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# Solutions for Linear Algebra Midterm I 1. True or False? (a) If an n x n matrix A is not symmetric, then ATA is not symmetric.

(b) In general, the determinant of the sum of two matrices equals the sum of the determinants of the matrices. (c) If A and B are square matrices of order n such that det(AB) = -1, then both A and B are nonsingular. (d) We can have AT Ax = AT b if Ax = b , and the reverse condition is also true. (e) If A is row equivalent to B and B is row equivalent to C, then A is row equivalent to C. Sol. (a) False. ( AT A)T = AT A , so symmetric (b) False. det( I + I ) det( I ) + det( I ) (c) True. (d) False. If AT Ax = AT b but ( AT ) 1 is not exist, we cannot promise that Ax = b . (e) True. 2. (a) Show that if A and B are (b) Show that det( A1 ) = 1

## det( A) . (Suppose that A1 exists.)

Sol. (a) (i) Consider the case that B is singular. det( B ) = 0 We can know from Theorem 1.4.3 that AB is also singular. det( AB ) = 0 = det( A) det( B ) (ii) If B is nonsingular, B can be written as a product of elementary matrices. We have already seen that the result holds for elementary matrices.(text book p.110). Thus det( AB ) = det( AEk Ek 1 L E1 ) = det( A) det( Ek ) det( Ek 1 )L det( E1 ) = det( A) det( Ek Ek 1 L E1 ) = det( A) det( B) (b) Q A1 A = I From the result of (a), det( A1 A) = det( A1 ) det( A) = det( I ) = 1

det( A1 ) = 1 det( A)

## (adj A)1 = det( A1 ) A = adj A 1 .

Sol. If A is nonsingular then det( A) 0 , and hence adj A = det( A) A1 is also nonsingular.
1 It follows (adj A) =

1 ( A1 )1 = det( A1 ) A det( A)

Also adj A1 = det( A1 )( A1 )1 = det( A1 ) A 4. We let A1 be the inverse of A. Find the inverses of the following matrices. (a) Interchange the i-th row and the j-th row of A (b) Multiply the i-th row of A with a constant k ; k 0 . Sol. (a) Interchange the i-th column and the j-th column of A1 1 ; k 0. k

## 2 4 2 5. Compute the LU factorization of A = 1 5 2 . 4 1 9 Sol. 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 2 4 2 E1 E2 E3 A = 1 5 2 0 3 1 0 3 1 U = 0 3 1 4 1 9 4 1 9 0 9 5 0 0 8 It means that E3 E2 E1 A = U A = E3 E2 E1 U = LU , where 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 E1 = 1 0 , E2 = 0 1 0 , E3 = 0 1 0 , L = 2 2 2 0 1 0 3 1 0 0 1 2 0 1 0 , 3 1 0

1 1 1

6. Let A and B be symmetric n x n metrics. Prove that AB = BA if and only if AB is also symmetric. Sol. A = A T , B = BT 1. (AB =BA => AB is symmetric) ( AB )T = BT AT = BA = AB . So AB is symmetric. 2. (AB is symmetric => AB = BA) ( AB )T = BT AT = BA . Because AB is symmetric => (AB)T = AB AB = BA 7. Two competing companies offer cable television service to a city of 100,000 households. The change in cable subscriptions each year is given by the diagram in Figure 1. Company A now has 15,000 subscribers an Company B has 20,000 subscribers. How many subscribers will each company have one year from now?

Sol: The matrix representing the given transition probabilities is From A B None 0.7 0.15 0.15 A P = 0.20 0.80 0.15 B To 0.10 0.05 0.70 None and the state matrix representing the current population in each of the three states is

15, 000 A X = 20, 000 B 65, 000 None 0.70 0.15 0.15 15, 000 23, 250 PX = 0.20 0.80 0.15 20, 000 = 28, 750 0.10 0.05 0.70 65, 000 48, 000 8. Derive the row echelon form of the following augmented matrix and determine what kind of solution it will have? (no solution, unique solution, or infinite solutions) 2 3 5 0 1 1 1 1 1 8 2 2 3 3 4 1 2 2 3 6 2 3 1 2 14 Row echelon form: 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 2 3 0 1 1 8 5 4 ,so these is an unique solution. 13 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0