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DUAL LINE SYSTEM:

The name implies that two main lubrication lines are used to set up, install and operate the system. Correctly designed, the Dual-line system can handle long lubrication lines, relatively high pressure and more than 1,000 lubrication points. A high pressure Dualline system is capable of lubricating bearings located at long distance from each other. Major components of the system: - Metering valves - Electric or Hydraulic reversing valve (change-over valve) - Two lubricant supply line (supply line A and supply line B) - Lubricant feed lines - End line pressure switch (if using an electric reversing valve) - High pressure lubricant pump - Controller (digital or conventional timer) In dual-line systems, a pump supplies the lubricant to the reversing valve. From the reversing valve, lubricant is supplied alternately into one of the main lubrication lines. Dual-line systems can be combined with series progressive metering valve as well. The system is suitable for either oil or viscous grease lubricants. BASIC OPERATING PRINCIPLES The dual-line system works in two cycles. First half cycles: When the pump is turned on, lubricant is delivered through the reversing valve into supply line A. The second supply line B is connected through the reversing valve and vent line to the reservoir. Lubricant pressure rises in supply line A until the flow resistance (operating pressure of the metering valve) and back pressure from the lubrication points has been overcome. At this pressure, the control and measuring piston of the metering valve are actuated and measured quantities of lubricant are delivered to the lubricating points connected to supply line A. After all control and measuring points have reached their full travel, lubricant flow to the lube points stops and pressure continues to rise in the system until the pre-set reversing valve pressure is reached. As soon as the pre-set pressure is reached the reversing

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valve will switch the lubricant supply line to supply line B and connecting supply line A to the reservoir. Second half cycles: As the reversing valve actuates, it diverts flow from the pump to the supply line B and simultaneously connects supply line A with the reservoir, allowing the pressure in supply line A to vent. The pump continues to run and now begin to build pressure in supply line B. As pressure rises in supply line B the control and metering pistons are returned to their previous position resulting in lubricant flow to all lube points connected to supply line B. when all pistons have moved and lube flow stops, pressure rises to the pre-set value, switching the tripping the reversing valve and sending an electrical signal to the system control that the second half cycle has been completed. The pump is now turn-off, supply line B is connected through the reversing valve to reservoir and lubricant pressure is vented. The cycle will be repeated when the controller again actuates the pump. DESIGN CONSIDERATION Proper selection of the grease and components for the lubrication system is very important. Dual-line systems have certain limitations in selecting main supply lines. Total pressure droop between the lubrication point and hydraulic reversing valve should not exceed 2,250psig (153 bar) Pressure availability at each metering valve should not exceed 500psig (34 bar) or greater. Pressure drop in the main supply line should not exceed 1,500psig (102 bar) for dead end (non return) system and 2,000psig (136 bar) for the loop systems. Pressure drop of the branch lines should be less than half of the pressure drop in the main line. Selecting the pump consideration should be given to the pump output. Grease in long lines can compress up to 20% in volume. To better monitor the metering valve install the monitoring valve parallel to the main line. Connect the block inlets and outlets to the same respective lines, so, after completion of one cycles, or half cycles the indicator pin will be in the same position. Metering Valve: A Dual-line metering valve is a positive displacement metering device with an adjustable stroke piston to dispense measured volumes of oil or grease. The metering valve has two output ports. After adjusting the valve to the desire setting, it will dispense an equal volume of lubricant through each of two outlets. If application requires more lubricant, one outlet can be closed and plugged and the remaining port receives twice the pre-set volume of lubricant.

Cross porting In some applications large bearing require more volume of lubricant than one outlet of the metering valve can provide. Instead of connecting two outlet lines to the point of lubrication, the metering valve can be cross-ported. This feature enables one outlet only and provides double the lubricant volume per lubrication cycles to be dispensed to the lubrication point. Outlet volume of the valves SIZE a. VSG KR b. VSL KR c. VTSK Control volume of the valves SIZE a. VSG KR b. VSL KR c. VSM OUTPUT RANGE, cm 0 2.3 cm 0 5 cm 0 8 cm OUTPUT 0.32 cc per outlet and cycles 0.32 cc per outlet and cycles 0.17 cc per outlet and cycles

Reversing Valve: The reversing valves are directional flow valves with pressure sensitive and mechanisms to alternate the flow of lubricant from one supply line to the other at predetermined pressure setting. Reversing action is automatic, actuated by pressure from the lubricant supply line. The supply line that is not under pressure is vented to the reservoir. a. Hydraulic reversing valve (change-0ver valve) The valve is consists of the following basic components: flow control piston with indicator - pressure sensing mechanism with adjustment - limit switch Turning the adjustment nut changes the pre-set of the pressure to reverse the flow of lubricant, from one supply line to another. The adjusting nut will increase or decrease the spring force exerted on the pilot piston. The larger the spring force, the more pressure it takes to overcome it and to reverse the lubricant flow. The pressure sensing mechanism is acting as an over-centering device as well. As soon as the pilot piston crosses the middle position it will complete the stroke using the full spring force.

b. Electric reversing valve The electric controlled reversing valves use an electrical signal from the pressure switch or pressure transducer to reverse the lubricant flow from one to another supply line. The piston of the electric reversing valve is driven by electric motor with a camshaft or electromagnetic solenoid. When pre-set pressure has been reached the signal from the pressure switch starts the electric motor or energizes the solenoid of the reversing valve and switches the lubricant flow from one supply line to another supply line. The principal of operation is similar to the hydraulic reversing valve. ADVANTAGE OF DUAL LINE SYSTEM a. long distances can be achieved b. additional lubrication points can be added without changing the main lubrication lines c. long history in industry or tested system for industrial machines d. can be used in a system with large number of lubrication points e. it uses metal to metal fittings in the metering valves. This can be an advantage because there are no elastermer seals to wear DISADVANTAGE OF DUAL LINE SYSTEM a. requires two lubrication lines and double the amount of fittings and mounting hardware b. old technology c. expensive DESIGN GUIDE Step one Gather information Complete a rough schematic of the machine including overall dimensions and lubrication points. Also note any external factors which may impact system components, such as extreme temperatures, vibration, moisture, corrosive condition and etc. record available or choice of power sources for the lubricant pump and/or controller. During your on site survey fill identify each lubrication point, its location and whether it is fixed, rotating or moving. Identify the type and size of each lubrication point and the number of inlet (if more than one).

type and size of each bearing no. of lubrication points location of each bearing identify if bearing is fixed, moving or rotating distances of each bearing thread size of bearing inlet equipment drawing min. anticipated ambient temperature availability of power source and air supply grease grade to be use in the system if automated type of controller costumer required (optional) lube quantity per point / lube chart (optional) possible position of pump station (optional) total single main line length (optional)

Step two Identify and calculate lubrication point For the purpose of system design, we will calculate the volume of lubricant that will completely replenish the lubricant capacity of each point once during 8 hours of operation. Lubricant capacity is calculated by multiplying the surface area of the lube point by the recommended film thickness. (We also multiply a safety factor to make the calculation more actual) Recommended film thickness: Oil = 0.001 film per hour (or 0.008 film per 8 hours) Grease = 0.00025 film per hour (or 0.002 film per 8 hours) Lube points Area formula: Plain bearing (A) = (bearing length) x 3.1416 x (shaft diameter) Roller bearing (A) = (square of shaft diameter) x (number of row) Flat bearing (A) = (length) x (width) Spur gear (A) = 17.47 x (pitch diameter) x (square root of width) Example: Plain bearing with 2 shaft diameter and 2 bearing length using grease A = 2 x 3.1416 x 2 A = 12.5664 square inch Lubricant Capacity = A x Recommended film thickness = 12.5664 square inch x 0.00025 inch per hour

= 0.0031416 cu. in per hour or 0.02513 cu. in per 8 hours

Step three Determine the cycle frequency Clearly this calculated amount of lubricant could be replenished in the bearing with a single large shot every 8 hours. However, it can replenished with 16 smaller shots every 1/2 hour, which would provide much better lubrication and protection to the bearing To determine the cycle frequency of the system, divide the smallest lubricant volume required by the minimum metering valve output. The normal recommended interval for dual-line system should not be less than 15 minutes between on times. This rule may be modified to accommodate large volume requirement but the interval between systems cycles must be greater than the total pumping time to pressurize both lines. It would be advisable to use 1/2 hour lubrication cycles frequency in order to minimize over lubrication on much smaller bearings Once you determined the number of cycles per 8 hour period, divide each lube point volume requirement by cycle frequency. Note: metering valve that is set within 20% of minimum output should be checked and calibrated for the actual volume required. Cycle Frequency = lubricant capacity / 0.001 Note: Quotient should not exceed 96 for grease system or 480 for oil system. If quotient exceeds increase the divider by 0.001 until the acceptable quotient has been achieved. The number of times the divider increase is number of cycles required for the system per hour Step four Sizing the lubrication lines The general maximum operating pressure of Dual-line system is 300bar. Therefore, it is recommended to use cold drawn seamless steel tube and compression type fittings. However, good quality scale-free steel pipe of adequate pressure rating and wall thickness, with high pressure forged steel threaded pipe fittings, may also be used. The layout and routing of the two main lines should be given careful consideration, so as to maintain the minimum overall length of all main lines, and also to keep all branch lines as short as possible to each metering valve. Note: It is the total distance from the pump to the furthest metering valve in the system that determines the actual maximum pressure loss within the main lines. Therefore, one should always consider locating the pump unit in the most central position within the lubrication system so as to equalize and minimize the maximum pressure loss in the total system.

The main factors affecting the sizing of the two main lines are: a. pump output volume b. type and quality of lubricant c. minimum anticipated ambient temperature d. total distance from pump to farthest metering valve in system Pump Output Volume At this stage, it is not known what pump output volume is required because we have not calculated the compression volume requirement per cycle for the whole cycle. This compression volume requirement generally accounts for up to 80% of the total pump output volume per cycle. However we cannot calculate the compression volume requirement until we know what size of main line we are going to use, because the volume of the system will vary directly as the square of the internal diameter of the main lines Clearly, we must make estimation at this stage of the pump type we will use in order to progress. If we study the pressure loss graphs, it will be seen that the actual pump output volume has a relatively insignificant effect on the pressure loss value. Type of Lubricant The type and quality of the lubricant to be used is normally indicated by either the manufacturer of the machine, the client or user of the machine. For this purpose, we consider the NLGI classification number of the grease, which determines its consistency or penetration class. However, the NLGI classification number does not give a full indication of the actual pump ability of the grease. Ambient Temperature The minimum anticipated ambient temperature should be used as the basis for main line. If machine is within a factory building, it is to be expected that the temperature should not fall below 10 degree Celsius in relation to what is a normally accepted minimum for the machine operator. Maximum Distance Pump to Farthest Metering Valve This distance is the total of all pipe runs of one of the two main lines from the pump outlet to the branch take-off point to the farthest metering valve in the system. Be careful to ensure that you have identified the farthest metering valve from the pump in relation to the total pipe length. Main line size selection: Calculate the maximum recommended pressure drop per foot Max. Pressure Drop per Foot = (max main line pressure drop) / (length of supply line) * Use the pressure drop chart Branch line size selection: Calculate the maximum recommended pressure drop per foot of branch line

Pressure Drop per Foot = (max pressure drop per foot x length of return line) Length of branch line Note: The reason for limiting the total pressure drop figure over the distance pump to the farthest metering valve is that we must ensure that the pump has sufficient reserve capacity to overcome the residual pressure which will be present in the other relieved main line; an additional pressure of approximate 50 bar is also required to cycle the metering valve and overcome the normal bearing resistance. Step five Calculation of compression volume The compression volume within the main line distribution system is defined as the volume of lubricant which the pump must deliver into the main line in order to fill the volume which the grease lubricant leaves as it is compressed to the maximum operating pressure of the system. This compression volume is required in addition to the total of the control and delivered volume of all metering devices and must be delivered by the pump during lubrication cycles. Calculate Compression Volume: Total main line volume = (3.1416 x internal diameter^2 x 10 x total length of line) / 4 Note: add 5% of this figure to account for all branch lines to metering valve. And convert total min line volume to kilogram by multiplying 0.9 Compression volume = total main line volume (kg) x .018

Selection of Pump to be Use: Metering Volume = total outlet volume + total control volume Total Outlet Volume Total Control Volume Pump output per cycle Pump output per hour = total number of outlet x maximum valve output = total number of outlet x control volume of valve = metering valve volume + compression volume = pump output per cycles x number of cycles per hour

Calculation of Pause Time: Total pumping time = (pump output per hour / output of pump) x 60 Pause time = (60 total pumping time) / (2 x no. cycle freq. per hour)

Step six Grouping and location of injectors After sizing the injectors required for different bearings in relation to a common lubrication cycle frequency, it is preferable to arrange the grouping of the metering valve in such manner that utilizes the minimum number of actual metering valve, subject to the general limit for the maximum feed line length of approximately 6mtrs. The reason for trying to use minimum number of actual metering valve within the system is to control the number of branch line connections that will be necessary into the distribution pipe. This procedure will naturally minimize the over cost of the system the overall cost of the system and simplify installation Step seven Selection of timer The selection of a timer for Dual-line lubrication system is dependent upon the number of input/output that should be monitored in the system. Controllers are utilized to control the lubrication cycle frequency of reciprocating air, electric or hydraulically operated pumps. Lubrication cycle is initiated by controller, pressure switch in supply line signals when desired pressure is reached shutting off the pump. All controllers incorporate an adjustable time delay relay as a safety feature to monitor system operation. Monitors are accessory components utilized to signal alarm or shut down machinery upon no flow condition in lubrication system supply lines or feed lines. Monitors utilize lack of pressure or flow as indication of failure Step eight Accessories Lubricant pressure gauge Recommended for installation at pump outlet for visual indication of proper pump operation and installation at end of line to assure required system supply line pressure is achieve Grease shut-off valve (needle valve) Utilized to isolate pump for maintenance or repair Lubricant filter Mounted at pump lubricant outlet, filter prohibit contaminants from entering lubrication system and possibly damaging injectors and/or bearing Over protection switch Mounted at the pump, it protects the pump motor to over pressurize. It trips the power source when preset pressure at the over protection switch has been reached.