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/ System of Phase-Locked-Loop Frequency Control

of Ultirasonic Generators
I Vladimir N. Khmelev, Roman V. Barsukov, Alexey N. Slivin, Sergey N. Tclnyganok
I Biysk Technological Institute, Biysk, Altay territov, Russia

T he ultrasonic technologies at present are widely used.

They are considered to be different technological
processes, which run under the influence of ultrasonic
ence occurs, the detuning of frequency of the oscillatory
system and the electronic generator takes place.
A " f
fluctuations of high intensity (1-10 W/sm2).The high rate
I of spreading of these technologies is due to the fact that
i ., when ultrasonic energy is entered into the operation zone I I \ I
of significant acceleration almost all known physical,
chemical and others processes occurs.
The ultrasonic fluctuations of high intensity are
formed in the processed technological ambiences with
the help of ultrasonic generators (see Fig.l), providing
the transformation of the power of industrial electric fP ffJrz J'P /.=
mains into the energy of ultrasonic fluctuations. Fig. 2. Amplitude-frequency characteristic and phase-freiuency per-
formance of ultrasonic oscillatory system
On the other hand, the influence of ultrasonic
fluctuations on the technological ambience entails the
change of their physical and acoustic characteristics and
this also results in the changes of the resonance fre-
quency of the oscillatory system.
Besides, the functioning ultrasonic oscillatory sys-
tem is inevitably heating due to the intemal losses that
also changes the oscillatory features.
Fig. 1. The scheme of ultrasonic device. In accordance with mentioned above, the different
The ultrasonic technological device consists of a technological ambiences, the changes of the acoustic
generator of electric fluctuations (l), which generates the characteristics under ultrasonic influence, the oscillatory
variable voltage with ultrasonic frequency for the power system heating, the instability of frequency of an elec-
supply of the mechanical oscillatory system (23. The ul- tronic generator proper are main factors that mostly de-
trasonic oscillatory system is represented by the reso- termine the resonance frequency of the oscillatory sys-
nance system, incorporating the piezoelectric transducer tem.
(3) for transformation of electric fluctuations of ultra- Thereby to perform an effective function of this
sonic frequency into the mechanical fluctuations of the ultrasonic device for intensification of different techno-
same frequency, and a concentrator (4), intended for en- logical processes a generator should have a system for an
hancement of mechanical fluctuations and co-ordination automatic frequency searching and tuning in terms of
of impedances of technological ambience and the piezo- changes of the oscillation system resonance frequency.
electric transducer. I and U are the current and power The systems of phase-locked-loop frequency con-
voltage of piezoelectric transducer oscillatory system. trol (PLLFC) with manual resonance frequency search-
The behaviour of the operating ultrasonic technological ing in the given band of frequencies have been recently
device is illustrated in the Fig. 2, where the amplitude- used. Such systems require constant checking of the
frequency characteristic and phase-frequency perform- PLLFC work as in consequence of various reasons the
ance of the ultrasonic oscillatory system are shown, generator's "failure" can occur at the resonance point.
where x is the amplitude of fluctuations and y is the Moreover, in designing of the complex osYillatory sys-
phase between I and U. Obviously, for obtaining of the tems it should be taken into account that there are a lot of
maximal amplitude of fluctuations and the maximal ef- resonances closely located with each other. Due to this
fcct of .the ultrasonic influence the system must work fact, it becomes difficult to tune the necessary resonances
under the resonance frequency for this system (point A). and uneven changes in the resonance frequencies occur.
Speaking about the variety of technological proc- The above said causes the development of more
esses it should be noted that each technological ambience intellectual system of searching, tuning, retaining reso-
is fully determined by the acoustic load on the electronic nance frequency of ultrasonic oscillatory system.
generator for that the influence between the ultrasonic In the Fig. 3 the PLLFC system is shown, where
oscillatory system and the technological ambiences ex- microcontroller (MC) is used as a phase comparator
ists. For this reason, different technological ambience RISC. The microcontroller application in the system
effects on the characteristic oscillatory features of oscil- PLLFC has provided the possibility of establishing of the
latory system, such as the resonance frequency, the qual- initiating logic of functioning of the electronic generator
ity factor, and when the change of technological ambi- depending on the specified conditions and realising of

ISBN: 5-7782-0347-0 0 2001 NSTU


. -
the universal algorithms of ultrasonic device control in
consequence of which its reliability and capacity in-
creases. Such system allows to fix all available reso-
nances in operational band of frequencies and to work
over the optimum one.

Fig. 3. - PLLFC ultrasonic generators system.

Fig.3 shows that in the combination with the sys-
tem PLLFC there is VCO (the voltage-controlled oscilla-
tor), which works out the band of frequencies f l ...a of
the ultrasonic range when the voltage changes at its input
within the boundaries Uvco=O....U1. The voltage desired
at the input VCO is formed in integrating square-wave
pulses by the chain RC, generated by the controller at
output D. The change of this voltage is effected via space
pulses changes. With. the information on the phase corre-
lation of current and voltages of the oscillatory system of
the controller starts the processing of signals, coming to
its inputs A and B. On the input A the signalfis flashing
at the output VCO which phase is equal to the phase of
voltage of the oscillatory system, on the input B the
square-wave signalfbaseis given, which phase is a phase
of the current flowing through it. Besides measuring of
the period of signals on the input A or B it is possible to
calculate the current operation frequency. Thus the con-
troller receives entering signals with further processing
that enables an effective control of the ultrasonic oscilla-
tory system.
The offered system PLLFC was marketable. The
algorithms of the system control management were de-
signed and marketed. The studies carried out have shown
the high technical features of the given systems under the
. conditions:
- when the change of the own resonance fre-
quency of the oscillatory system due to the change of the
acoustic features and change of temperature from 0 to
200 degrees is located within 2-3 kHz,the offered system
provides stable functioning of the electronic generator at
the frequency in correspondence with changing of own
frequency of the ultrasonic oscillatory system;
- when using the stagger-peaked oscillatory sys-
tems, with a majority of stray resonances closed to the
main longitudinal resonances, the offered system works
efficiently at the frequency of the main resona2ce
whereas offer resonances are changing.
The offered system was used in the combination
of ultrasonic technological devices of different power,
intended for the realisation of various technological