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Page 19 - Brazil: Energy Super Power Brazil is a fast-growing, diverse and mostly clean supply of energy to power one

e of the world's most robust economies. Brazil is currently the world's 8th largest economy, according to the World Bank. Brazil Energy o Drilling for oil off Atlantic coast o Hydroelectric projects o low-carbon sugar-cane ethanol (most efficient ethanol) Brazil is 12th largest oil producer. (offshore, pre salt basins) More than 80% of Brazils energy is from renewable resources (Hydropower, biofuels. Brazil's deposits are deeper further offshore than anything BP was producing in the Gulf of Mexico. Most efficient biofuel is sugar cane (rather than corn). Brazil wants to become ethanol OPEC. Belo Monte Dam (2015) 4700MW power for 13 billion USD.

Page 20 Wind Energy Rides a Boom in 2010 Wind Energy (increasing at an annual rate of 20%) o 20% increase in 2010 (more than half in China) o China tops the list for production, but Europe get the most out of it. o Combined: 38,000MW created last year (2010). o 200,000MW around the world ; similar to 200 nuclear power plants o 2.5 % of worlds energy production Countries (% of electrical need by wind power) China USA Tripled to 40,000MW since 2006 Germany (9%) Spain and Germany generate more than half the continents 86,000MW of wind Spain (18%) energy. India 6.Italy 7. France 8. UK 9. Canada 10. Portugal (16%) New farms in Europe contribute 10,000MW of elec.; more than coal, oil, and gas combined. Romania, Bulgaria, Poland and Croatia, have made investments in wind power. Low costs were prime reason for wind energy investments. Wind power: 7-13cents per kilowatt hour VS Nuclear power: 20cents per kilowatt hour. Offshore wind farms, more reliable, more expensive. 3% of wind production. 2011: Venezuela, Honduras, and Ethiopia

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All wind farms: 200 Gigawatt and can generate 430 TWh per annum, equaling 2.5 % of the global electricity consumption

Page 21 - Photovoltaic (solar radiation into direct current electricity ) Among Fastest Growing Industries in the World 46 MW (1990) to 23.5 GW (2010)

Europe: more than 70% of photovoltaic production. China: major manuf. of solar cells. (Taiwan, Germany, and Malaysia) Tariff tax incentives, renewable portfolio standards, environmental issues will keep PV demands high. Due to overcapacity of cells and technological advancements, costs have reduced 50%. Cost of silicon is main material consumption and cost. Concentrated photovoltaics (CPVs) is a new technology which substitutes semiconductor material with cheaper concentrating lenses, typically of plastics.