Sie sind auf Seite 1von 13

Selecting Transmission Medium for sharing E-Resources: A Comparative Study Report

R. Prabu Ph.D. Scholar, Dept. of Library & Information Science, Bharathidasan University, Trichy -24. Praburkp@gmail.com S. Ketheeswaren Assistant Librarian, University of Jaffna, Sri Lanka Dr. S. Srinivasa Ragavan, Librarian and Head, Bharathidasan University, Trichy 24

Abstract
Transmission media are the physical pathways (guided or unguided) that connect computers, other devices, and people on a network. Computers and telecommunication devices use signals to represent data. These signals are transmitted from a device to another in the form of electromagnetic energy. Examples of Electromagnetic energy include power, radio waves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, and X and gamma rays. All these electromagnetic signals constitute the electromagnetic spectrum. Each portion of the spectrum requires a particular or unique transmission media for the transfer of data such we call as Twisted Pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fibber, Satellite, and Wireless etc. In the paper, The Guided (Twisted Pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber) and the Unguided Microwaves (Satellite, wifi, wimax, bluetooth) transmission mediums are compared with help of relative plots in terms of their networking capabilities (e.g., speed, damping length, Bandwidth, Cost and Get connection). Optical fibber in the guided media outperforms other medias in better networking performance but optical fibber cable connection is sensitive than twisted Pair and Coaxial cable connections and require higher cost than the same. Twisted pair outperforms coaxial cable. Here it is also notable that coaxial cable can be connected easily without order, but twisted pair not like that. Among Unguided; wimax outperforms other medias in better networking performance in long range even though wi-fi is a substitute for providing a greater power of access than wimax in short range. Here all unguided mediums are better for ease of access than guided. Keywords: Transmission Medium, Guided Media, Unguided media, Data channel, Data transfer

1. Introduction
Making an appropriate network for a service of library and information science is now common over the world, when such network is to be established or maitained we need much information on neworks and for chosing the appriopriate network particulary considering library envinments, comaprative ideas of different data tansmission medias are very essentially needed, here we make an initial step to compare different tarasmission medias such as the Guided (Twisted Pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fiber) and the Unguided Microwaves (Satellite, wifi, wimax, bluetooth) transmission mediums.

1.1 Data transmission medium


In order for data transmission to occur, there must be a transmission line, also called transmission channel between the two isolated data machines. These transmission channels are made up of several segments that allow the data to circulate in the form of electromagnetic, electrical, light or even acoustic waves. So, in fact, it is a vibratory phenomenon that is propagated over the physical medium. Transmission media are the physical pathways (guided or unguided) that connect computers, other devices, and people on a network. Computers and telecommunication devices use signals to represent data. These signals are transmitted from a device to another in the form of electromagnetic energy. Examples of Electromagnetic energy include power, radio waves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, and X and gamma rays. All these electromagnetic signals constitute the electromagnetic spectrum. Each portion of the spectrum requires a particular or unique transmission media for the transfer of data such we call as Twisted Pair, Coaxial cable, Optical fibber, Satellite, and Wireless etc.

Figure 1.1.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum

1.2 Transmission Medias


1.2.1 Guided Transmission Media
Guided Transmission Media uses a "cabling" system that guides the data signals along a specific path. The data signals are bound by the "cabling" system. Examples Twisted Pair (multi-pair cables), Coaxial cable, and Optical fiber

1.2.1.1 Twisted Pair (multi-pair cables)


Pair of twisted pair multi conductors Commonly used for communication networks within library buildings and in wired telephone networks. Produced in unshielded (UTP) and shielded (STP) forms, and in different performance categories as in the figure 1.2.1.1 below.

Figure 1.2.1.1.1 Twisted Pair cables in unshielded (UTP) and shielded (STP) forms

Each neighbour pairs is typically twisted to reduce crosstalk.

Figure 1.2.1.1.2 Twisted Pair Cable Connectors

1.2.1.2 Coaxial cable

Figure 1.2.1.2.1 Cross-section of a Coaxial Cable


Offers longer damping distances than of twisted pair, due to better shielding. Used for cable TV and local-area networks. It has been widely used in telephone systems, but optical fiber is now assuming this task.

Figure 1.2.1.2.2 Coaxial Cable Connectors

1.2.1.3 Optical fibber


Optical Fibers are glass fibers usually about 120 micrometers in diameter that are used to deliver wave signals in the form of pulses of light over distances up to 50 km without the using repeaters.

Three components: light source, transmission system, and a detector

The detector generates an electric pulse when hit by light 1-a pulse of light; 0-missing pulse of light. optical rays travel in glass or plastic core

When light move from one medium to another as below it bend at the boundary. The amount of bending depends on the properties of the media. 4

Light at shallow angles propagate along the fibre, and those that are less than critical angle are absorbed in the jacket The cladding is a glass or plastic with properties that differ from those of the core Not affected by external electromagnetic fields, and do not radiate energy. Hence, providing high degree of security from eavesdropping. Reduction of the radius of the core implies less reflected angles. Single mode is achieved with sufficient small radius.

Figure 1.2.1.3.1 Optical Fibre Cable Connectors

1.2.2 Unguided Transmission Media


Unguided Transmission Media now consists of a means for the data signals to travel but nothing to guide them along a specific path. The data signals are not bound to a cabling media and as such are often called Unbound Media. Examples: Wi-Fi, Wimax, Bluetooth, and Satellite

1.2.2.1 Wi-Fi

The name Wi-Fi (short for "Wireless Fidelity", sometimes incorrectly shortened to WiFi) corresponds to the name of the certification given by the Wi-Fi Alliance, formerly WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance). With Wi-Fi, it is possible to create high-speed wireless local area networks, provided that the computer to be connected is not too far from the access point. In practice, Wi-Fi can be used to provide high-speed connections (11 Mbps or greater) to laptop computers, desktop computers, personal digital assistants (PDAs) and any other devices located within a radius of several dozen metres

indoors (in general 20m-50m away) or within several hundred metres outdoors.

Figure 1.2.2.1.1 A sample Wi-Fi network in Library Buildings

Wi-Fi providers are starting to blanket areas that have a high concentration of users (like train stations, airports, and hotels) with wireless networks. These access areas are called "hot spots"

1.2.2.2 Wimax
What is WiMAX: WiMAX is a short name for Worldwide Interoperability of Microwave Access. WiMAX is described in IEEE 802.16 Wireless Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) standard. It is expected that WiMAX compliant systems will provide fixed wireless alternative to conventional Cable Internet. Typically, a WiMAX system consists of two parts:

A WiMAX Base Station: Base station consists of indoor electronic systems and a WiMAX tower. Typically, a base station can cover up to 10 km radius (Theoretically, a base station can cover up to 50 kilo meter radius or 30 miles, however practical considerations limit it to about 10 km or 6 miles). Any wireless node within the coverage area would be able to access the Internet. A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be a stand-alone box or a PCMCIA card that sits inside the laptop or computer. Access to WiMAX base station is similar to accessing a Wireless Access Point in a WiFi network, but the coverage is more.

Important Wireless MAN IEEE 802.16 (WiMAX) Specifications Range - 30-mile (50-km) radius from base station Speed - Up to 70 megabits per second Non-Line-of-sight (NLoS) between user and base station

Frequency bands - 2 to 11 GHz and 10 to 66 GHz (licensed and unlicensed bands)

Figure 1.2.2.2.1 A sample Wimax network

1.2.2.3 Bluetooth
Bluetooth is a short range, wire free, secure and international standardized wireless technology that provides wireless communication system between the Bluetooth enabled devices in a short ranged network. Bluetooth technology is a short range wireless technology that was developed by the collaboration of mobile phones and IT companies such as Nokia, Intel, Toshiba, Erickson and IBM. Bluetooth develops short range wireless connections between the laptops, handheld pcs, wireless communication devices and mobile phones. Bluetooth is only available to the personal area networks in an office or a home network. It reduces the usage of power as compared to the Wi-Fi. Bluetooth is an international standardized technology that is used for the wireless communication between the Bluetooth held devices such as mobile phones, digital camera, laptops, desktop computers, keyboard, mouse, mp3 players, video cameras and other devices Bluetooth uses radio waves frequency as a medium and is suitable for the 1, 10 and 100 meters distance. Like the Bluetooth, Wi-Fi uses the same frequency but the power consumption of the wi-fi is high so it produces more powerful signals Bluetooth uses radio waves that operate at 2.4 GHz bands. Microsoft Windows XP with the service pack 2 has the built-in support for the Bluetooth technology. The master Bluetooth device can communication with the seven other Bluetooth enabled devices. Different devices support different standards of the Bluetooth technology. The research on the advanced Bluetooth is in progress for the Bluetooth version 3.0 to provide the high-speed connections.

1.2.2.4 Satellite
In 1962, the American telecommunications giant AT&T launched the world's first true communications satellite, called Telstar. Since then, countless communications satellites have been placed into earth orbit, and the technology being applied to them is forever growing in sophistication

1.2.2.4.1 Basic Elements Satellite communications are comprised of following 2 main components: 1.2.2.4.1.1 The Satellite The satellite itself also known as the space segment, and is composed of three separate units, namely the fuel system, the satellite and telemetry controls, and the transponder. The transponder includes the receiving antenna to pick-up signals from the ground station, a broad band receiver, an input multiplexer, and a frequency converter which is used to reroute the received signals through a high powered amplifier for downlink. The primary role of a satellite is to reflect electronic signals. In the case of a telecom satellite, the primary task is to receive signals from a ground station and send them down to another ground station located a considerable distance away from the first. This relay action can be two-way, as in the case of a long distance phone call. Another use of the satellite is when, as is the case with television broadcasts and internet, the ground station's uplink is down linked over a wide region, so that many different customers possessing compatible equipment may receive it. Still another use for satellites is observation, wherein the satellite is equipped with cameras or various sensors, and it merely downlinks any information it picks up from its vantagepoint. l 1.2.2.4.1.2 The Ground Station. This is the earth segment. The ground station's job is two-fold. In the case of an uplink, or transmitting station, terrestrial data in the form of base band signals, is passed through a base band processor, an up converter, a high powered amplifier, and through a parabolic dish antenna up to an orbiting satellite. In the case of a downlink, or receiving station, works in the reverse fashion as the uplink, ultimately converting signals received through the parabolic antenna to base band signal

Figure 1.2.2.4.1 Network made up with satellite signals

2. Tools and works of Comparative Performance


Definitions to the Key terms used in comparative Performance
2.1 Damping Length The length where an amplifier or repeater is needed to further propagate the data signal without the data loss and noise 2.2 Maximum Speed of Data Transfer The optimal rate of data transfer at which the data possibly being propagated through a Transmission medium in bit per second 2.3 Bandwidth The maximum amount of information that can be transferred over a network in a given amount of time; when multiple devices are connected to the network, the bandwidth is divided, depleting transfer rates and decreasing overall network reliability. 2.4 Cost Cost means the comparative ranks given to each media according to their basic network implementing cost. Higher rank is given to a media for which the basic network implementing cost becomes high. 2.5 Get Connection Getting connection means the comparative ranks given to each media according to the toughness for becoming networked. Higher rank is given to a media for which the toughness becomes high.

3. Data Collections
For getting the current information on maximum speed, damping length, Bandwidth which are assumed to important tools for evaluating the transmission medias the relevant authenticated websites were searched for achieving data on maximum speed, damping length, Bandwidth of each transmission medias with applied latest modern technologies. The reference in the annex shows the URL on which the useful information on such data taken. 4. Test environment The collected data vary even among a transmission media with different applied modern technologies. After collecting the data, the data were reviewed for getting maximum permissible values on speed, damping length, Bandwidth for each transmission media with an applied modern technology for easily comparing each other transmission medium with a unique value. The values found for satellite extreme higher than the other media, so it was neglected in comparison.

Mediums Twisted pair (multi-pair cables) Coaxial cable Optical fibber Wi-Fi Wimax Bluetooth Satellite

Damping Length 2 Km 9 Km 60 Km 50 M (indoor) 10 Km (practically) 10 M 30000 Km

Max speed 100 Mbps 40 Mbps 2.4 Gbps 54 Mbps 70 Mbps 0.72 Mbps 1.2 Gbps

Bandwidth 300 MHz 35 MHz 2 GHz 5 GHz 11 GHz 2.5 GHZ 60 GHz

Cost Little High (rank 3) Medium (rank 4) Very High (rank 1) High (rank 2) High (rank2) Low (rank 5) Extreme high

Get connected Systematic Care needed (rank 2) Care needed (rank 3) Little tough (rank 1) Easy (rank 4) Easy (rank 4) Very Easy (rank 5) Minute and tough

Unguided

Guided

Relative percentage Twisted pair (multi-pair cables) Coaxial cable Optical fiber Wi-Fi Wimax Bluetooth Satellite Guided 3.33 4.07 15.00 1.63 100.00 100.00 0.08 2.20 16.67 2.85 0.02 0.03 Omitted as comparably very high valules 1.50 0.18 100.00 25.00 55.00 12.50 60.00 80.00 20.00 40.00 40.00 100.00 40.00 60.00 20.00 80.00 80.00 100.00

5. Table of Data Collections and plots

Unguided

10

6. Charts: Comparing Transmission Medias


Damping Length (Km) Maxspeed (Mbps) 60 2500 50 40 30 20 1 0 500 0 0

Bandwidth (MHz) Cost (Rank)


Get connected (Rank)

20000 5 18000 4.5 16000 4 14000 3.5 12000 3 10000 2.5 8000 2 6000 1.5 4000 1 2000 0 0.5 0

2000

5 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1 .5 1 0.5 0

1 500

1 000

Twisted pair (multipair cables)

Coaxial cable

Optical fiber

Wi-Fi

Wimax

Bluetooth

Relative Percentages Vs Selected M ediums 120.00 Damping Length M ax speed 100.00 Bandwidth Cost Get connected

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00 Twisted pair (multi-pair cables) Coaxial cable Optical fiber Wi-Fi Wimax Bluetooth

11

7. Result and Discussion


From charts in the paper, we see optical fibber posses the grater stages in speed, damping length and bandwidth but optical fibber cable connection is sensitive than twisted Pair and Coaxial cable connections and require higher cost that the same. Even coaxial cabling system has higher damping length than twisted pair system; twisted pair has higher bandwidth and speed, so we can say twisted pair outperforms coaxial cable. Here it is also notable that coaxial cable can be connected easily without order, but twisted pair not like that. Here we see from the charts, all unguided mediums are better for ease of access than guided. Among Unguided; wimax outperforms other Medias in better networking performance in long range (speed, damping length and bandwidth), even though wi-fi is a substitute for providing a greater power of access than wimax in short range. Even satellite performs with higher values of speed, damping length and bandwidth, the implementing cost and minute connection control get demerits, so we do not choose satellite as an populated outperforming media device for networking compared to other medias.

8. Findings
Optical fibber in the guided media outperforms other Medias in better networking performance but optical fibber cable connection is sensitive than twisted Pair and Coaxial cable connections and require higher cost that the same. Twisted pair outperforms coaxial cable. Here it is also notable that coaxial cable can be connected easily without order, but twisted pair not like that. Among Unguided; wimax outperforms other Medias in better networking performance in long range even though wi-fi is a substitute for providing a greater power of access than wimax in short range. Here all unguided mediums are better for ease of access than guided.

9. References
http://www.crutchfield.com/SLu3lQkqk5S/Learn/learningcenter/home/wireles s_glossary.html#rate for introductory text and reviews Last accessed on 12 January 2009 http://www.crutchfield.com/Learn/learningcenter/home/bluetooth.html for bluetooth Last Accessed on 15 January 2009 http://www.rfdesign.info/doc-desc/18/WiMAX-An-Introduction.html for wimax, wi-fi and Bluetooth Last Accessed on 20th January 2009 http://searchmobilecomputing.techtarget.com/tip/0,289483,sid40_gci970933,0 0.html for wimax Last accessed on 26th January 2009 http://www.wtec.org/loyola/satcom/c2_s3.htm#f2_30 for satellite Last accessed on 2nd February 2009 http://www.rap.ucar.edu/~djohnson/satellite/coverage.html for staellite Last accessed on 5th February 2009

12

www.bsu.edu/web/ebleech/ppt/wk10_Satellite___Microwave.pptfor fundamentals of satellite communication Last accessed on 12th February 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_medium for introduction Last accessed on 29 December 2008 http://en.kioskea.net/contents/transmission/transintro.php3 for introduction Last accessed on 15th March 2009 http://www.britannica.com/ebchecked/topic/524891/statellite- communication Last accessed on 17th April 2009.

13