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Annonaceae

Piperaceae

Araceae

Orchidaceae

Plant

habit

Trees, shrubs, woody vines

Herbs, shrubs, vines and trees

Terrestrial and aquatic shrubs, vines, herbs

Terrestrial/epiphytic perennial herbs

AdDL

information

Edible fruits, used for scent or timber and some cultivated ornamentals

Source of white and black pepper, flavoring, medicinal plants, euphoric plants and cultivated ornamentals

Food source, cultivated ornamentals.

Distichous Spiral Distichous/Spiral Distichous/Spiral Leaves Simple Simple Simple Simple Exstipulate
Distichous
Spiral
Distichous/Spiral
Distichous/Spiral
Leaves
Simple
Simple
Simple
Simple
Exstipulate
Stipulate/Exstipulate
Bifacial
Highly divided/Fenestrate
Parallel/Penni-parallel/Netted
Parallel
Whorled; sheathing

Roots

Mychorrhizal, w/o root hairs

Tuberous (terrestrial) Aerial (epiphytic)

Stems

Rhizomatous/Cormose/

Tuberous/Reduced

Rhizomatous/Cormose (t) Pseudobulbs (epi)

Inflorescence

Solitary flower

Cyme

Spadix

Many-flowered Spadix, w/ spathe Terminal

Solitary flower

Raceme

Spike

Panicle

Flowers

Bi/Unisexual

Hypogynous

Bi/Unisexual

Very small Actinomorphic Bracteate => peltate/hypogynous

Bi/Unisexual (Female: proximal, male distal) Hypogynous Small Actinomorphic Ebracteate

Sessile Sometimes foul-smelling

Bisexual

Zygomorphic

Resupinate -> 180 o shift of floral parts

Perianth

Triseriate (3+3+3)

Hypanthium absent

-absent-

Biseriate [2+2] or 3/4

-absent-

Apotepalous (or basally syn) Hypanthium absent

Biseriate 3+3

Apotepalous (or basally syn)

W/ enlarged saclike tepal Labellum: anterior tepal Homochlamydeous

Numerous, spiral 3 + 3 [1. 10] 4, 6, 8 [1, 12] stamens Solitary (median,
Numerous, spiral
3 + 3 [1. 10]
4, 6, 8 [1, 12]
stamens
Solitary (median, outer)
Two vestigial staminodes
(lateral inner)
Apostemonous
Distinct or connate
Antitepalous (for bi flowers)
*Gynostemium

Anthers

Longitudinally dehiscent

Longitudinal Dithecal (sometimes mono, by fusion of thecae)

Poricidal/Longitudinal

Longitudinal/Modified

Dithecal

Bisporangiate

Pollen

Monads, Tetrads, Polyads

Gynoecium

Numerous carpels

1 or 2/4 carpels

3 [1 50] carpels, locules

3 carpels

Superior ovary => apocarpous

Single pistil with superior ovary

Superiour ovary

inferior ovary

(spiral) or syncarpous (whorled)

Syncarpous

Syncarpous

1 locule

1-3 locules

Style

Absent or solitary

1, short or absent

Stigma

1 or ¾ brushlike and lateral in Peperomia

1, short or absent

placentation

Variable

Basal

Variable

Parietal/Axile

Ovules

Anatropous/Campylotropous Bi/Tritegmic

Orthotropous Bitegmic (Uni in Peperomia )

Anatropous

Anatropous

Bitegmic

Bitegmic

 

1-numerous

[1, infinity]

 

W/ Nectaries

fruit

Aggregate of berries or dry and indehiscent units Syncarp; unit berries fused to a receptacular axis

1-seeded berry.drupe

Multiple of berries, less often dry (ex. Utricles)

Loculicidal Capsule (rarely berry)

Seeds

Starchy perisperm; scanty endo

Endospermous (fleshy testa)

Exalbuminous

Endospermous Ruminate Oily, sometimes starchy

Oily, sometimes starchy Contains cyanogenic cpds, alkaloids, raphides and laticifers

Membranous-winged

Floral

formula

P3+3+3 A G , superior

P0 A3+3(1-10) G1 or (3-4), superior

P 2+2,3+3, (2+2), (3+3) or 0 [ 4+4 , ( 4+4 )] A 4,6,8 or (4,6,8) [1-12] G (3) [1- ( )], superior

P(3+3) A 1-3 G(3), inferior, w/ gynostemium.