Agitation and mixing
1
Agitation vs. Mixing
Agitation – induced motion of a material in a specified way
– Usually a circulatory pattern inside a container
Mixing – random distribution, into and through one another, of two or more initially separate phases
– Various degrees of homogeneity
Introduction
Applications
(1) dispersion of solvable solid
(2) homogenization of miscible liquids
(3) mixing and dispersion of immiscible liquids
(4) mixing between gas and liquid
(5) suspension of solid particles in liquid
(6) acceleration of chemical reaction and physical transport
Agitation methods mechanical agitators gas agitation jet mixing static mixer tubular mixing
3
Agitation Equipment
TJunctions Static Mixers Tank or vessel
– Cylindrical in form with a vertical axis
– Rounded or flatten tank bottom
– Depth diameter
Impellers
– Axialflow – generate currents parallel with the axis of the impeller shaft
– Radialflow – generate currents in a tangential or radial direction
– Propellers, paddles, and turbines
Motionless mixers
Pitot tube (different flow rates)
Tjunction (similar flow rates)
Perforated plates (orifices) supported on a rod
Hellical mixing elements with alternating directions (Kenics)
Flanged perforated plates
Injector mixer with a helical baffle
Kenics ^{} Static mixers
Komax ^{} static mixer
Pump recirculated tank(homogenizer)
A set of mixing equipment consists of:
a mixing tank
a
speed reducer an agitator some attached parts.
driving
motor
with
Agitator is the main part, like an impeller in a pump to give mechanical energy to liquid.
9
Types of agitators – axial type
propeller
standard type：
S/d=1，Z=3
blade end speed:
5~15 m/s, maximum 25 m/s
helical ribbon
Standard type： S/d=1, B/d=0.1 Z=12 (2 for twin ribbon type) low speed, the outer edge is very close to the tank wall (close clearance impeller).
10
Types of agitators – radial type
blades
standard type
d/B=410，Z=2
blade end speed 1.5~3 m/s
anchor and frame
standard type： B/d=1/12 d’/d=0.050.08, d’=2550 mm d’ distance between the tank wall and the outer edge of the anchor blade end speed 0.51.5 m/s
11
Propellers
Propellers – axialflow, high speed impeller for liquids of low viscosity
– Small – 11501750 r/min
– Large – 400800 r/min
– Pitch – ratio of movement of liquid over fixed distance to propeller diameter
– Standard – 3blade marine propeller with square pitch (1.0)
– Rarely exceed 18” in diameter
Paddles
Two or four blades turning on a vertical shaft
– Simple mixing problems
– 20150 r/min
– Length usually 5080% of inside diameter
– Width is 1/6 ^{t}^{h} to 1/10 ^{t}^{h} of length
– Use with baffles at high speed to achieve good mixing
Turbines
Multibladed paddle agitators with short blades
– Turn at high speed on centrallymounted shaft
– Smaller diameter; 3050% of diameter of vessel
– Effective over wide range of viscosities
Types of agitators – radial type
straight blades on disk (Rushton)
curve blades on disk
open straight blades (paddle)
open curve blades
turbines
15
Concaveblade CD6 impeller
Agitator types
3blade marine propeller
Pitchedblade turbine
Disk turbine
Simple straightblade turbine
(paddle)
Agitator types
Turbine with inclined blades (usually45°)
Shrouded turbine (consisting of a rotor and a stator)
Agitator types
Cage beater impeller (usually mounted on the same shaft with a standard propeller)
shrouded screw impeller and heat exchange coil
Sawtooth edges flat plate turbine
Special mixers for powders and pastes
Special mixers for powders and pastes
Doublearm mixer and kneader
Some types of blades for the doublearm kneader
Flow Patterns
Depends on type of impeller, characteristics of fluid, size and proportions of tank, baffles, and agitator
Swirling – stratification at various levels with no longitudinal flow between levels
Types of agitators
It can be divided by flow pattern
axialflow
The main flow in tank is a circulation on axial direction (& tangential) with little turbulent. Suitable for mixing of low viscose liquids, particle suspension and heat transfer enhance.
Propeller small diameter, high speed, large flow rate and low head.
Helical ribbon large diameter and mixing range, low speed, low head. Special design for high viscosity liquid.
22
Types of agitators
Radialflow
Complicated radial and tangential flow. For low & middle viscosity liquids in dispersion of immiscible liquids, chemical reaction and heat transfer.
turbines: high speed，wide blade，low flow rate and high head.
straight blades: long vane, low speed and low head, for high viscosity liquids.
anchor and frame ：very large diameter and mixing range, very low speed and head. Suitable for high viscosity liquids and capable of preventing the deposit on tank wall.
23
Baffle and draft tube tangential vortex by centrifugal force. The liquid level on tank center will fall to form a forced vortex. The high the speed , the deep the vortex.
result effective volume reduced and mixing effect worsen. Sometimes gas is absorbed from lower liquid level to disturb operation.
Solution 1 wall.
Maximum 8 baffles (usually 4), called “fully baffled”
install baffles on tank
24
Baffles and draft tube Solution 2 offcentral installed agitator will improve the operation with increased power consumption.
draft tube mixing through controlling the flow velocity and direction, reducing the short cut. Especially for particle suspension.
Side entering impellers
25
Large tanks agitation: side entering impellers
Vortex inhibition: offcentering & baffles
Axial or radial impellers without baffles produce vortexes
Offcenter located impellers reduces the vortex
Lateral baffles reduces the vortex
Flow patterns:
radial vs axial impellers
Radial impeller
Axial impeller
Multipleimpeller tank
D
b
Standard geometry
Circulation, Velocities, and Power Consumption
Volume of fluid circulated by impeller must be sufficient to sweep out entire vessel in reasonable time
Velocity of stream leaving impeller must be sufficient to carry current to remotest parts of tank
In mixing, also it needs turbulence
– Results from properly directed currents and large velocity gradients in liquid
Circulation and generation of turbulence both consume energy
Large impeller + medium speed = flow Small impeller + high speed = turbulence
Flow pattern in mixing tank Flow pattern is related with the geometries of tank, stirrer and baffle, liquid properties and stirrer speed.
For agitation operation, the useful flows are axial and radial,
not the tangential.
Stirring Re
2
Re D N /
Tip speed
For a fully baffled standard tank with an 6 straight blades turbine, the following flow regimes hold:
1＜ Re＜10
Re＞10
near the turbine: laminar flow,
other zones: almost static
laminar axis flow, flow starts from blade’s tips
100＜Re<10 ^{3} transition, around turbine: turbulent flow,
Re>10 ^{3}
other zones: laminar axis flow
turbulent in whole tank
32
Mixing mechanism (1) molecular diffusion：occurring in molecular scale (2)turbulent diffusion ： caused by vortex dissipation, existed in vortex size . (3)convective diffusion：caused by convection, occurring in large scale spaces.
Convective flow breaks the liquid into large drops (macro mixing); the drops are then broken into smaller ones by vortex deformation (interdrop mixing) ； those vortex breakage and deformation will increase or renew the contacting area between drops with different concentration and promote the molecular diffusion.
A fully homogeneous mixing depends on molecular diffusion.
33
Mixing sensitive processes
Considering that a mixer consumes (depending on its shape, dimension and agitation speed) a determined amount of mechanical power, it can be dissipated inside the vessel by inducing large flow rates (bulk motion) or high levels of turbulence due to liquid shear (shear stresses). Typically, axial impellers promote bulk motion while radial ones promote instead shear stresses. Processes promoted by mixing may be classified on the basis of their sensitivity to bulk motion or shear stress promotion:
Bulk motion controlled processes – those which do not need to create new interface (blending, heat transfer promotion) or which must allow the availability of the actual interface for exchange processes (solid suspension). Shear rate controlled processes – those which efficiency rely on the generation of interphase exchange surface (gas liquid and liquidliquid dispersions).
Mixing mechanism of homogeneous systems
Large vortex is broken into small ones by shearing effect.
The viscose resistance converts part of the mixing energy into heat.
Strong mixing effect occurs at the zone near the agitator.
Total circulation flow rate is the most important for this type of mixing.
high viscosity liquids
In the laminar zone, mixing depends on the total flow. But the agitator efficiency is low at turbulent zone.
Large diameter (often “closeclearance”) and low speed agitators should be used. Impeller must sweep the whole vessel volume to assure good mixing.
35
Mixing mechanism of heterogeneous system
One phase is continuous and another is dispersed.
For zone near the agitator, the shearing effect is strong under high turbulent and small liquid drops will be achieved. In the zone far away from the agitator, the drops will agglomerate into larger ones.
The breakage and agglomeration processes increase and renew the interface of the liquids, so strengthen the interphase mass transfer.
If a surface activation agent is added in this system, the agglomeration will be weaken and the size of liquid drops tends to be uniform.
36
Mixing mechanism of heterogeneous systems
gasliquid systems
The mechanism is similar to the liquidliquid systems.
Gas is dispersed as bubbles in the liquid .
Gasliquid interface tension is stronger than that of liquid liquid and the dispersion of gas is more difficult. As a result, the sizes of bubbles are larger than those of liquid drops.
The large density difference between gas and liquid makes the gas bubbles rise to the top of the liquid.
High shearing agitators are often used to generate relative small gas bubbles (radial types are preferable).
37
Mixing mechanism of heterogeneous system
solidliquid systems
The purpose of the agitation are
• to suspend the particles homogeneously in the liquid
• to reduce the thickness of liquid film on particle surface in order to accelerate the reaction or transport processes.
Critical speed for suspension
It is minimum rotating speed needed to suspend all particles.
It depends on the agitator size and type as well as on the physical properties of suspension.
(N _{j}_{s} )
38
Why Dimensionless Numbers?
Empirical correlations to estimate the power required to rotate a given impeller at a given speed, with respect to other variables in system:
– Measurements of tank and impeller
– Distance of impeller from tank floor
– Liquid depth
– Dimensions of baffles
– Viscosity, density, speed
Dimensional analysis for fluid agitation systems
Basic quan tities Characteristic length:
Characteristic time:
Characteristic mass:
Derived q u antities Characteristic velocity:
Characteristic pressure:
Characteristic flow rate:
Impeller diameter
Inverse impeller speed: 1/N (s) Liquid density and cube
of impeller diameter:
D (m)
3
D (kg)
Impeller diameter and speed: DN (m/s) De nsity and velocity
square:
Velocity and area
ND
D
2
2
N (Pa)
3
3
m /s
Dimensionless numbers
Reynolds
N
Re
=
Pumping (Flow)
Weber
N
We
=
N D
2
;
Power
N
Po
N
Q
=
Q i Froude N
ND
3
;
Fr
2
N D
3
=
=
W
brake
3
N D
2
N D
5
g
Dimensionless Mixing Numbers Flow rates pumped by the impeller
pumping flow rate Q： flow rate pumped through a “reference” surface of the agitator
Pumping Number N _{Q} =Q/ND ^{3}
Where Q is the volumetric flow rate, measured over a fixed control surface (depending on the agitator type), N is the rotational speed (rps), D is the impeller diameter.
For turbulent flow, N _{Q} is a constant, not a function of Re
Q ND
3
Typical N _{Q} values:
Standard flatblade turbine, N _{Q} = 1.3
Marine propellers, N _{Q} = 0.50.9 (dep. on pitch)
4blade 45 turbine, N _{Q} = 0.5
42
Pumping number
Axial impellers
Dimensionless Mixing parameters Flow rates pumped by impeller
Total circulating flow rate Q’ :
all circulating flow rate in the tank by the entrainment from the agitator，Q’ > _{Q}_{.}
Circulating flow rate number N _{Q}_{’} = Q’/ND ^{3}
For turbulent flow (Re>10 ^{3} ) & standard geometry:
1 0 . 16
D
2
1
44
Dimensionless Mixing parameters Mechanical power required by impeller P
The power P dissipated divided by N ^{3} D ^{5} corresponds to an important dimensionless parameter of mixers, the Power Number N _{P} :
Power Number N _{P} =P/N ^{3} D ^{5}
Where P is the mechanical power dissipated (watts), measured at the tip of the blades, N is the rotational speed (rps), D is the impeller diameter and is the fluid density.
N _{P} is ratio of drag force to momentum flow, N _{P} is analogous to the friction factor _{f} for _{C} _{D} _{.}
Typical values:
Standard flatblade turbine, baffled vessels N _{P} = 5 Standard flatblade turbine, unbaffled vessels N _{P} = 1 Marine propellers, N _{P} = 1
45
Calculation of Power Consumption
3
5
P NND
P
At low Re (<10), density is no longer a factor:
K
L
Re
2
3
N P
P KND
L
At Re >10 000 in baffled tanks, P is independent of Reynolds Number and viscosity is not a factor:
N
K
PT
3
5
P KND
T
K _{L} and K _{T} are constants for various types of impellers and tanks
Please note the dependency of P on or depending on the flow regime (laminar or turbulent).
Power constants at low (K _{L} ) and high (K _{T} ) Reynolds number
Type of Impeller 
K 
L 
K 
T 

Propeller, 3 blades Pitch 1.0 Pitch 1.5 
41 
0.32 

55 
0.87 

Turbine 6blade disk (S _{3} =0.25 S _{4} =0.2) 
65 
5.75 

6 
curved blades (S _{4} =0.2) 
70 
4.80 

6 
pitched blades (45, S _{4} =0.2) 
 
1.63 

4 
pitched blades (45, S _{4} =0.2) 
44.5 
1.27 

Flat paddle, 2 blades (45, 
36.5 
1.70 

S 
_{4} =0.2) 

Anchor 
300 
0.35 
Correlations and power curves
For a complicated mixing process, dimensional analysis is often used to correlate the experimental data and find the empirical Eqs.
With a standard mixing unit, following results can be found from the dimensional analysis
Pw f _{} N ,,,,D
g
ND
g
Pw
ND
2
2
N D
N
P
3
5
f
,
N
P f Re, Fr
N _{P} —— power number Re —— stirring Reynolds number for flow pattern Fr —— Froude number for circulating flow with free surface
48
N _{P} vs Re for different turbines
Power number N _{P} vs. Re: baffled & unbaffled tanks
(marine propellers and helical ribbons)
N _{P} vs Re for propellers
N _{P} vs Re for different impellers
Effects of D/T for two axial flow impellers
Mixing processes: blending
Blending is the mixing operation aimed to homogenise two or more miscible liquids by agitation. The blending efficiency depends on the global flow rate moved by the impeller (bulk motion controlled process). The residence time required to achieve complete homogenization of inlet flow rate is called “mixing time” (t _{T} ). For non viscous liquids it is commonly assumed that the mixing time correspond to the time required by the impeller to recirculate 5 times the whole tank content.
t
T
Q
Q
5
V 5
2
T H
const
Q '4
N ND
'
3
N N
'
^{N} Q’
= circulating flow rate number
N = rotational speed, rps
T 
= tank diameter, m 
H 
= liquid height, m 
Nt
T
const 
^{} 
T 

N 
D 
Q '
2
Blending time vs Re
Mixing time correlations
For standard Rushton turbine (fully turbulent regime) the total flow rate circulated by the impeller is Q’=0.92ND ^{2} T , it follows:
t _{T} = mixing time, s
N = rotational speed, rps
T 
= tank diameter, m 
H 
= liquid height, m 
T
2
Nt
T
4.3
^{}
D
Mixing time factor
For HE3 highefficiency impeller (fully turbulent regime) the mixing time factor is:
Mixing time correlations
For standard Rushton turbine (fully turbulent regime) the total flow rate circulated by the impeller is Q’=0.92ND ^{2} T , it follows:
t _{T} = mixing time, s
V = liquid volume, m ^{3}
N = rotational speed, rps
D 
= impeller diameter, m 
T 
= tank diameter, m 
H 
= liquid height, m 
Nt 4.3
T
T
2
^{}
D
Mixing time factor
Mixing Time factor correlations
For Rushton turbine (fully turbulent regime) the mixing time factor is:the
1/Fr
When Re>10 ^{5} , f _{t} 5
For HE3 highefficiency impeller (fully turbulent regime) the mixing time factor is:
Nt 16.9
T
^{}
1.67
T
D
H
T
0.5
Mixing time factors in agitated vessels
Dimensionless parameter dependency on Re summary
Solid particle suspension
Processes involving solid particle suspension in liquids
(leaching, solid catalysed reactions, crystallization,
often carried out in agitated systems. The role of agitation is to made available to mass and heat exchange all the solid surface, therefore all particle should move freely inside the tank. This is a bulk motion controlled process.
) are
Aim of agitation:
• Produce a homogeneous mixture
• Dissolve solids
• Catalyze a chemical reaction
• Promote growth of a crystalline product from a supersaturated solution
Solid particle suspension regimes
Four different regimes apply for solid suspension:
1) 
Incomplete suspension: all or part of particle rest at the 
2) 
bottom tank, forming “fillets”. This regime may be acceptable only if the amount of unsuspended particles is small; Onbottom suspension: particles are suspended or, at least, 
3) 
move on bottom. Offbottom suspension: all particles do not rest at bottom 
4) 
for more than 12 seconds (Just Suspension regime). This a commonly adopted working regime of suspension; Homogeneous suspension: particles are uniformly distributed inside the whole tank (particle concentration is almost constant). It is a high power requiring regime and it is impossible to achieve for heavy particles. It is needed for very special applications. 
Solid particle suspension
The most used correlation to estimate the Just Suspension agitation speed (N _{J}_{S} ) is that proposed by Zwietering:
N
L
0.45
JS
0.1
Sd
0.2
p
g
0.85
DB
0.13
N _{J}_{S} = just suspension speed, rps S= geometry factor,  = kinematic viscosity, m ^{2} /s
= particle diameter, m g = gravitational acceleration, m/s ^{2}
d
p
Dimensional correlation!
= particle to liquid density difference, kg/m ^{3} _{L} = liquid density , kg/m ^{3}
D 
= impeller diameter, m 
B 
= particle mass to liquid mass ratio x 100, % 
Shape Factor, S
Impeller type 
T/D 
T/E 
S 
(E is height of impeller above vessel floor) 

6blade turbine D/W = 5 N _{P} = 6.2 
2 
4 
4.1 
3 
4 
7.5 

4 
4 
11.5 

2blade paddle D/W = 4 N _{P} = 2.5 
2 
4 
4.8 
3 
4 
8 

4 
4 
12.5 

3blade propeller N _{P} = 0.5 
3 
4 
6.5 
4 
4 
8.5 

4 
2.5 
9.5 
For the same geometry, critical speed is about the same for standard turbine and paddle However, turbine requires twice as much power as paddle, and 1520 times as much power as propeller Sole purpose to suspend solids – use propeller For good gas dispersion or high shear – use turbine
Power required for complete suspension of solids in agitated tanks using pitchedblade turbines
GasLiquid dispersions
Gas liquid mechanically agitated systems are used for those processes where a gasliquid mass transfer phenomena are
involved (hydrogenation, chlorination, oxidation,
).
The role of mixing is to:
• generate as much interfacial area as possible (by disrupting the gas phase)
• disperse the bubbles throughout the liquid
for
• keep
the
bubbles
in
the
liquid
(i.e.
recirculate)
sufficient time
• homogenize the liquid concentration
• enhance mass and heat transfer coefficients.
To this aim, impellers that produce large shear stresses (high velocity turbines) are preferable.
GasLiquid dispersions
The gas phase is fed on the lower part of the tank, below the impeller, through a gas sparger. Gas spargers may consist simply of open end tubes or may be slightly more complicated (perforated rings, porous plates). The importance of gas sparger is not as crucial as in other non agitated systems (e.g. bubble columns) as the gas phase dispersion is mainly performed by the impeller.
sparger
GasLiquid dispersions regimes
Depending on the agitation speed N and the gas flow rate Q _{G} different dispersion regimes hold:
a) & b) Flooding
Loading
Complete
dispersion
Highly gas recirculation regime
GasLiquid dispersions regimes
Correlation to regime transition parameters estimation:
Flooding Loading (N _{F} )
Loading Compl. Disp. (N _{C}_{D} )
Q G ND F 
3 30 D T 3.5 2 N D F g 
Fl F 
30 D T 
3.5 
Fr F 

D T 0.5 2 ND CD g 
0.5 
0.2 D T 
0.5 

Q G ND CD 3 
0.2 
Fl CD 
Fr 0.5 CD 
Compl. Disp. High Gas Rec. (N _{R} )
ND
R
T
g
T
Q
G
3
13
D
5
2
N D
R
2
Fl
R
13
D
5
2
Fr
R
GasLiquid power requirements
The gas strongly affects the fluid dynamics inside the tank as it interferes in the impeller momentum transfer. Therefore correlations of N _{P} valid for single phase do not hold anymore. The figure shows how the ratio of power in gassed conditions (P ) over the power consumed in ungassed systems (P) varies with the
g
Flow Number (Fl) at constant gas flow rate Q _{G} :
Power curves at constant gas rate for Rushton turbines.
P _{g} /P always < 1
Gas cavities behind blades
Gasliquid dispersion empirical correlations
Michel & Miller correlation to predict P _{g} in standard systems:
_{}
2
P ND
3
P



g 
0.56 
m
Q
G
Dimensional correlation (SI units required) P=ungassed power requirement [W], P _{g} [W] N [rps], D [m], Q _{G} [m ^{3} /s] = 0.83 (Rushton turbine, standard geometry) m=0.45 normally coalescent liquids
Van’t Riet correlation to calculate the volumetric gasliquid mass transfer coefficient (k _{L} a) in standard systems:
_{}
P
sg
ka
L
g
v
V
L
Dimensional correlation (SI units required):
P
[W], V _{L} [m ^{3} ] liquid volume k _{L} a [1/s], v superficial gas velocity (Q _{g} /S _{t}_{a}_{n}_{k} ) [m/s]
g
sg
Coalescent systems
Non coalescent systems

0.026 
0.002 

0.4 
0.7 

0.5 
0.2 
P _{g} /P vs Q _{G} for different impellers
Typical power curves for gassed agitators (D.T.= disc turbine; V.D.= vaned disc; P.B.T. = pitched blade turbine. All curves for one N and D.)
Liquidliquid dispersions
Liquidliquid dispersion operations may be performed in agitated tanks provided by high shear rate impellers (e.g. turbines). As in the case of gas dispersion, the interfacial surface between phases is generated by the agitation and varies with it. Also the droplet size of the dispersed phase will depend on the degree of the agitation being the result of the two opposite processes of disruption (due to agitation) and coalescence. Liquidliquid systems are characterised by major complexity with respect to solidliquid and, also, gas liquid dispersions. In particular, in some cases, it is not possible a priori to establish which one of two immiscible phases will perform as dispersed and continuous one.
Mean diameter of drops
The main global parameter describing the characteristic of dispersion is the mean droplet diameter d . Considering that the droplets are characterised by a dimension distribution, the average diameter usually adopted is the surfacebased mean diameter (Sauter diameter) d _{S} obtained starting from the ratio of total volume to total surface of all dispersed drops in the volume:
p
i
Sauter mean diameter
n _{t}_{o}_{t} = total number of drops
= disp. phase holdup a = specific surface, m ^{2} /m ^{3}
d
S
6
a
Liquidliquid dispersions
Liquidliquid dispersion operations may be performed in agitated tanks provided by high shear rate impellers (e.g. turbines). As the impeller action is produce high liquid deformations (shear) in order to deform drops of disperded phase and break them in smaller ones, this action depends on the ratio of fluid kinetic energy at the impeller tip speed to a surfacetension stress based on D which define the Weber Number (We):
We
2
3
C
N D
_{C} = density of continuous phase = surface tension
Correlation for d _{S}
Several empiric correlation have been proposed to estimate mean drop diameter depending on agitation conditions, relevant to different mixing devices.
Rushton turbine:
Static Kenics mixers:
d D
S
0.35
We
0.6
f
0.4
Where:
We
C
v D
2
D pipe diameter, m
v average fluid velocity, m/s
friction factor, 
Design of agitation
(1) Decide the type and geometry of the tank and the agitator.
(2) Find the performance of the installation first, including the size, rotating speed and power, then scaling up to commercial scale.
Scaling up criteria
geometric similarity all the sizes have same ratio, such as H/D.
dynamic similarity corresponding points.
kinetic similarity all have same forces ratio on corresponding points (with same Re, Fr or We).
where： Re：the ratio of inertia to viscous forces
there are same velocity ratio and direction on
Fr： the ratio of inertia to gravitational forces
We = N ^{3} D ^{2} / ：the ratio of inertia to surface tension
80
Relevant parameters
D 
= impeller diameter (m), N = impeller speed (1/s) 
W 
_{s} = shaft power, W _{b}_{r}_{a}_{k}_{e} = brake power (W or HP) 
T 
= tank diameter, Z = liquid level m. 
Viscosity Pa.s, density kg/m ^{3} , Surface Tension N/m Q _{i} = impeller pumping capacity (m ^{3} /s)
ScaleUp
Based on geometrical similarity, if possible Power consumption predicted by curves of N _{P} vs N _{R}_{e} ROT for power
– ½1 hP per 1000 gal of thin liquid gives “mild” agitation
– 23 hP per 1000 gal gives “vigorous” agitation
– 410 hP per 1000 gal gives “intense” agitation
– Actual power delivered to the liquid
^{R}^{a}^{t}^{i}^{o} ^{o}^{f} ^{D} impeller ^{t}^{o} ^{D} vessel
– Dispersing a gas in a liquid – 0.25
– Contacting two immiscible liquids – 0.4
– Blending – 0.6 or more
Smaller the impeller, higher the impeller speed
Scaling up criterion
Used for constant liquid properties and relatively small scalingup ratio. Good for turbulent mixing dominated situation in fully turbulent flow.
ND ND
11
22
32
32
Keep the agitator torque constant in a geometrical analogue system. Suitable for operation of high head.
83
Scaling up criterion
Which scaling up process should be used? depends on the practical situation.
84
Viel mehr als nur Dokumente.
Entdecken, was Scribd alles zu bieten hat, inklusive Bücher und Hörbücher von großen Verlagen.
Jederzeit kündbar.