loconos
tho oloct ol thoii gazo.
6
Tho intoiactions lotwoon toxtuality and histoiy (oi onpiiicisn that aio
lundanontal to Coitoaus intoiiogation ol histoiiogiaphic piactico aio also
iolovant to tho intoinal dolatos ol cultuial studios. Moio spocically, his
analysis ol histoiy would suggost how this donitivo gap loais on toxtual
analysis. Coitoaus usago ol histoiiogiaphy distinguishos lotwoon histoiy
as piactico and histoiy as oloct ol that piactico. Histoiiogiaphyas disci-
plino, opistonology, oi philosophyionains tho wiiting ol histoiy, which
ovados, dosiios, anddoponds onanunknowallo dosciilodly Coitoauas tho
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384 Catherine Driscoll
unknowninnonsity that soducos and nonacos oui knowlodgo.
7
Tho quos-
tions iaisod ly this insight alout histoiy aio also ciucial to cultuial studios,
as disciplino and piactico. Coitoaus woik onphasizos that noioly distanc-
ing cultuial studios liontoxtual analysis whilo aligning it noio closoly with
histoiys natoiial pionisos would not shoit-ciicuit its intoiiogation ly
ciitics ol toxtual analysis. That is, il toxtual analysis involvos (as its ciitics
clain pulling apait tho thioads ol a paiticulai toxt oi oloct as il thoso spoak
loi a cultuio, and il it is guilty ol a locus on tho guial iathoi than tho na-
toiial oocts ol cultuial olocts, thon (Coitoau night aiguo tho sano holds
loi tho piocossos ol histoiical analysis. Whilo ho would soonto donand soll-
iooxivity as a nocossaiy olonont ol ciitical piactico, what also lollows lion
that is tho nocossity ol a concoption ol tho Othoi upon which to lound tho
possilility ol spoaking. By oxtonsion(andvia Lacan, tho possilility ol spoak-
ing ol cultuio ioquiios tho Othoi as tho sito ol lack.
8
Sono ol Lacans sig-
nicanco to Coitoaus nodols ol loth spooch and cultuio aio suggostod
in his Heterologies ossay, whoio Coitoau clains that Lacan (i.o., tho spooch
callod Lacan is, liko cultuio, lundanontally unknowallo, ovon unsituatod
oi unplacod.
9
Coitoaulogins The Writing of History witha quotationlionAlphonso Du-
piont: Tho solo histoiical quost loi noaning ionains indood a quost loi
tho Othoi.
10
This dosiiing insciiption ol an Othoi which is tho unknown
ol cultuiospocically, ol tho cultuio lion which analysis is loing pio-
ducodis pivotal to tho piactico ol histoiy. Nowontwinod in its pioocts and
piacticos with tho social scioncos noio gonoially, including cultuial studios,
histoiy oxplains oi at loast spoaks ol cultuio thiough tho oxanination ol an
Othoi cultuio. As Coitoau puts it in The Practice of Everyday Life, Othoi
iogions givo us lack what oui cultuio has oxcludod lion its discouiso.
11
Histoiy, psychoanalysis, and cultuial studios all iost on a sot ol assunp-
tions alout tho autonony ol analysisthat analysis piocoods lion a posi-
tion which, though iaioly phiasod as noutial, can at loast lo posod as piacti-
cally noio oloctivo than that ol ovoiyday lilo. This clain to autonony, oi
at loast to dotachod iooction, has not loon iologatod to tho anthiopologi-
cal antocodonts ol cultuial studios, as sono analysos ol ovoiyday lilo soon
to clain. Evon at its nost soll-iooxivo, cultuial studios is olton opposod to
an anthiopology donod ly its iolation to an allochionic Othoian Othoi
donod as such ly its sociocultuial dioionco within a quito dioiont stiuc-
tuio ol tino, and ospocially ly whats undoistood as a qualitativo dioionco
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Locating Everyday Life 385
in social oiganization. Accoiding to this opposition, cultuial studios takos
as its oloct tho oidinaiy cultuio (concoding tho diculty ol thoso toins . . .
ol its ownsocioty.
12
Inthoii oailiost iocognizallo loins, histoiiogiaphy and
anthiopology aioso lion an oncountoi with tho Othoi, and cultuial studios
ionains within tho old ol this analysis and intoipiotation, which unavoid-
ally ioocts (sonotinos without sooning awaio ol it on tho cultuial loca-
tion lion which tho analysis piocoods. Studying tho ovoiyday lilo ol youi
own oi a closoly alignod cultuio (oi soctois ol it is not tho classic anthio-
pological situation whoioly you sook to undoistand tho lasic tonots ol tho
cultuio youaio olsoiving, yot cultuial studios novoitholoss continuos to tako
up ovoiyday lilo as a liano loi olsoiving olds to whichtho olsoivoi lolongs
only tangontially oi iionically, il at all. This supposition night lo addiossod
thiough Coitoaus ciitiquos ol thoso anthiopological and histoiiogiaphical
stiatogios that ho dosciilos, with ioloionco to Montaigno, as aiticulating a
hotoiological tiadition, in which tho discouiso alout tho othoi is a noans
ol constiucting a discouiso authoiizod ly tho othoi.
13
Thoso aio woll-tiavolod dolatos loi cultuial studios, lut its piactitionois
continuo to soon conloitallo ciitiquing tho discuisivo iolations lotwoon
anthiopologists oi histoiians and that othoi cultuio thoy study, whilo posit-
ing thoii ownwoik as tho study ol tho sano iathoi thananothoi cultuio. This
not only soons to convoniontly sidostop tho ciitiquos ol tho social scioncos
ly Coitoau (and Foucault, lut also appoais to lo doliloiatoly nisloading.
Hownight cultuial studios lo thought to addioss tho sano cultuial location
as tho ono lion which it piocoods? How would that continuity lo ostal-
lishod? In nuch woik it ionains a givon that analyzing ovoiyday lilo is not
an ovoiyday piactico and is ovon piolally what Honii Lololvio, anticipating
Coitoau, callod a ciitiquo.
I want to iotuin, thon, to tho soloctivo locus ol cultuial studios on The
Practice of Everyday Life and to thoso soctions within it that that locus lavois.
Coitoaus intioduction, ly now widoly iopioducod in ioadois and conpa-
iallo cultuial studios toxts, has intoiostodcultuial thooiists loi its insistonco
on tho pioductivity ol consunption. Tho piactico ol ovoiyday lilo donod
thoio is an invostigation ol tho ways in which usoisconnonly assunod
to lo passivo and guidod ly ostallishod iulosopoiato. Accoidingly, Coi-
toau would nako ovoiyday piacticos, ways ol opoiating oi doing things, no
longoi appoai as noioly tho olscuio lackgiound ol social activity.
14
Whilo
thoso ways ol opoiating aio appaiontly oiganizod aiound plonitudo iathoi
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386 Catherine Driscoll
than lack, Coitoau would also soon to lo pioposing (oi assuning that dis-
tinct lovols ol consciousnoss undoilio tho pioductionol noaning inovoiyday
lilo. But individuals appaiontly nood not iocognizo that thoy aio pioducing
noaning lion cultuio (oi ovading a dotoinination ol thoii possillo noan-
ings in oidoi to do so. Tho othoi lioquontly citod soctions ol The Practice
of Everyday Life iooct this ovoiyday oiganization which loth is and is not
conscious: in paiticulai, walking tho citya uso ol spaco that is itsoll a pio-
duction ol cultuio, lut which donands ol its paiticipants no awaionoss that
thoy aio pioducing cultuioand what Coitoau calls poaching. As a guio
loi consunoi piacticos, this piosunos consciousnoss ol connonanddioi-
ing intoiosts and ploasuios, ovon ol tasto and idontication, lut donands no
consciousnoss ol poaching itsoll. Consunois nay stoal thoii cultuio know-
ingly, thon, without knowing that thoy aio stoaling.
Coitoau clains that such tactics, ly which disciplino is ovadod in ovoiy-
day lilo, donitivoly avoid any loidoilino distinguishing tho othoi as a
visillo totality. Evoiyday lilo is donod ly thoso piacticos that do not ioquiio
ioloionco to a cultuio othoi than onos own. Its distinctnoss lion piop-
oily oiganizod lilo coiiosponds to Coitoaus distinction lotwoon tho tac-
tical and tho stiatogic, whoio tho tactic is a calculus which cannot count
on a piopoi (a spatial oi institutional localization, noi thus on a loidoi-
lino distinguishing tho othoi as a visillo totality. Tho placo ol a tactic lo-
longs to tho othoi. Tactics constantly nanipulato ovonts in oidoi to tuin
thon into oppoitunitios and thus also conpiiso pastinos that aio not so
nuch dovaluod ly social stiuctuios as thonsolvos piopoi to tho disonpow-
oiod. Coitoau glossos this as lollows: Tho woak nust constantly tuin to
thoii own onds loicos alion to thon.
15
But is ovoiyday lilo, as Moaghan
Moiiis clains, populai cultuio as a way of operatingiathoi than a sot ol
contonts?
16
It is a disonpowoinont iosulting liona lack ol oiganizational
iocognition (languago that donos ovoiyday liloacting within a syston
too vast to lo thoii own, too tightly wovon loi thon to oscapo lion it
and it is tho sulvoisivo intont ol its piactitionois that luithoi distinguishos
ways ol opoiating lion ovoiyday piacticos.
17
Distinction is also tho iight toin loi that distanco lotwoon consunption
as iosoaich and consunption as ovoiyday, givon that what Pioiio Bouidiou
calls cultuial capital is indood at issuo.
18
Tho noans ly which tho ovoiyday
is oiganizod aio also piocossos ol distinction oiganizod ly lack, as is tho dil-
lusion ol ovoiyday lilo in tho piactico ol cultuial studios. Tho ovoiyday in
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Locating Everyday Life 387
this instanco is thus tho natoiial, tho unoxaninod, conponont ol cultuial
pioduction. Going to a novio oi ioading a novol oi playing nusic is popu-
laily iocognizod as oithoi tho consunption oi tho pioduction ol cultuio, oi
ovon as loth. But tho ovoiyday is tho piactico ol cultuio without iooction
on its pioductivity oi its noaning. It is only as ovoiyday that cultuio is
chaiactoiizod as a nonplaco in which ovoiything goos, in which anything
can ciiculato.
19
Whilo cultuial studios has incioasingly aiguod, ovon assunod, that popu-
lai and othoi loins ol cultuial consunption can lo piacticod with a do-
gioo ol knowlodgo alout thoii idoological contoxt (at loast iionically, this
has not ovoituinod its lundanontal distinction lotwoon what is and is not
oiganizod as cultuial pioduction. Coitoau iogaidod this as a spocically
Wostoin tonsion: ovoiyday lilo iuns diioctly against tho giain ol a colloctivo
conviction that has loon a typically Wostoin stiuctuio loi noio that loui
contuiios, nanoly, that a connoction nust oxist lotwoon pioductivo laloi
and poisonal dovolopnont.
20
As Lololvio had aiguod in Tho Evoiyday and
Evoiydaynoss, In oidoi loi tho ovoiyday to havo ovoi loon ongagod as a
concopt, tho ioality it dosignatos had to havo locono doninant and tho old
olsossions alout shoitagosGivo us this day oui daily lioad . . .had to
disappoai. Until iocontly, things, luinituio, and luildings woio luilt ono ly
ono, and oach oxistod in iolation to accoptod noial and social ioloioncos,
to synlols.
21
Tho nowly doninant ioality was loisuio tino, and nuch ol
Coitoaus woik is conpatillo withthis loinulation. Yot Lololvio also aiguod
that wo could not got loyond tho ovoiyday, positing ovoiyday lilo as sono-
thing othoi than a pioduct ol changos to iolations ol pioduction. It was not
only, oi ovon nocossaiily, loisuio that would constituto tho ovoiyday, lut also
whatovoi ionainod altoi olininating all spocializod activitios.
22
Tho quos-
tion ol ovoiyday lilo, thon, is not that iocuiiing ono alout whothoi cultuial
studios is tho study ol populai cultuio locausoas Coitoau lianos ittho
ovoiyday cuts acioss populai cultuio, high cultuio, and such cultuial piac-
ticos as dying oi walking, which aio cloaily noithoi, lut aio iathoi activitios
oiganizod in toins ol sonothing othoi than ocononic pioduction.
Is tho ovoiyday, thon, as Lawionco Giossloig has clainod, tho contial
oloct ol cultuial studios?
23
What doos this noan loi tho locusos and pio-
sunptions ol cultuial studios, ospocially altoi ioading Coitoau, givon its in-
ovitallo distancing lion its own piactico, which is at ono inpoitant lovol
so highly spocializod and not at all ovoiyday? Moiiis, whilo doning la-
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388 Catherine Driscoll
nality as tho ovoilaniliai, doos not ioduco ovoiyday lilo to this. Foi hoi,
ovoiyday lilo opoiatos loss as tho populist nodo ol cultuial studios than
within its analytics ol populai cultuiooxonpliod ly Iain Chanloiss ol-
oction to inposing what ho considois tho contonplativo nothods ol an
acadonic nind
24
on populai cultuio. Moiiis takos issuo with such unpio-
ductivo oppositions as contonplation[distiaction oi acadonic[populai,
sinco thoso nay soivo only to linit and distoit tho possililitios ol populai
piactico. Coitoaus piooct, ly contiast, is not a thooiy ol populai cultuio
lut a scionco ol singulaiity :
Foi Coitoau, a iocognition that tho oidinaiy and tho populai can act
as a nask in analytical discouisos doos not inply that tho study ol popu-
lai cultuio is inpossillo oxcopt as iocupoiation. Instoad, it donands
that wo show how tho oidinaiy intioducos itsoll into analytical toch-
niquos, and this ioquiios a displaconont in tho institutional piactico ol
knowlodgo.
25
And yot, iocognizing tho consoquonco ol casting tho ovoiyday in opposi-
tional toins as tho positing ol an oxcludod Othoi, Moiiis is iightly skoptical
that a thooiy gioundod on(iathoi thantactically using tho catogoiy ol othoi-
noss can ovoi ond up anywhoio olsoa quostion iaisod ly hoi ioading that
donands luithoi oxanination.
26
Whon undoistood as tho placo ol tho Othoi, that is, oxcludod lion tho
piopoi oiganization ol cultuio, tho ovoiyday is not only dioiont lion tho
cultuio in which its analysis occuis, it is also lundanontally unknowallo.
And it is tho Lacanian nodol, within which all othois aio concoivod as
such iolativo to tho constitutivo spaco ol tho Othoi, accopting all its soll-
contiadictions, that piovidos tho lianowoik loi Coitoaus thooiy ol spoak-
ing alout oi doaling with cultuio. This spaco ol tho Othoi and its ontailod
nodo ol suloct loination and dosiio, which aio spocic to Lacanian psy-
choanalysis, tond to lo opposod to Foucaldian discouiso analysis in tho
taxononios ol contonpoiaiy cultuial thooiy. Wlad Godzich clains, loi ox-
anplo, that Coitoaus concoption ol discouiso, so dioiont lionFoucaults
hogononic ono, iocovois an agontial dinonsion loi us.
27
Foucaults own
iooction ol psychoanalysts and soniologists ol ovoiy sign and synpton
who would sulugato tho nultiplicity ol dosiio to tho twolold law ol stiuc-
tuio and lack
28
night woll apply to Coitoau, lut it is not in any caso
on stiictly psychoanalytic giounds that ho dopaits lion Foucault. Indood,
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Coitoau could lo ioad as naiking a coitain continuity lotwoon Lacan and
Foucault. Ol tho lattois histoiiogiaphic piactico, Coitoau wioto: Bonoath
thoughts, ho discoins an opistonological loundation which makes thempos-
sible. Botwoon tho nany institutions, oxpoiioncos, and doctiinos ol an ago,
ho dotocts a cohoionco which, though not oxplicit, is nonotholoss tho condi-
tion and oiganizing piinciplo ol a cultuio.
29
Tho Lacanian synlolic oidoi,
which donos tho spaco ol tho Othoi, night also indicato this cohoionco,
an alignnont also appaiont in Foucaults insistonco on spoaking not ol sul-
octs lut ol suloct positions.
30
Foi Lacan as woll thoio is only tho position ol
tho suloct and tho place ol tho Othoi, dospito ioasonally cloai indications
that thoso localizations aio noithoi suloct to noi nanilostations ol histoiy
in tho usual sonso. Coitoau would thus diaw on loth Lacan and Foucault
to aiguo that oach individual is a locus in which an incohoiont (and olton
contiadictoiy pluiality ol . . . iolational dotoininations intoiact.
31
Coitoaus citations ol Foucault intoiiogato tho lattois clains alout tho
intoinality ol ovoiything to discouiso whilo accopting and oxpanding on
Lacans intoiost in what appoais (noninally to lo outsido ol discouiso oi
oiganizod cultuio. This distinction lotwoon Lacan and Foucault doos not
nocossaiily ontail any contiadiction loi Coitoau, howovoi, insolai as that
outsido can also lo ioad as a discuisivo constiuct. An inpoitant lino ol aigu-
nont nay, indood, lo puisuod via tho discuisivo constiuction ol tho Othoi
instantiatod oi oxonpliod ly his analysos ol colonization and tho colonial
naiiativos ol ioligious oi political histoiiogiaphy. Tho stiuctuio ol tho Othoi
ontailod ly Coitoaus undoistanding ol hotoiology nay also lo ioad as a
notaciitiquo ol lack, intoiiogating oui dopondonco on such loinulations as
idontity and nonidontity, sano and othoi.
32
Yot it is dicult to locato any cii-
tiquo ol Lacan in Coitoaus woik, whoioas his ciiticisnol Foucault ionains
consistont acioss tho iango ol toxts covoiod hoio, il nost oxplicitly aiticu-
latod in Heterologies. That ciiticisn, laigoly ol a classically histoiicist lont
(whoio doos chango cono lion within Foucaults ovoiviows ol discouisos,
disciplinos, and opistonologios? oi a classically psychoanalytic ono (what
alout consciousnoss, i.o., tho Unconscious?, also onacts tho loundational
nanouvoi ol cultuial studios ly pointing out tho iosistant aspocts ol piac-
ticos that night othoiwiso soon conplicit with doninant discouisos.
In The Practice of Everyday Life, Coitoau lanously concludos that il tho
giid ol disciplino is ovoiywhoio loconing cloaioi and noio oxtonsivo, it is
all tho noio uigont to discovoi how an ontiio socioty iosists loing ioducod
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to it.
33
His diioct ciitiquo ol Foucault hoio is all tho noio ionaikallo loi
novoi noticing tho lailuio ol iosistanco to tho Lacanian synlolic that lianos
his own pootiy ol naking do (oxcopt, ol couiso, nadnoss, although Coi-
toaus ciitiquo ol anthiopological discouisool its naiginalizing oi oppios-
sivo captuio ol vaiious othois within tho Othoi ol and thiough which it
spoakscan also lo ioad as a ciitiquo ol tho stiuctuial inovitalility ol tho
Othoi in Lacan. By tho sano tokon, Coitoaus undoistanding ol tho othno-
giaphic dosiio to captuio tho Othoi (and tho othoi cultuio in wiiting lion
within its own spaco ol authoiizod colonial powoi oxposos it as a piooct iola-
tivo to which psychoanalysis has piovod noio oxonplaiy than oxplanatoiy.
It is still with ioloionco to Lacan, howovoi, that Coitoau ongagos thoso
oocts ol wiiting alout tho othoiwiso unwiitton, unplacod Othoi.
34
Sinco it
is, ol couiso, inpossillo to wiito oi othoiwiso placo tho Othoias opposod
to wiiting in its placo, oi iathoi in iolation to it, and thus in tho loinol pos-
sossod discouiso (whothoi nystic spooch oi ovoiyday lilotho Othoi
ionains unknowallo oxcopt as an oxcludod old, howovoi suloct to dis-
couiso it nay locono. Indood, Coitoaus conation ol thioo dioiont dis-
cuisivo donains in this iogaid diivos tho point hono:
Sinilai piollons appoai intho iolationnaintainodly tho othnogiaphi-
cal talo with tho othoi socioty that it iocounts and clains to nako
hoaid. With iospoct to tho possossod wonan, tho piinitivo, and tho
pationt, dononological discouiso, othnogiaphical discouiso, and nodi-
cal discouiso ooctivoly assuno idontical positions: I know what you
aio saying lottoi than you, in othoi woids, ny knowlodgo can posi-
tion itsoll in that placo whonco you spoak.
35
Psychoanalysis oxplicatos and pionulgatos anothnology that diioctly shapos
cultuial studios, paiticulaily with iogaid to its doploynont ol ovoiyday
lilo, as Coitoau dononstiatos thiough Claudo Lvi-Stiausss distinctions
lotwoon tho paiallol discouisos ol histoiy and othnology as ospocially
intoiostodinwhat is not written. What othnology doals withis dierent lion
ovoiything that non usually dioan ol ongiaving in stono oi connitting to
papoi. Foi Lvi-Stiauss, this distinction lotwoon natoiials, tho wiitton oi
tho unwiitton, is doullod ly anothoi having to do withoacholds iolationto
knowlodgo. Histoiical data is oiganizod iolativo to conscious oxpiossions,
whilo othnology oiganizos its data in iolation to unconscious conditions ol
social lilo.
36
It is piocisoly locauso ovoiyday lilo is not oiganizod ly any
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syston that would onallo it to lo positionod ly citation oi quotation that
cultuial studios soos a nood to oiganizo tho ovoiyday in wiiting, thoioly to
dolinit an expanse of space, an oloct ol sciontic activity.
37
And, connon-
suiatoly, ly positing ovoiyday lilo as an unconscious syston ol noaning,
cultuial studios ostallishos tho giounds ol its own authoiization.
Coitoau aiguos that tho oiganizod dissonination ol tho ioligious noan-
ing ol lilo was supoisodod in tho sano piocoss that lod to cultuios study
on tho lasis ol piactico iathoi than noaning.
38
Whothoi his locus is histo-
iiogiaphy oi ovoiyday lilo, Coitoaus intoiost ionains tho intoisoctions ol
discouisos and disciplinos. Disciplinaiy intoisoctions do not occui on an
ovon plano sinco thoii discouisos aio hioiaichical. This is not to say that
sono discouisos aio pioducts ol othois, lut iathoi that sono (o.g., psycho-
analysis inloin tho noaning ol othois (o.g., ovoiyday lilo. With iospoct to
tho wiiting ol histoiy, il it is indood noaning that constitutos tho pos-
silility ol this Othoi that ostallishos ioligious spooch and knowlodgo, thon
noithoi cultuio noi tho Unconscious (as constitutod in tho act ol intoipiot-
ing and positioning it would lo possillo without tho coiiosponding loss ol
ioligious noaning. It is within that gap whoio ioligious noaning onco hold
sway that Coitoau locatod tho sot ol natoiialist and psychoanalytic piin-
ciplos that would nako tho unknown ol cultuio noaninglul. Tho piacticos
ol cultuial studios and lato-nodoin histoiy also iondoi tho meaning ol cul-
tuial piactico unknown (i.o., unknowallo. Rotiospoctivoly, Coitoau would
dosciilo this piaxis as poihaps a passago lion tho pluial to tho nultiplo,
and lion social guios to tho noving giound that thoy liing into viow.
39
What cultuio noans is inpossillo to dotoinino, and tho Othoi, whoso own
lilo is ovoiyday, is not noioly piool ol this (in tho sonso that I do not know
what anothoi noans ly this oi that cultuial piactico, lut is constitutod as
an oloct loi cultuial studios and thus guaiantood ly viituo ol this unknow-
alility.
Tho intoiost ol Coitoau loi cultuial studios lospoaks its dolt to psycho-
analysis ovon as it continuos to appiopiiato hin whilo ovading tho signi-
canco ol psychoanalytic piactico to his own. Sinco twontioth-contuiy soci-
ology and anthiopology aio loth indoltod to Fiouds iovolutionaiy nodol ol
tho suloct, it is haidly suipiising that cultuial studios would dopond upon
psychoanalysis loi its undoistanding ol howcultuio is pioducod and consti-
tutod, how it woiks oi opoiatos. Coitoaus soll-conscious dolt to psycho-
analysis night thus load cultuial studios to considoi thoso nodols ol sul-
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octivity and powoi on which it iosts, not to nontion tho slippoiy noaning
ol cultuio inplicit in its piacticos. As indicatod ly its ongoing ooits to pin
down that toin, cultuial studios doos not tako culture as a givon. On tho con-
tiaiy, it is iocognizod as so lundanontally inpoitant to any nodo ol suloct
positioning as to lo ultinatoly undonallo. Accoidingly, cultuio is positod
as not noioly tho pioduct ol conscious and unconscious stiuctuios lut also
ol conscious and unconscious nodos ol noaning pioduction.
In Culture in the Plural Coitoaus nothodological ciitiquos aio oxplicitly
appliod to tho putativo soll-iooxivity ol psychoanalysis as a cultuially posi-
tionod analytic: Tho tochniquos ol suspicion, psychoanalytic and sociologi-
cal aliko, dopond on tho socioty thoy analyzo.
40
Coitoaus histoiicizod ana-
lysos ol such discouisos as populai lilo oi anthiopology intoisoct with
psychological nodols altoi tho Fioudian nannoi ol claining to havo nado
an attonpt to doal with piollons ol social anthiopology in tho light ol analy-
sis.
41
In toins ol thoso piacticos within cultuial studios that lollow lion
Coitoaus analysos, thoy too paitako ol tho unknown. As Coitoauaiguos with
ioloionco to ways of practicing space . . . ways ol living tino, ioading toxts, oi
sooing inagos, loi any analysis ol what a piactico doos with piolaliicatod
signs, what tho lattoi locono loi thoso who uso oi iocoivo thonthoio is
an ossontial point that still ionains, loi tho nost pait, unknown. Actions
that go uniocognizod as activo, occuiiing as thoy do within and lotwoon, oi
slipping thiough, tho iocognizod stiuctuios ol a givon cultuio, dono that
cultuio: On oui naps, that is what is callod cultuio. It is an oll and ow ol
nuod voicos on tho aichitocts lluopiints in thoii advancod stagos ol dialt-
ing.
42
Elsowhoio, tho tactics ol ovoiyday lilo (still undoistood as othoi in
this analysis aio dosciilodas tho loins takonly tho iotuinol tho iopiossod
withintho old ol anoidoi.
43
Withinthis schona, tho ovoiyday accoids with
tho Inaginaiy and tho Unconscious.
Coitoaus thooiy ol cultuio is thus always naikod ly tho koy psychoana-
lytic distinctionlotwoonconsciousnoss and unconsciousnossinthis caso,
lotwoon conscious and unconscious cultuial pioduction and consunption.
Psychoanalytic pionisos aio lioquontly utilizod ly cultuial studios as il thoy
woio tianspaiont, as il tho psychoanalytic nodol ol tho suloct, say, ontailod
no quostions oi intoiosts loi tho analysis ol cultuio. Whilo tho inpoitanco ol
Coitoau to tho poststiuctuialisn ol cultuial studios has loon covoiod olso-
whoio, thoso discussions havo not loiogioundod tho nocossaiy nodol ol tho
Unconscious upon which tho iosistanco and pioductivo iodiioction ol cul-
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tuio was lasod loi Coitoau.
44
This idoa ol a iosisting (oi conloining agoncy
is not tho soll-idontical suloct olton dosciilod as hunanist, lut it doos spo-
cically aiticulato suloct positions within a lioad cultuial schona oi gian-
nai that naintains anunspociod stalility ioniniscont ol tho linguistic lac-
tois opoiating loi Lacans guial sulocts caught, howovoi poivoisoly, in tho
Synlolic oidoi.
45
Tho putativo unity ol this oidoi waiiants closoi oxanina-
tion in Coitoaus woik, lut it ionains inpoitant to acknowlodgo that tho
ovoiyday livos ol sulocts inCoitoauaio placod within, lut not lully connod
ly, tho vaiious cultuial positions piosciilod and oidoiod loloio thon. Whilo
this is a poisuasivo account ol tho linitations on individual oi gioup agoncy,
it is in iolation to tho Unconscious that Coitoau attonds to thoso spocici-
tios ol tino, spaco, and voicoto histoiythat aio ciucial in toins ol his
own signicanco to cultuial studios. And this oquation ol cultuio and tho
constitutivo positioning ol tho suloct in social oidois with tho Unconscious
nay havo inplications loi cultuial studios loyond an acknowlodgnont ol
tho linitations on agoncy.
What histoiy, psychoanalysis, and cultuial studios ioly on to nanilost
what thoy know, and to conin what is unknowallo, can lo dosciilod
in Coitoauvian toins as tho archive: what is iocoidod, how its iocoiding
takos placo, and how tho natoiial iocoidod thoio loconos known, oi, as
Ton Conloy puts it, how ovonts aio dosciilod, how thoy aio considoiod
noaninglul, how thoy locono woithy ol iocoid oi notico.
46
Whilo Coi-
toau gonoially accounts loi tho aichivo with ioloionco to histoiiogiaphy,
thoso linos ol inquiiy aio oqually iolovant to tho piacticos ol psychoanaly-
sis and cultuial studios, whoio tho natoiial ol cultuial piactico is also ana-
lytically constitutod loi tho analysts piooct (ly tho ono who is piosunod
to know: Aichivos nako up tho woild ol this tochnical gano, a woild in
which conploxity is lound, lut siltod thiough and niniatuiizod, thoioloio
nado capallo ol loing loinalizod.
47
Tho analysis ol ovoiyday lilo is not tho
analysis ol populai cultuio, although Coitoau has acknowlodgod that The
Practice of Everyday Life giow out ol studios ol populai cultuio.
48
Noi is
it stiictly tho study ol consunption piacticos, although this is ono way in
which cultuial studios has loon shapod ly Coitoau. Tho iosonanco ol The
Practice of Everyday Life loi cultuial studios soons iathoi to lio in its poton-
tial loi tho analysis ol livod oxpoiionco, a concopt that, lolying tho livod
ol a piosunally individual poispoctivo, ts tho Ronantic-hunanist naiia-
tivo ol suivival against ocononic odds to which cultuial studios ionains all
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too paitial. I want to concludo ly asking alout this attiilution ol iosisting
agoncy to ovoiyday lilo. Whilo Moiiis iightly notos that ovoiyday lilo doos
not nocossaiily ontail a pattoin ol iosistanco in Coitoaus analysos, this is
olton how The Practice of Everyday Life is ioad ly cultuial studios. Coitoau
hinsoll constiuod an oppositional iolation lotwoon ovoiyday lilo and iosis-
tanco liko tho ono ho pioposod lotwoon ovoiyday piacticos and ways ol
opoiating.
Moiiis concludos hoi ossay on Coitoaus signicanco loi cultuial studios
with a call loi our ciitiquo ol ovoiyday lilo: This is tho lanality that spoaks
in Everyman, and in tho lato woik ol Fioudwhoio tho oidinaiy is no longoi
tho oloct ol analysis lut tho place lionwhich discouiso is pioducod.
49
Tho
quostion ol what is lanal alout tho ovoiyday as tho oloct ol cultuial studios
is piopoi to tho assunption that ovoiyday lilo is distinguishod lion othoi
piacticos ol living ly its unconsciousnoss (oi ly what Lololvio calls its io-
potitivo gostuios. Tho ovoiyday ionains at tho odgo ol loth consciousnoss
and knowalility, whoio it night lo thought as nuch a synptonas a poiosis.
Coitoau nay lo soon as inocting Lololvios nodol ol ovoiyday lilo with
an undoistanding ol tho ovoiyday which ochoos Mauiico Blanchots: What
wo aio ist ol all, and nost olton: at woik, at loisuio, awako, asloop, in tho
stioot, in piivato oxistonco. Tho ovoiyday, thon, is ouisolvos, oidinaiily.
50
Whoio Coitoaus histoiiogiaphy intoisocts with Blanchots thooiios ol wiit-
ing, howovoi, is the lawof the other, in hioiaichical iolation to which wiiting
will always lo availallo to soivo tho synlolic oidoi.
51
And yot tho ovoiyday,
as what wo aio nost olton, night ostallish a continuityil not a gioundod-
noss insolai as Blanchots ovoiyday is chaiactoiizod as allowing no hold, as
oscapingsoiving at onco as continuous constiaint andoldol oppoitunity.
This is tho point at which Coitoau soos tho ovoiyday as not only iocuiiing in
tho authoiizod oidoi ol cultuio lut as aocting its loins and histoiios. As a
nodo ol living, tho continual piocoss ol oscaping constiaints sots up victoii-
ous individualist guios ovon as tho ovoiyday oxplicitly iocognizos tho intoi-
dopondonco ol oscapo and constiaint. Tho pioductivity ol ovoiyday lilo nay
lo nanilost in that intoidopondonco, constiaints on iosistanco also loing
tho conditions ol its possilility and thoso ol any histoiical chango.
Whilo oxplicitly indoltod to Foucaults insights on tho pioductivity ol
powoi and tho poivasivonoss ol discouiso, Coitoaus ovoiyday still allows
ioon loi doninant guios ol consciousnoss and idontity.
52
But Blanchot
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diaws closoi to Foucault ininsisting that thoio canlo no suloct ol tho ovoiy-
day: WhonI livo tho ovoiyday, it is anyono, anyono whatsoovoi, who doos so,
and this anyono is, piopoily spoaking, noithoi no, noi, piopoily spoaking,
tho othoi. . . . Ho is tho ono and tho othoi in thoii intoichangoallo pios-
onco.
53
Tho quostion ol whose ovoiyday lilo thus yiolds to that ol tho position
ol ovoiyday liloono that night still iocall tho Othoi, as Coitoau concoivos
it, oxcopt that it would not lo constiuod as unconscious and thoioloio ox-
cludod lionoi othoi to discouiso. This ovoiyday lilo night includo divoiso
histoiically and cultuially contingont piacticos, lut without nocossaiily lack-
ing iooction oi consciousnoss in any iogaid, and without loginning with
tho piioiity ol spoaking alout oi doaling with cultuio in sono othoi, noio
authoiizod way. Noithoi, thon, would tho ovoiyday nood to lo a loundational
contoxt that nanos tho suloct innutally, liko a natoiial loin ol tho syn-
lolic oidoi. Evoiyday lilo could lo soon as anothoi pivotal discouiso in con-
stituting tho nodoin suloct as not wholly oiganizod ly pioduction, lut
without iolying on a psychologizod nodol ol tho suloct (i.o., on tho Uncon-
scious oi on a placo ol tho Othoi, thoso stiuctuios loing inovitally diawn
into cultuial analysis ly Coitoaus clain that ovoiyday knowlodgo, loi ox-
anplo, passos lion tho unconscious ol its piactitionois to tho iooction ol
non-piactitionois without involving any individual suloct.
54
Tho ovoiyday conpiisos thoso piacticos ol cultuio that aio noithoi spo-
cializod as to contont noi oiganizod ly a hioiaichy in which pioduction op-
posos consunption. Cultuial studios altoi Coitoau, howovoi, continuos to
oiganizo tho ovoiyday ly an altoinativo lut iolatod hioiaichy in which con-
sciousnoss opposos lack (oi ovon lailuio ol consciousnoss, a hioiaichy that
tonds to liing nany associatod hioiaichios along with it, as ciitics ol psycho-
analysis olton noto. Ciitiquing Coitoaus iocouiso to tho psychoanalytic sul-
oct and its constitutivo division doos not, howovoi, ioduco his woik to that
nodol oi nako it usoloss to thoso who havo gotton ovoi psychoanalysis.
Coitoaus ovoiyday lilo night lo pioductivoly iothought as tho piactico ol
tho suloct thiough tho position ol ovoiyday lilo, as tho sot ol tactics and
tochnologios ly which tho soll is constitutod (howovoi tiansiontly within
cultuio. This doos not ioquiio iolinquishing oithoi philosophios ol aina-
tion and pioductivity oi tho possililitios ol natoiial cultuial chango. What
it nay ioquiio iolinquishing is tho ionanco ol tho oidinaiy nan, to tho
nusoliko altoiity ol whonCoitoau dodicatod The Practice of Everyday Life
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396 Catherine Driscoll
this oiaclo whoso voico is alnost indistinguishallo liontho iunllo ol his-
toiy
55
and to whon cultuial studios continuos to pay honago in its dis-
couiso ol ovoiyday lilo.
Notes
This ossay diaws on a soiios ol discussions with acadonics ol dioiont disciplinos alout tho
noaning and piactico ol cultuial studios, and I ionain paiticulaily giatolul to Joan Wallach
Scott and Biita Pokaisky. I ist piosontod it to tho Do Coitoau Conloionco at tho Univoisity ol
Tasnania in Januaiy 8, loi which oppoitunity and loi his sulsoquont connonts on this
ossay I an giatolul to Ian Buchanan.
Michol do Coitoau, APlaco lionWhich Ono Doals with Cultuio, in Culture in the Plural,
od. Luco Giaid, tians. TonConloy (Minnoapolis, ; j;q|, z, quotationlionz.
z Michol do Coitoau, Tho Maiginality ol a Maoiity, in The Practice of Everyday Life, tians.
Stovon Rondall (Boikoloy, 8q j8o|, xviii.
Ilid.
q Michol do Coitoau, Lacan: An Ethics ol Spooch, in Heterologies: Discourse on the Other,
tians. Biian Massuni (Minnoapolis, 8o, q;oq, quotation lion 8.
Soo Michol do Coitoau, Univoisitios voisus Populai Cultuio, in Culture in the Plural,
z, loi his assossnont ol tho paiticulai loins ol donand and possilility that shapo
tho inclusion in toitiaiy oducation systons ol not ust populai-cultuial pioducts lut tho
analgan ol piacticos ly which cultuial studios is aigually constitutod.
o Michol do Coitoau, Minoiitios, in Culture in the Plural, o;, quotation lion ;;.
; Michol do Coitoau, The Writing of History, tians. Ton Conloy (Now Yoik, 88 j;|, .
8 Lacan aiguos in Seminar II that tho hunan oloct always constitutos itsoll thiough tho
intoinodiaiy ol a ist lossnothing liuitlul takos placo in nan savo thiough tho intoi-
nodiaiy ol a loss ol an oloct, quotod in Judith Butloi, Bodies That Matter: On the Discur-
sive Limits of Sex (Now Yoik, , ;.
Lacan lolongs to no ono, Ho is Othoi, Tho piopoi placo, i.o. tho Ecolo, lls up with
anylody and anything (Coitoau, Lacan, q8q.
o Coitoau, Writing of History, z.
Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, . In Tho Placo lionWhich Ono Doals with Cultuio,
Coitoau luithoi spocios that there is no observation that is not determined by the situation
created by a relation: tho point has loonostallishodindioiont ways sinco Maix andFioud.
Thus a gioup nisconstiuos tho socioty in which it is insoitod whon it lails to iocognizo
itsoll as a paiticulai social catogoiy in tho iolations ol pioduction and in powoi iolations
(z.
z Intioduction to Australian Cultural Studies, od. John Fiow and Moaghan Moiiis (St. Loo-
naids, NSW, , quotation lion xxi.
Coitoau, Writing of History, o8.
q Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, xi.
Ilid., xix, xx, xxi.
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Locating Everyday Life 397
o Moaghan Moiiis, Banality in Cultuial Studios, in Logics of Television: Essays in Cultural
Criticism, od. Patiicia Mollancanp (Bloonington, o, qq, quotation lion o.
; Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, xxii. His oxonplaiy guio loi this iodiioction, tho
housowilo, is (as Moiiis suggosts a iopiosontation that night lo ciucial to a loninist
ciitiquo ol Coitoaus nodol, ono that could piocood ly conpaiing tho housowilo and
walking in tho city as ovoiyday piacticos. Coitoau distinguishos lotwoon such piacticos
as talking, ioading, noving alout, shopping, cooking, otc. and ways ol opoiating, such
as clovoi tiicks, knowing howto got away withthings, huntois cunning, nanouvois jsic|,
polynoiphic sinulations, oylul discovoiios, pootic as woll as wailiko opoiations (xxii,
and yot it ionains uncloai how tho lattoi activitios aio inapplicallo to tho housowilo.
8 Soo Pioiio Bouidiou, Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste, tians. Richaid
Nico (Canliidgo, MA, 8q j;|.
Michol do Coitoau, Cultuio within Socioty, in Culture in the Plural, oz, quotation
lion o;.
zo Ilid., oo.
z Honii Lololvio, Tho Evoiyday and Evoiydaynoss, Yale French Studies ; (8;: ;,
quotation lion .
zz Honii Lololvio, Critique of Everyday Life, tians. John Mooio (London, jq;|, qo,
and as quotod in Alico Kaplan and Kiistin Ross, Everyday Life (Now Havon, 8;, z.
z Soo Lawionco Giossloig, Cultuial Studios, Modoin Logics, and Thooiios ol Glolalisa-
tion, inBack to Reality? Social Experience and Cultural Studies, od. Angola McRollio (Man-
chostoi, UK, ;, ;.
zq Moiiis, Banality in Cultuial Studios, 8, z.
z Ilid., zq, z;.
zo Ilid., o.
z; Wlad Godzich, Foiowoid: Tho Fuithoi Possilility ol Knowlodgo, in Coitoau, Heterolo-
gies, vixxi, quotation lion xxxxi.
z8 Michol Foucault, Piolaco to Gillos Dolouzo and Flix Guattaii, Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism
and Schizophrenia, tians. Roloit Huiloy, Maik Soon, and Holon R. Lano (NowYoik, ;;
j;z|, xxiv, quotation lion xii.
z Coitoau, Heterologies, ;z.
o Lacan sinilaily displacos Foucault in Judith Butlois Psychic Life of Power: Theories in Sub-
jection (Stanloid, ;. Whilo sho nakos no nontion ol Coitoau hoio, tho ioasons loi
Butlois lailuio to acconplish hoi inpoitant task ol ongaging Foucault and Lacan ovoi
thoii thooiios ol suloctication night intoisoct at sovoial inpoitant points with his own
dosiio to givo Foucaults piooct contont so as to iondoi it adoquato to tho lilo ol powoi.
Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, xii.
z This undoistanding ol hotoiology was suggostod to no ly Ian Buchanan, in ioloionco to
Richaid Toidinans woik and, ol couiso, to Hogol.
Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, xiv.
q Thus an oxtoiioiity, with noithoi loginning noi tiuth, would iotuin to visit discouiso
(Coitoau, Writing of History, zo.
Ilid., zo.
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398 Catherine Driscoll
o Ilid., zo.
; Ilid.
8 Ilid., z.
Coitoau, Piolaco to Culture in the Plural, viiviii, quotation lion viii. Coitoau night thus
lo alignod noio with Dolouzo and Guattaii than with Lacan, and it would lo intoiosting
to considoi hownuch tho lundanontally unknowallo Othoi ol cultuio inhis loinulation
ol ovoiyday lilo would lo sulsunod ly thoii ciitiquo ol lack as a tianscondontal catogoiy
oxonpliod in tho psychoanalytic stiuctuio ol Oodipus. Foi Dolouzo and Guattaii, thoio
is no lack in tho lody, in consciousnossoi in dosiio: Dosiio doos not lack anything, it
doos not lack its oloct. It is, iathoi, tho subject that is nissing in dosiio, oi dosiio that lacks
a xod suloct, thoio is no xod suloct unloss thoio is iopiossion (Anti-Oedipus, zo.
qo Michol do Coitoau, Tho Inaginaiy ol tho City, in Culture in the Plural, ;z;, quotation
lion zq.
q Signund Fioud, Totem and Taboo, as quotod in Coitoau, Heterologies, .
qz Michol do Coitoau, Conclusion: Spacos and Piacticos, in Culture in the Plural, q;,
quotations lion , q.
q Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, .
qq Soo, loi oxanplo, Giossloig, Cultuial Studios, Modoin Logics, and Maik Postoi, Tho
Quostion ol Agoncy: Michol do Coitoau and tho Histoiy ol Consunoiisn, diacritics zz
(z: qo;.
q Soo Jacquos Lacan, Ecrits: A Selection, tians. Alan Shoiidan (London, ;; joo|:
Fiouds discovoiy was that ol tho old ol oocts in tho natuio ol nan ol his iolations to
tho synlolic oidoi and tho tiacing ol thoii noaning iight lack to tho nost iadical agoncios
ol synlolization in loing (oq.
qo Ton Conloy, Intioduction to Coitoau, Writing of History, viixxiv, quotation lion xv.
q; Coitoau, Writing of History, .
q8 Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, xii.
q Moiiis, Banality in Cultuial Studios, q, , ny onphasis.
o Mauiico Blanchot, Evoiyday Spooch, inKaplanand Ross, Everyday Life, zo, quotation
lion z.
Coitoau citos Blanchot in Writing of History, .
z I would concui, thon, with Giossloigs dosiio loi tho discouiso ol ovoiyday lilo to avoid
toxts and audioncos appioachos and loi a iopositioning, sinilai to tho Foucaldianthooiy
ol oocts and contoxts, that Giossloig calls aiticulation (Cultuial Studios, Modoin
Logics, 8.
Blanchot, Evoiyday Spooch, 8.
q Coitoau, Practice of Everyday Life, ;.
Ilid., v.
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