2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
1. Title: Determination of Boiler Efficiency by Direct and Indirect Methods.
2. Prior Concept:
Steam, Steam generation, Boiler, Boiler operation
3. New Concepts:
Various fuels used in the Boiler, Efficiency calculation, Heat Balance Sheet
3.1 Concept structure:
Boiler Efficiency by Direct Method (η _{D}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t} ) =
Boiler Efficiency by Indirect Method (η _{I}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t} ) = 100 –
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
4. Learning Objectives:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
4.1: Intellectual Skills:
a. To know the variation of efficiency by using various fuels.
b. Understand the steam generation process.
4.2: Motor Skills:
a. To determine enthalpy of feed water.
b. To determine enthalpy of wet steam.
c. To determine heat produced in the combustion chamber
d. To determine heat loss
5. Apparatus:
a. Boiler
b. Dryness fraction measuring device
c. Flue gas analyzer
6. Diagram:
Fig. 2.1 Packaged Steam Boiler
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
7. Theory:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the percentage of heat input that is effectively utilized to generate the steam. There are two methods of assessing boiler efficiency.
A) The Direct Method: Where the energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) is compared with the energy content of the boiler fuel.
B) The Indirect Method: Where the efficiency is the difference between the losses and the energy input. (Energy produced from the combustion of fuel is taken as 100% energy input)
A. Direct Method
This is also known as “Inputoutput method” due to the fact that it needs only the useful output (steam) and the heat input (i.e. fuel) for evaluating the efficiency. This efficiency can be evaluated using the formula. Parameters to be monitored for the calculations of boiler efficiency by direct method are:
Quantity of steam generated per hour (Q) in kg/hr.
Quantity of fuel used per hour (q) in kg/hr.
The working pressure (in bar ) and superheat temperature (°C), if any
The temperature of feed water (°C)
Type of fuel and gross calorific value of the fuel (GCV) in kJ/kg of fuel
Boiler Efficiency (η) =
Where,
=
Q – Rate of water evaporation in kg/s
– Enthalpy of feed water in kJ/kg at feed water temperature
h = Enthalpy or total heat of steam in kJ / kg of steam corresponding to a given working pressure
= + x *
= +
= +
………………………. (For wet steam)
………………………. (For dry wet steam)
………………………. (For superheated steam)
– Enthalpy of feed water in kJ / kg at steam pressure
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
– Enthalpy of wet steam kJ/kg at steam pressure
x – Dryness fraction of wet steam Advantages of direct method:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
● Plant people can quickly evaluate the efficiency of boilers
● Requires few parameters for computation
● Needs few instruments for monitoring
Disadvantages of direct method:
● Does not give clues to the operator as to why efficiency of system is lower
● Does not calculate various losses accountable for various efficiency levels
Procedure:
1. Observe the setup and all the connected pressure and temperature measuring equipments.
2. Open the valves supplying water and fuel to boiler
3. Wait till water level reaches required level
4. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank
5. Check the fuel feed pump
6. Check the water feed pump
7. Start the boiler
8. Open the outlet valve of header which then diverts the steam to heat exchanger header.
9. When desired pressure is generated in system, start taking observations of various instruments.
10. Measure the feed water temperature with the help of thermometer
11. Measure the temperature of output steam
12. Measure the pressure of output steam
13. Measure the dryness fraction of output steam with the help of calorimeter
14. Check the fuel used and get the calorific value for the same
15. Measure the fuel supply to the boiler
16. Note all the readings in the table
17. Calculate the efficiency of boiler
18. Vary the type and quantity of fuel and take the readings
19. Vary the dryness fraction and take the readings
20. Change the opening of outlet valve and vary flow rate, this will change the pressure of steam and again take the reading
21. Follow the above method three to four times and record the data in observation table
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
Observation Table:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Sr. No. 
Particular 
Readings 

1 
Temperature of feed water (°C) 

2 
Quantity of water supplied (kg/hr) 

3 
Steam Generation Pressure (Bar) 

4 
Dryness Fraction (x) 

5 
Steam output temperature (°C) 

6 
Mass of Steam Generated (kg/hr) 

7 
Fuel Type i.e. Coal / LDO/ FO etc. 

8 
Calorific Value of Fuel supplied (kJ/kg) 

9 
Fuel rate (kg/hr) 

Calculations: 
1. Enthalpy of Feed Water:
Enthalpy of feed water ( Feed water temperature:
Enthalpy (
):
) from steam table at a feed water temperature
2. Enthalpy of wet steam (hfg) from steam table at a steam pressure:
Steam Pressure:
Enthalpy of feed water ( Enthalpy of wet steam (
Total Heat Content of Wet Steam:
h 
= Enthalpy of feed water + (Dryness Fraction * Enthalpy of Wet Steam) 

h 
= ( 
+(x * 

)) 
h 
= 
3. Total heat content of output steam (Heat Output):
Total heat content of output steam = (Enthalpy of wet steam + Enthalpy of feed water at steam pressure – Enthalpy of feed water at feed water temperature)
4. Heat Produced During the Combustion of Fuel (q) (Heat Input):
q
q
= (Mass flow rate of the fuel consumed * Gross Calorific Value of the fuel) =
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
5. Efficiency of Boiler (
8. Results:
* 100
A. Efficiency of boiler by using:
a. Coal “Lignite”:
b. Coal “Anthracite”:
c. Coal “Bituminous”:
d. Light Diesel Oil:
e. Furnace Oil:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
B. Efficiency of boiler by varying dryness fraction:
a. Dryness Fraction x = 0.6 =
b. Dryness Fraction x = 0.7 =
c. Dryness Fraction x = 0.8 =
d. Dryness Fraction x = 0.9 =
e. Dryness Fraction x = 1 =
Example
Find out the efficiency of the boiler by direct method with the data given below:
Type of boiler : Coal fired
Quantity of steam (dry) generated : 8 TPH = 8000 kg/hr
Steam pressure (gauge): 10 bar
Steam temperature: 170°C
Quantity of coal consumed : 1800 kg/hr
Feed water temperature : 85°C
GCV of coal : 13395 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of wet steam at 10 bar pressure : 2776.2 kJ/kg
Enthalpy of feed water : 334.9 kJ/kg
Dryness Fraction: 0.93
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Required values from steam table:
at 85°C at 10 bar
= 355.9 kJ/kg = 762.6 kJ/kg
at 10 bar = 2016.6 kJ/kg
Boiler Efficiency (η) =
Where, For wet steam
) = 762.6 + (0.93 * 2016.6) = 2638.038
Note: It should be noted that boiler may not generate 100% saturated dry steam, and there may be some amount of wetness in the steam.
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
B. Indirect Method:
Indirect method is also called as heat loss method. The efficiency can be arrived at, by subtracting the heat loss fractions from 100. The standards do not include blow down loss in the efficiency determination process. A detailed procedure for calculating boiler efficiency by indirect method is as follows.
Fig. 2.2: Illustration of heat loss from the Boiler ^{[}^{i}^{v}^{]}
The principle losses that occur in a boiler are:
Loss due to dry flue gas (sensible heat) …………………… 
…… 
L1 
Loss due to hydrogen in fuel (H _{2} )…………………………… 
… 
L2 
Loss due to moisture in fuel (H _{2} O)……………………………… 
L3 

Loss due to moisture in air (H _{2} O)………………………………… 
L4 

Loss due to carbon monoxide (CO) …………………………… 
L5 

Loss due to surface radiation, convection and other unaccounted … 
L6 

Unburnt losses in fly ash (Carbon) ……………………………… 
L7 

Unburnt losses in bottom ash (Carbon) …………………………… 
L8 
Boiler Efficiency by indirect method = 100  (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5 + L6 + L7 + L8)
Measurements Required for Performance Assessment Testing:
The following parameters need to be measured, as applicable for the computation of boiler efficiency and performance:
a) Flue gas analysis
1. Percentage of CO _{2} or O _{2} in flue gas
2. Percentage of CO in flue gas
3. Temperature of flue gas
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
b) Flow meter measurements for
1. Fuel
2. Steam
3. Feed water
4. Condensate water
5. Combustion air
c) Temperature measurements for
1. Flue gas
2. Steam
3. Makeup water
4. Condensate return
5. Combustion air
6. Fuel
7. Boiler feed water
d) Pressure measurements for
1. Steam
2. Fuel
3. Combustion air, both primary and secondary
4. Draft
e) Water condition
1. Total dissolved solids (TDS)
2. pH
3. Blow down rate and quantity
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Boiler Efficiency by Indirect Method: Calculation Procedure and Formula:
In order to calculate the boiler efficiency by indirect method, all the losses that occur in the boiler must be established. These losses are conveniently related to the amount of fuel burnt. In this way it is easy to compare the performance of various boilers with different ratings.
Theoretical (Stoichiometric) air fuel ratio and excess air supplied are to be determined first for computing the boiler losses. The following relation can be used for the same.
1. Theoretical air required for combustion =
2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) =
Note: Normally O _{2} measurement is recommended. If O _{2} measurement is not available use of CO _{2} can do.
% Excess Air Supplied (EA) =
Or
……. from flue gas analysis
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
Where:
(CO _{2} %) _{t} = Theoretical CO _{2} (CO _{2} %) _{a} = Actual CO _{2} % measured in flue gas
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Moles of C =
Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) =
* Theoretical air
The various losses associated with the operation of a boiler are discussed below:
1. 
Heat loss due to dry flue gas (L1): 

This is the greatest boiler loss and can be calculated by the following method: 

L1 = 


Where, L1= % Heat loss due to dry flue gas m = Mass of dry flue gas in kg/kg of fuel 

= Combustion products from fuel: 

= CO _{2} + SO _{2} + Moisture in flue gases + O _{2} in flue gas + Mass of air supplied for 

combustion of fuel Cp = Specific heat of fuel gas in kJ/kg K Tf = Flue gas temperature in °C Ta = Ambient temperature in °C 

2. 
Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H _{2} in fuel (%) (L2): 
The combustion of hydrogen causes a heat loss because the product of combustion is water. The evaporation of water absorbs the heat in the form of Latent Heat.
L2 =
Where:
H _{2} = kg of hydrogen present in fuel (per kg of fuel) Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam in kJ / kg °K Tf = Flue gas temperature in °C Ta = Ambient temperature in °C
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
2676 = Latent heat corresponding to pressure of water vapour in kJ/kg
3. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3):
Moisture entering the boiler with the fuel leaves as a superheated vapour. This moisture loss is made up of the sensible heat to bring the moisture to boiling point, the latent heat of evaporation of the moisture, and the superheat required to bring this steam to the temperature of the exhaust gas. This loss can be calculated by following method:
Where:
L3 =
M = kg moisture in fuel on 1 kg basis Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam in kJ/kg °C Tf = Flue gas temperature in °C Ta = Ambient temperature in °C
2676 = Latent heat corresponding to pressure of water vapour in kJ/kg
4. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4) :
Vapour in the form of humidity in the incoming air, is superheated as it passes through the boiler. Since this heat passes up the stack, it must be included as a boiler loss. To relate this loss to the mass of coal burned, the moisture content of the combustion air and the amount of air supplied per unit mass of coal burned must be known. The mass of vapour
that air contains can be obtained from psychometric charts and typical values are included below:
DryBulb 
Wet Bulb 
Relative Humidity 
Kilogram water per Kilogram dry 
Temp ° C 
Temp ° C 
(%) 
air (Humidity Factor) 
20 
20 
100 
0.016 
20 
14 
50 
0.008 
30 
22 
50 
0.014 
40 
30 
50 
0.024 
Where:
L4 =
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
AAS = Actual mass of air supplied per kg of fuel
Humidity factor = kg of water / kg of dry air
Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam in kJ/kg K
Tf = Flue gas temperature in (°C)
Ta = Ambient temperature in (°C) (Dry bulb temperature)
5. Heat loss due to incomplete combustion (L5):
Products formed by incomplete combustion could be mixed with oxygen and burned
again with a further release of energy. Such products include CO, H _{2} , and various hydrocarbons and are generally found in the flue gas of the boilers. Carbon monoxide is the only gas whose concentration can be determined conveniently in a boiler plant test.
L5 =
* 100
Where: 

L5 
= 
% Heat loss due to partial conversion of C to CO 
CO 
= 
Volume of CO in flue gas leaving economizer (%) 

= 
Actual Volume of CO _{2} in flue gas (%) 
C 
= 
Carbon content kg/kg of fuel 
Or When CO is obtained in ppm during the flue gas analysis
CO formation (Mco) = CO (in ppm) * 10 ^{}^{6} * Mf *28
Mf = fuel consumption in kg/hr
L5 = Mco * 5744
5744 = heat loss due to partial combustion of carbon kJ/kg
6. Heat loss due to radiation and convection (L6):
The other heat losses from a boiler consist of the loss of heat by radiation and
convection from the boiler casting into the surrounding boiler house.
Normally surface loss and other unaccounted losses is assumed based on the type and
size of the boiler as given below
For industrial fire tube / packaged boiler = 1.5 to 2.5%
For industrial water tube boiler = 2 to 3%
For power station boiler = 0.4 to 1%
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
However it can be calculated if the surface area of boiler and its surface temperatures are known as given below:
L6 = 0.548 * [
Where,
L6 = Radiation loss in W/m
Vm = Wind velocity in m/s
Ts = Surface temperature (°C)
Ta = Ambient temperature (°C)
) 4 ] + 1.957 * (Ts – Ta) 1.25 *
7. Heat loss due to unburnt in fly ash (%) (L7):
Small amounts of carbon will be left in the ash and this constitutes a loss of potential
heat in the fuel. To assess these heat losses, samples of ash must be analyzed for carbon
content. The quantity of ash produced per unit of fuel must also be known.
L7 =
8. Heat loss due to unburnt in bottom ash (%)(L8):
Ultimate Fuel Analysis:
L8 =
“ULTIMATE FUEL ANALYSIS”
Contents 
Lignite 
Bituminous 
Anthracite 
LDO 
FO 

% C 
68.0 
81.8 
90.8 
86.2 
86.1 

% O 
21.2 
9.1 
1.9 
0 
0 

% H 
4.3 
5.1 
2.6 
11.5 
11.3 

% N 
1.1 
1.4 
1.4 
0 
0 

% 
S 
0.4 
0.6 
0.7 
1.5 
3.5 
Ash 
3 
1 1.5 
0.02 
0.1 

Moisture 
2 
1 1.5 
0.25 
0.25 

GCV 
26700 
36100 
36200 
43950 
44788 
(Source: http://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Coal)
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
Heat Balance:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Having established the magnitude of all the losses mentioned above, a simple heat balance would give the efficiency of the boiler. The efficiency is the difference between the energy input to the boiler and the heat losses calculated.
Input / Output Parameter 
kJ / kg of fuel 
% 

Heat Input in fuel 
= 
100 

Various Heat losses in boiler 

1. Dry flue gas loss 
= 

2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel 

3. Loss due to moisture in fuel 
= 

4. Loss due to moisture in air 
= 

5. Partial combustion of C to CO 
= 

6. Surface heat losses 
= 

7. Loss due to Unburnt in fly ash 
= 

8. Loss due to Unburnt in bottom ash 
= 

Total Losses 
= 

Boiler efficiency = 100  (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8) = 100 – ( 
) 

η Indirect = 
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
Procedure:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
1. Observe the setup and all connected pressure and temperature measuring equipments.
2. Open the valves supplying water and fuel to boiler
3. Wait till water level reaches required level
4. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank
5. Check the fuel feed pump
6. Check the water feed pump
7. Start the boiler
8. Open the outlet valve of header which then diverts the steam to heat exchanger header.
9. When desired pressure is generated in system, start taking observations of various instruments.
10. Measure the feed water temperature with the help of thermometer and note the readings
11. Measure the feed water rate
12. Measure the temperature of output steam
13. Measure the pressure of output steam
14. Measure the steam generation rate
15. Measure the dryness fraction of output steam with the help of calorimeter
16. Measure the fuel firing rate of Boiler
17. Observe the fuel used and get the calorific value for the same
18. Measure the flue gas temperature
19. Measure the atmospheric temperature
20. Measure the surface temperature of Boiler
21. Measure the humidity in ambient air
22. Measure the wind velocity of surrounding air
23. Measure the total surface area of Boiler
24. Take ultimate analysis of fuel from the table
25. Note all the readings in the table
26. Calculate the efficiency of boiler
27. Vary the fuel and take the readings
28. Vary the dryness fraction and take the readings
29. Vary the content of fuel and observe the change in the efficiency of boiler
30. Observe the change in the efficiency of boiler by varying above parameters
31. Change the opening of outlet valve and vary flow rate, this will change the pressure of steam and again take the reading
32. Follow the above method three to four times and record the data in observation table
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
Observation Table:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Sr.No. 
Particular 
Readings / Observations 
1 
Fuel Firing Rate (kg/hr) 

2 
Steam generation rate (kg/hr) 

3 
Steam pressure (bar) 

4 
Steam temperature (°C) 

5 
Feed water temperature (°C) 

6 
% CO _{2} in Flue gas 

7 
% CO in Flue gas 

8 
Average flue gas temperature (°C) 

9 
Ambient temperature (°C) 

10 
Humidity in ambient air (kg /kg dry air) 

11 
Surface temperature of boiler (°C) 

12 
Wind velocity around the boiler (m/s) 

13 
Total surface area of boiler (m ^{2} ) 

14 
GCV of Bottom ash (kJ/kg) 

15 
GCV of fly ash (kJ/kg) 

16 
Ratio of bottom ash to fly ash 

Fuel Analysis (%) 

1 
Ash content in fuel 

2 
Moisture in coal 

3 
Carbon content 

4 
Nitrogen content 

5 
Oxygen content 

6 
GCV of Fuel (kJ/kg) 
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
Calculations:
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
1. 
Theoretical air required for combustion = 





= 


2. 
% Excess Air Supplied (EA) 
= 

* 100 

= 

3. 
Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) = 
* Theoretical air 

= 
kg / kg of fuel 

4. 
Mass of dry flue gas m = CO _{2} + SO _{2} + Moisture in flue gases + O _{2} in flue gas + Mass of air supplied for combustion of fuel 
6. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H _{2} in fuel (%) (L2):
7. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3):
8. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4
L4 =
=
%
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
9. Heat loss due to radiation and convection (L6):
L6 = 0.548 * [
=
) 4 ] + 1.957 * (Ts – Ta) 1.25 *
W/m ^{2}
=
=
* 3.6 …………………. (
2
kJ / m
Total radiation and convection loss per hour
% Radiation and Convection loss
L6
1 W = 3.6 kJ) 

= 
W/m 
2 

= = 
kJ/m ^{2} 

= 
% 
Note: Normally it is assumed this loss between 0.5 to 1 %
Boiler efficiency by Indirect Method
η _{I}_{n}_{d}_{i}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{t}
= 100 – (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 +L5 +L6) %
=
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Summary of Heat Balance for the Boiler Using
: 

Input / Output Parameter 
kJ / kg of furnace oil 
% Loss 

Heat Input 
100 

Losses in Boiler 

1. Dry flue gas, L _{1} 

2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel, L2 

3. Loss due to Moisture in fuel, L3 

4. Loss due to Moisture in air, L4 

5. Partial combustion of C to Co, CO2 

6. Surface heat losses, L6 

Efficiency of Boiler = 100 – (L _{1} + L _{2} + L _{3} + L _{4} + L _{5} + L _{6} ) 

= 100 – ( 
) 

η Indirect = 
% 
8. Results:
A. Efficiency of boiler by using
a. Coal “Lignite”:
b. Coal “Anthracite”:
c. Coal “Bituminous”:
d. Light Diesel Oil:
e. Furnace Oil:
Example of Oil Fired Boiler Efficiency Calculation:
The following are the data collected for a boiler using furnace oil as the fuel. Find out the boiler efficiency by indirect method.
Ultimate analysis (%) Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulphur Moisture GCV of fuel Fuel firing rate
= 84 = 12 = 0.5 = 1.5 = 1.5 = 0.5 = 41858 kJ/kg = 2648.125 kg/hr
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Surface Temperature of boiler Surface area of boiler Humidity 
= 80°C 90 m ^{2} = = 0.025 kg/kg of dry air 
Wind speed 
= 3.8 m/s 
Flue gas analysis (%) Flue gas temperature 
= 190°C 
Ambient temperature 
= 30°C 
Co2% in flue gas by volume 
= 10.8 
O2% in flue gas by volume 
= 7.4 
Solution:
1. 
Theoretical air required for combustion 
= 
= 
= 13.92 kg/kg of oil
2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) 
= 

* 100 
= 

= 54.4 %
3. Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) =
* Theoretical air
* 13.92
=
= 21.49 kg / kg of fuel
4. Mass of dry flue gas m = CO _{2} + SO _{2} + Moisture in flue gases + O _{2} in flue gas + Mass of
+ = 21.36 kg/kg of oil
=
5. Heat loss due to dry flue gas (L1):
L1 =
=
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
= 8.16 %
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
6. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H _{2} in fuel (%) (L2):
= 0.033 %
8. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4):
L4 =
9. Heat loss due to radiation and convection (L6):
L6 = 0.548 * [
) 4 ]
+ 1.957 * (Ts – Ta) 1.25 *
= 0.548
* [
4 –
W/m ^{2}
= 1303
= 1303 * 3.6
= 4690.8 kJ/m ^{2}
) 4 ] +
1.957 * (353 – 303) 1.25 *
Total radiation and convection loss per hour
% Radiation and Convection loss
L6
4690.8 * 90 m ^{2}
=
= 422172 kJ
=
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
Note: Normally it is assumed this loss between 0.5 to 1 %
Boiler efficiency by Indirect Method
= 100 – (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 +L6)
= 100 – (8.16 + 7.77+0.033 +0.42+0.38)
= 100 – 16.763
= 83.24 %
Summary of Heat Balance for the Boiler Using Furnace Oil:
Input / Output Parameter 
kJ / kg of furnace oil 
% Loss 
Heat Input 
41858 
100 
Losses in Boiler 

1. Dry flue gas, L _{1} 
3417.6 
8.16 
2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel, L2 
3252.96 
7.77 
3. Loss due to Moisture in fuel, L3 
14.184 
0.033 
4. Loss due to Moisture in air, L4 
179.424 
0.42 
5. Partial combustion of C to Co, CO2 
0 
0 
6. Surface heat losses, L6 
159.422 
0.38 
Efficiency of Boiler = 100 – (L _{1} + L _{2} + L _{3} + L _{4} + L _{5} + L _{6} ) 

= 100 – (8.16+7.77+0.033+0.42+0.38) 

= 83.24 % 
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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2011 Student Design Competition
College Of Engineering, Pune (India)
1.9 Factors Affecting Boiler Performance
The various factors affecting the boiler performance are listed below:
Periodical cleaning of boilers Periodical soot blowing
Proper water treatment and blow down control Draft control
Excess air control Percentage loading of boiler
Steam generation pressure and temperature Boiler insulation
Quality of fuel
All these factors individually/combined, contribute to the performance of the boiler and reflected either in boiler efficiency or evaporation ratio. Based on the results obtained from the testing further improvements have to be carried out for maximizing the performance. The test can be repeated after modification or rectification of the problems and compared with standard norms. Energy auditor should carry out this test as a routine manner once in six months and report to the management for necessary action.
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Setup to Determine Efficiency of Boiler
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