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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 1. Title: Determination of Boiler Efficiency by

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

1. Title: Determination of Boiler Efficiency by Direct and Indirect Methods.

2. Prior Concept:

Steam, Steam generation, Boiler, Boiler operation

3. New Concepts:

Various fuels used in the Boiler, Efficiency calculation, Heat Balance Sheet

3.1 Concept structure:

Boiler Efficiency Direct Method Indirect Method Heat Input Heat Output Heat Input Heat Output Fuel
Boiler Efficiency
Direct Method
Indirect Method
Heat Input
Heat Output
Heat Input
Heat Output
Fuel Supplied * Calorific Value of Fuel
Fuel Supplied * Calorific Value of Fuel
Heat gained by the steam = (
+ x *
) … kJ/kg
Heat gained by the steam = (
+ x *
)
kJ/kg
Loss of heat due to dry flue gases
Loss due to hydrogen in fuel (H 2 )
Loss due to moisture present in fuel (H 2 O)
Loss due to moisture in air (H 2 O)
Loss due to carbon monoxide
Loss due to surface radiation, convection and other unaccounted
Unburnt losses in fly ash
Unburnt losses in bottom ash

Boiler Efficiency by Direct Method Direct ) =

Boiler Efficiency by Direct Method (η D i r e c t ) =
Boiler Efficiency by Direct Method (η D i r e c t ) =

Boiler Efficiency by Indirect Method Indirect ) = 100

Boiler Efficiency by Indirect Method (η I n d i r e c t ) =

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

4. Learning Objectives:

2011 Student Design Competition 4. Learning Objectives: College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 4.1: Intellectual Skills: a.

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

4.1: Intellectual Skills:

a. To know the variation of efficiency by using various fuels.

b. Understand the steam generation process.

4.2: Motor Skills:

a. To determine enthalpy of feed water.

b. To determine enthalpy of wet steam.

c. To determine heat produced in the combustion chamber

d. To determine heat loss

5. Apparatus:

a. Boiler

b. Dryness fraction measuring device

c. Flue gas analyzer

6. Diagram:

fraction measuring device c. Flue gas analyzer 6. Diagram: Fig. 2.1 Packaged Steam Boiler Design and

Fig. 2.1 Packaged Steam Boiler

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

7. Theory:

2011 Student Design Competition 7. Theory: College Of Engineering, Pune (India) Thermal efficiency of boiler is

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Thermal efficiency of boiler is defined as the percentage of heat input that is effectively utilized to generate the steam. There are two methods of assessing boiler efficiency.

A) The Direct Method: Where the energy gain of the working fluid (water and steam) is compared with the energy content of the boiler fuel.

B) The Indirect Method: Where the efficiency is the difference between the losses and the energy input. (Energy produced from the combustion of fuel is taken as 100% energy input)

A. Direct Method

This is also known as “Input-output method” due to the fact that it needs only the useful output (steam) and the heat input (i.e. fuel) for evaluating the efficiency. This efficiency can be evaluated using the formula. Parameters to be monitored for the calculations of boiler efficiency by direct method are:

Quantity of steam generated per hour (Q) in kg/hr.the calculations of boiler efficiency by direct method are: Quantity of fuel used per hour (q)

Quantity of fuel used per hour (q) in kg/hr.are: Quantity of steam generated per hour (Q) in kg/hr. The working pressure (in bar )

The working pressure (in bar ) and superheat temperature (°C), if any(Q) in kg/hr. Quantity of fuel used per hour (q) in kg/hr. The temperature of feed

The temperature of feed water (°C)pressure (in bar ) and superheat temperature (°C), if any Type of fuel and gross calorific

Type of fuel and gross calorific value of the fuel (GCV) in kJ/kg of fuel(°C), if any The temperature of feed water (°C) Boiler Efficiency (η ) = Where, =

Boiler Efficiency (η) =

the fuel (GCV) in kJ/kg of fuel Boiler Efficiency (η ) = Where, = Q –

Where,

=

(GCV) in kJ/kg of fuel Boiler Efficiency (η ) = Where, = Q – Rate of
(GCV) in kJ/kg of fuel Boiler Efficiency (η ) = Where, = Q – Rate of

Q Rate of water evaporation in kg/s

Enthalpy of feed water in kJ/kg at feed water temperature Enthalpy of feed water in kJ/kg at feed water temperature

h = Enthalpy or total heat of steam in kJ / kg of steam corresponding to a given working pressure

kJ / kg of steam corresponding to a given working pressure = + x * =

= + x *

= +

= +

………………………. (For wet steam)

………………………. (For dry wet steam)

………………………. (For super-heated steam)

Enthalpy of feed water in kJ / kg at steam pressure Enthalpy of feed water in kJ / kg at steam pressure

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition – Enthalpy of wet steam kJ/kg at steam pressure x – Dryness
2011 Student Design Competition – Enthalpy of wet steam kJ/kg at steam pressure x – Dryness

Enthalpy of wet steam kJ/kg at steam pressure

x Dryness fraction of wet steam Advantages of direct method:

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Plant people can quickly evaluate the efficiency of boilers

Requires few parameters for computation

Needs few instruments for monitoring

Disadvantages of direct method:

Does not give clues to the operator as to why efficiency of system is lower

Does not calculate various losses accountable for various efficiency levels

Procedure:

1. Observe the setup and all the connected pressure and temperature measuring equipments.

2. Open the valves supplying water and fuel to boiler

3. Wait till water level reaches required level

4. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank

5. Check the fuel feed pump

6. Check the water feed pump

7. Start the boiler

8. Open the outlet valve of header which then diverts the steam to heat exchanger header.

9. When desired pressure is generated in system, start taking observations of various instruments.

10. Measure the feed water temperature with the help of thermometer

11. Measure the temperature of output steam

12. Measure the pressure of output steam

13. Measure the dryness fraction of output steam with the help of calorimeter

14. Check the fuel used and get the calorific value for the same

15. Measure the fuel supply to the boiler

16. Note all the readings in the table

17. Calculate the efficiency of boiler

18. Vary the type and quantity of fuel and take the readings

19. Vary the dryness fraction and take the readings

20. Change the opening of outlet valve and vary flow rate, this will change the pressure of steam and again take the reading

21. Follow the above method three to four times and record the data in observation table

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

Observation Table:

2011 Student Design Competition Observation Table: College Of Engineering, Pune (India)   Sr. No. Particular

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

 

Sr. No.

Particular

Readings

1

Temperature of feed water (°C)

 

2

Quantity of water supplied (kg/hr)

 

3

Steam Generation Pressure (Bar)

 

4

Dryness Fraction (x)

 

5

Steam output temperature (°C)

 

6

Mass of Steam Generated (kg/hr)

 

7

Fuel Type i.e. Coal / LDO/ FO etc.

 

8

Calorific Value of Fuel supplied (kJ/kg)

 

9

Fuel rate (kg/hr)

 

Calculations:

 

1. Enthalpy of Feed Water:

Enthalpy of feed water ( Feed water temperature:

Enthalpy (

Enthalpy of feed water ( Feed water temperature: Enthalpy ( ): ) from steam table at

):

) from steam table at a feed water temperatureof feed water ( Feed water temperature: Enthalpy ( ): 2. Enthalpy of wet steam (hfg)

2. Enthalpy of wet steam (hfg) from steam table at a steam pressure:

Steam Pressure:

Enthalpy of feed water ( Enthalpy of wet steam (

Total Heat Content of Wet Steam:

): ):
):
):

h

= Enthalpy of feed water + (Dryness Fraction * Enthalpy of Wet Steam)

h

= (

= (

+(x *

h = ( +(x * ))

))

h

=

3. Total heat content of output steam (Heat Output):

Total heat content of output steam = (Enthalpy of wet steam + Enthalpy of feed water at steam pressure Enthalpy of feed water at feed water temperature)

= ( – ) =
=
(
)
=

4. Heat Produced During the Combustion of Fuel (q) (Heat Input):

q

q

= (Mass flow rate of the fuel consumed * Gross Calorific Value of the fuel) =

= (Mass flow rate of the fuel consumed * Gross Calorific Value of the fuel) =

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

5. Efficiency of Boiler (

8. Results:

Design Competition 5. Efficiency of Boiler ( 8. Results: ) = = * 100 A. Efficiency
) = =
) =
=
Competition 5. Efficiency of Boiler ( 8. Results: ) = = * 100 A. Efficiency of

* 100

A. Efficiency of boiler by using:

a. Coal “Lignite”:

b. Coal “Anthracite”:

c. Coal “Bituminous”:

d. Light Diesel Oil:

e. Furnace Oil:

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

B. Efficiency of boiler by varying dryness fraction:

a. Dryness Fraction x = 0.6 =

b. Dryness Fraction x = 0.7 =

c. Dryness Fraction x = 0.8 =

d. Dryness Fraction x = 0.9 =

e. Dryness Fraction x = 1 =

Example

Find out the efficiency of the boiler by direct method with the data given below:

Type of boiler : Coal firedof the boiler by direct method with the data given below: Quantity of steam (dry) generated

Quantity of steam (dry) generated : 8 TPH = 8000 kg/hrwith the data given below: Type of boiler : Coal fired Steam pressure (gauge): 10 bar

Steam pressure (gauge): 10 barfired Quantity of steam (dry) generated : 8 TPH = 8000 kg/hr Steam temperature: 170°C Quantity

Steam temperature: 170°C: 8 TPH = 8000 kg/hr Steam pressure (gauge): 10 bar Quantity of coal consumed :

Quantity of coal consumed : 1800 kg/hrSteam pressure (gauge): 10 bar Steam temperature: 170°C Feed water temperature : 85°C GCV of coal

Feed water temperature : 85°Ctemperature: 170°C Quantity of coal consumed : 1800 kg/hr GCV of coal : 13395 kJ/kg Enthalpy

GCV of coal : 13395 kJ/kgof coal consumed : 1800 kg/hr Feed water temperature : 85°C Enthalpy of wet steam at

Enthalpy of wet steam at 10 bar pressure : 2776.2 kJ/kgFeed water temperature : 85°C GCV of coal : 13395 kJ/kg Enthalpy of feed water :

Enthalpy of feed water : 334.9 kJ/kgEnthalpy of wet steam at 10 bar pressure : 2776.2 kJ/kg Dryness Fraction: 0.93 Design and

Dryness Fraction: 0.93pressure : 2776.2 kJ/kg Enthalpy of feed water : 334.9 kJ/kg Design and Development of Virtual

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) Required values from steam table: at 85°C

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Required values from steam table:

Engineering, Pune (India) Required values from steam table: at 85°C at 10 bar = 355.9 kJ/kg

at 85°C at 10 bar

= 355.9 kJ/kg = 762.6 kJ/kg

at 10 bar = 2016.6 kJ/kg

10 bar = 355.9 kJ/kg = 762.6 kJ/kg at 10 bar = 2016.6 kJ/kg Boiler Efficiency

Boiler Efficiency (η) =

Where, For wet steam

= + (x*
=
+ (x*

) = 762.6 + (0.93 * 2016.6) = 2638.038

= = 75.70 %
=
= 75.70 %

Note: It should be noted that boiler may not generate 100% saturated dry steam, and there may be some amount of wetness in the steam.

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) B. Indirect Method: Indirect method is also

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

B. Indirect Method:

Indirect method is also called as heat loss method. The efficiency can be arrived at, by subtracting the heat loss fractions from 100. The standards do not include blow down loss in the efficiency determination process. A detailed procedure for calculating boiler efficiency by indirect method is as follows.

boiler efficiency by indirect method is as follows. Fig. 2.2: Illustration of heat loss from the

Fig. 2.2: Illustration of heat loss from the Boiler [iv]

The principle losses that occur in a boiler are:

Loss due to dry flue gas (sensible heat)…………………… ……………………

……

L1

Loss due to hydrogen in fuel (H 2 ) …………………………… 2 )……………………………

L2

Loss due to moisture in fuel (H 2 O) ……………………………… 2 O)………………………………

L3

Loss due to moisture in air (H 2 O) ………………………………… 2 O)…………………………………

L4

Loss due to carbon monoxide (CO)…………………………… ……………………………

L5

Loss due to surface radiation, convection and other unaccounted…

L6

Unburnt losses in fly ash (Carbon)……………………………… ………………………………

L7

Unburnt losses in bottom ash (Carbon)…………………………… ……………………………

L8

Boiler Efficiency by indirect method = 100 - (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 + L5 + L6 + L7 + L8)

Measurements Required for Performance Assessment Testing:

The following parameters need to be measured, as applicable for the computation of boiler efficiency and performance:

a) Flue gas analysis

1. Percentage of CO 2 or O 2 in flue gas

2. Percentage of CO in flue gas

3. Temperature of flue gas

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition b) Flow meter measurements for 1. Fuel 2. Steam 3. Feed water

b) Flow meter measurements for

1. Fuel

2. Steam

3. Feed water

4. Condensate water

5. Combustion air

c) Temperature measurements for

1. Flue gas

2. Steam

3. Makeup water

4. Condensate return

5. Combustion air

6. Fuel

7. Boiler feed water

d) Pressure measurements for

1. Steam

2. Fuel

3. Combustion air, both primary and secondary

4. Draft

e) Water condition

1. Total dissolved solids (TDS)

2. pH

3. Blow down rate and quantity

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Boiler Efficiency by Indirect Method: Calculation Procedure and Formula:

In order to calculate the boiler efficiency by indirect method, all the losses that occur in the boiler must be established. These losses are conveniently related to the amount of fuel burnt. In this way it is easy to compare the performance of various boilers with different ratings.

Theoretical (Stoichiometric) air fuel ratio and excess air supplied are to be determined first for computing the boiler losses. The following relation can be used for the same.

1. Theoretical air required for combustion =

for the same. 1. Theoretical air required for combustion = 2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA)
for the same. 1. Theoretical air required for combustion = 2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA)

2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) =

required for combustion = 2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) = Note: Normally O 2 measurement

Note: Normally O 2 measurement is recommended. If O 2 measurement is not available use of CO 2 can do.

% Excess Air Supplied (EA) =

Or

use of CO 2 can do. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) = Or ……. f rom
use of CO 2 can do. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) = Or ……. f rom

……. from flue gas analysis

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition Where: (CO 2 %) t = Theoretical CO 2 (CO 2 %)

Where:

(CO 2 %) t = Theoretical CO 2 (CO 2 %) a = Actual CO 2 % measured in flue gas

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

(CO 2 %) t = Moles of N 2 =
(CO 2 %) t =
Moles of N 2 =

Moles of C =

Pune (India) (CO 2 %) t = Moles of N 2 = Moles of C =

Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) =

of C = Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) = * Theoretical

* Theoretical air

The various losses associated with the operation of a boiler are discussed below:

1.

Heat loss due to dry flue gas (L1):

This is the greatest boiler loss and can be calculated by the following method:

L1 =

L1 =

Where, L1= % Heat loss due to dry flue gas m = Mass of dry flue gas in kg/kg of fuel

= Combustion products from fuel:

= CO 2 + SO 2 + Moisture in flue gases + O 2 in flue gas + Mass of air supplied for

combustion of fuel Cp = Specific heat of fuel gas in kJ/kg K Tf = Flue gas temperature in °C Ta = Ambient temperature in °C

2.

Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H 2 in fuel (%) (L2):

The combustion of hydrogen causes a heat loss because the product of combustion is water. The evaporation of water absorbs the heat in the form of Latent Heat.

L2 =

of water absorbs the heat in the form of Latent Heat. L2 = Where: H 2

Where:

H 2 = kg of hydrogen present in fuel (per kg of fuel) Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam in kJ / kg °K Tf = Flue gas temperature in °C Ta = Ambient temperature in °C

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 2676 = Latent heat corresponding to pressure

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

2676 = Latent heat corresponding to pressure of water vapour in kJ/kg

3. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3):

Moisture entering the boiler with the fuel leaves as a superheated vapour. This moisture loss is made up of the sensible heat to bring the moisture to boiling point, the latent heat of evaporation of the moisture, and the superheat required to bring this steam to the temperature of the exhaust gas. This loss can be calculated by following method:

Where:

L3 =

This loss can be calculated by following method: Where: L3 = M = kg moisture in

M = kg moisture in fuel on 1 kg basis Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam in kJ/kg °C Tf = Flue gas temperature in °C Ta = Ambient temperature in °C

2676 = Latent heat corresponding to pressure of water vapour in kJ/kg

4. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4) :

Vapour in the form of humidity in the incoming air, is superheated as it passes through the boiler. Since this heat passes up the stack, it must be included as a boiler loss. To relate this loss to the mass of coal burned, the moisture content of the combustion air and the amount of air supplied per unit mass of coal burned must be known. The mass of vapour

that air contains can be obtained from psychometric charts and typical values are included below:

Dry-Bulb

Wet Bulb

Relative Humidity

Kilogram water per Kilogram dry

Temp ° C

Temp ° C

(%)

air (Humidity Factor)

20

20

100

0.016

20

14

50

0.008

30

22

50

0.014

40

30

50

0.024

Where:

L4 =

22 50 0.014 40 30 50 0.024 Where: L4 = Design and Development of Virtual Experimental

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) AAS = Actual mass of air supplied

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

AAS = Actual mass of air supplied per kg of fuel

Humidity factor = kg of water / kg of dry air

Cp = Specific heat of superheated steam in kJ/kg K

Tf = Flue gas temperature in (°C)

Ta = Ambient temperature in (°C) (Dry bulb temperature)

5. Heat loss due to incomplete combustion (L5):

Products formed by incomplete combustion could be mixed with oxygen and burned

again with a further release of energy. Such products include CO, H 2 , and various hydrocarbons and are generally found in the flue gas of the boilers. Carbon monoxide is the only gas whose concentration can be determined conveniently in a boiler plant test.

L5 =

*
*

* 100

Where:

L5

=

% Heat loss due to partial conversion of C to CO

CO

=

Volume of CO in flue gas leaving economizer (%)

= Actual Volume of CO 2 in flue gas (%)

=

Actual Volume of CO 2 in flue gas (%)

C

=

Carbon content kg/kg of fuel

Or When CO is obtained in ppm during the flue gas analysis

CO formation (Mco) = CO (in ppm) * 10 -6 * Mf *28

Mf = fuel consumption in kg/hr

L5 = Mco * 5744

5744 = heat loss due to partial combustion of carbon kJ/kg

6. Heat loss due to radiation and convection (L6):

The other heat losses from a boiler consist of the loss of heat by radiation and

convection from the boiler casting into the surrounding boiler house.

Normally surface loss and other unaccounted losses is assumed based on the type and

size of the boiler as given below

For industrial fire tube / packaged boiler = 1.5 to 2.5%

For industrial water tube boiler = 2 to 3%

For power station boiler = 0.4 to 1%

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) However it can be calculated if the

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

However it can be calculated if the surface area of boiler and its surface temperatures are known as given below:

L6 = 0.548 * [

4 –
4 –

Where,

L6 = Radiation loss in W/m

Vm = Wind velocity in m/s

Ts = Surface temperature (°C)

Ta = Ambient temperature (°C)

) 4 ] + 1.957 * (Ts Ta) 1.25 *

temperature (°C) ) 4 ] + 1.957 * (Ts – Ta) 1.25 * 7. Heat loss

7. Heat loss due to unburnt in fly ash (%) (L7):

Small amounts of carbon will be left in the ash and this constitutes a loss of potential

heat in the fuel. To assess these heat losses, samples of ash must be analyzed for carbon

content. The quantity of ash produced per unit of fuel must also be known.

L7 =

of ash produced per unit of fuel must also be known. L7 = 8. Heat loss
of ash produced per unit of fuel must also be known. L7 = 8. Heat loss

8. Heat loss due to unburnt in bottom ash (%)(L8):

Ultimate Fuel Analysis:

L8 =

unburnt in bottom ash (%)(L8): Ultimate Fuel Analysis: L8 = “ULTIMATE FUEL ANALYSIS ” Contents Lignite
unburnt in bottom ash (%)(L8): Ultimate Fuel Analysis: L8 = “ULTIMATE FUEL ANALYSIS ” Contents Lignite

“ULTIMATE FUEL ANALYSIS

Contents

Lignite

Bituminous

Anthracite

LDO

FO

% C

68.0

81.8

90.8

86.2

86.1

% O

21.2

9.1

1.9

0

0

% H

4.3

5.1

2.6

11.5

11.3

% N

1.1

1.4

1.4

0

0

%

S

0.4

0.6

0.7

1.5

3.5

Ash

3

 

1 1.5

0.02

0.1

Moisture

2

 

1 1.5

0.25

0.25

GCV

26700

36100

36200

43950

44788

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2011 Student Design Competition

Heat Balance:

2011 Student Design Competition Heat Balance: College Of Engineering, Pune (India) Having established the magnitude of

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Having established the magnitude of all the losses mentioned above, a simple heat balance would give the efficiency of the boiler. The efficiency is the difference between the energy input to the boiler and the heat losses calculated.

 

Input / Output Parameter

 

kJ / kg of fuel

%

Heat Input in fuel

=

 

100

Various Heat losses in boiler

     

1. Dry flue gas loss

=

   

2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel

     

3. Loss due to moisture in fuel

=

   

4. Loss due to moisture in air

=

   

5. Partial combustion of C to CO

=

   

6. Surface heat losses

=

   

7. Loss due to Unburnt in fly ash

=

   

8. Loss due to Unburnt in bottom ash

=

   

Total Losses

=

   

Boiler efficiency = 100 - (1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8) = 100 (

)

 

η Indirect =

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

Procedure:

2011 Student Design Competition Procedure: College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 1. Observe the setup and all

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

1. Observe the setup and all connected pressure and temperature measuring equipments.

2. Open the valves supplying water and fuel to boiler

3. Wait till water level reaches required level

4. Check the fuel level in the fuel tank

5. Check the fuel feed pump

6. Check the water feed pump

7. Start the boiler

8. Open the outlet valve of header which then diverts the steam to heat exchanger header.

9. When desired pressure is generated in system, start taking observations of various instruments.

10. Measure the feed water temperature with the help of thermometer and note the readings

11. Measure the feed water rate

12. Measure the temperature of output steam

13. Measure the pressure of output steam

14. Measure the steam generation rate

15. Measure the dryness fraction of output steam with the help of calorimeter

16. Measure the fuel firing rate of Boiler

17. Observe the fuel used and get the calorific value for the same

18. Measure the flue gas temperature

19. Measure the atmospheric temperature

20. Measure the surface temperature of Boiler

21. Measure the humidity in ambient air

22. Measure the wind velocity of surrounding air

23. Measure the total surface area of Boiler

24. Take ultimate analysis of fuel from the table

25. Note all the readings in the table

26. Calculate the efficiency of boiler

27. Vary the fuel and take the readings

28. Vary the dryness fraction and take the readings

29. Vary the content of fuel and observe the change in the efficiency of boiler

30. Observe the change in the efficiency of boiler by varying above parameters

31. Change the opening of outlet valve and vary flow rate, this will change the pressure of steam and again take the reading

32. Follow the above method three to four times and record the data in observation table

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

Observation Table:

2011 Student Design Competition Observation Table: College Of Engineering, Pune (India) Sr.No. Particular Readings /

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Sr.No.

Particular

Readings / Observations

1

Fuel Firing Rate (kg/hr)

 

2

Steam generation rate (kg/hr)

 

3

Steam pressure (bar)

 

4

Steam temperature (°C)

 

5

Feed water temperature (°C)

 

6

% CO 2 in Flue gas

 

7

% CO in Flue gas

 

8

Average flue gas temperature (°C)

 

9

Ambient temperature (°C)

 

10

Humidity in ambient air (kg /kg dry air)

 

11

Surface temperature of boiler (°C)

 

12

Wind velocity around the boiler (m/s)

 

13

Total surface area of boiler (m 2 )

 

14

GCV of Bottom ash (kJ/kg)

 

15

GCV of fly ash (kJ/kg)

 

16

Ratio of bottom ash to fly ash

 
 

Fuel Analysis (%)

1

Ash content in fuel

 

2

Moisture in coal

 

3

Carbon content

 

4

Nitrogen content

 

5

Oxygen content

 

6

GCV of Fuel (kJ/kg)

 

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

Calculations:

2011 Student Design Competition Calculations: College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 1. Theoretical air required for

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

1.

Theoretical air required for combustion =

1. Theoretical air required for combustion =
1. Theoretical air required for combustion =
   
   
 

=

  =

2.

% Excess Air Supplied (EA)

=

2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) = * 100

* 100

 

=

3.

Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) =

Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) =

* Theoretical air

 

=

kg / kg of fuel

4.

Mass of dry flue gas m = CO 2 + SO 2 + Moisture in flue gases + O 2 in flue gas + Mass of air supplied for combustion of fuel

m = + = kg/kg of oil 5. Heat loss due to dry flue gas
m =
+
=
kg/kg of oil
5. Heat loss due to dry flue gas (L1):
L1 = = %
L1 =
=
%

6. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H 2 in fuel (%) (L2):

L2 = = %
L2 =
=
%

7. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3):

L3 = = %
L3 =
=
%

8. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4

L4 =

=

% 8. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4 L4 = = % Design

%

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

17

2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 9. Heat loss due to radiation and

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

9. Heat loss due to radiation and convection (L6):

L6 = 0.548 * [

=

4 –
4 –

) 4 ] + 1.957 * (Ts Ta) 1.25 *

W/m 2

* [ = 4 – ) 4 ] + 1.957 * (Ts – Ta) 1.25 *

=

=

* 3.6 …………………. (

2

kJ / m

1.25 * W/m 2 = = * 3.6 …………………. ( 2 kJ / m Total radiation

Total radiation and convection loss per hour

% Radiation and Convection loss

L6

1 W = 3.6 kJ)

 

=

W/m

2

=

=

kJ/m 2

=

%

  = W/m 2 = = kJ/m 2 = % Note: Normally it is assumed this

Note: Normally it is assumed this loss between 0.5 to 1 %

Boiler efficiency by Indirect Method

η Indirect

= 100 (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 +L5 +L6) %

=

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

18

2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) Summary of Heat Balance for the Boiler

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Summary of Heat Balance for the Boiler Using

 

:

Input / Output Parameter

kJ / kg of furnace oil

% Loss

Heat Input

 

100

Losses in Boiler

1. Dry flue gas, L 1

   

2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel, L2

   

3. Loss due to Moisture in fuel, L3

   

4. Loss due to Moisture in air, L4

   

5. Partial combustion of C to Co, CO2

   

6. Surface heat losses, L6

   

Efficiency of Boiler = 100 (L 1 + L 2 + L 3 + L 4 + L 5 + L 6 )

 

= 100 (

)

η Indirect =

%

8. Results:

A. Efficiency of boiler by using

a. Coal “Lignite”:

b. Coal “Anthracite”:

c. Coal “Bituminous”:

d. Light Diesel Oil:

e. Furnace Oil:

Example of Oil Fired Boiler Efficiency Calculation:

The following are the data collected for a boiler using furnace oil as the fuel. Find out the boiler efficiency by indirect method.

Ultimate analysis (%) Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulphur Moisture GCV of fuel Fuel firing rate

= 84 = 12 = 0.5 = 1.5 = 1.5 = 0.5 = 41858 kJ/kg = 2648.125 kg/hr

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

19

2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) Surface Temperature of boiler Surface area of

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Surface Temperature of boiler Surface area of boiler Humidity

= 80°C 90 m 2

= = 0.025 kg/kg of dry air

Wind speed

= 3.8 m/s

Flue gas analysis (%) Flue gas temperature

= 190°C

Ambient temperature

= 30°C

Co2% in flue gas by volume

= 10.8

O2% in flue gas by volume

= 7.4

Solution:

1.

Theoretical air required for combustion

=

 

=

Theoretical air required for combustion =   = = 13.92 kg/kg of oil 2. % Excess
Theoretical air required for combustion =   = = 13.92 kg/kg of oil 2. % Excess
Theoretical air required for combustion =   = = 13.92 kg/kg of oil 2. % Excess

= 13.92 kg/kg of oil

for combustion =   = = 13.92 kg/kg of oil 2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA)
for combustion =   = = 13.92 kg/kg of oil 2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA)

2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA)

=

2. % Excess Air Supplied (EA) = * 100

* 100

=

=

= 54.4 %

3. Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) =

* Theoretical air54.4 % 3. Actual mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) = * 13.92

* 13.92mass of air supplied / kg of fuel (AAS) = * Theoretical air = = 21.49

=

= 21.49 kg / kg of fuel

4. Mass of dry flue gas m = CO 2 + SO 2 + Moisture in flue gases + O 2 in flue gas + Mass of

air supplied for combustion of fuel m = +
air supplied for combustion of fuel
m =
+
gas + Mass of air supplied for combustion of fuel m = + + = 21.36

+ = 21.36 kg/kg of oil

=

5. Heat loss due to dry flue gas (L1):

L1 =

=

of oil = 5. Heat loss due to dry flue gas (L1): L1 = = Design
of oil = 5. Heat loss due to dry flue gas (L1): L1 = = Design

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

20

2011 Student Design Competition

= 8.16 %

2011 Student Design Competition = 8.16 % College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 6. Heat loss due

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

6. Heat loss due to evaporation of water formed due to H 2 in fuel (%) (L2):

L2 = = = 7.77 %
L2 =
=
=
7.77 %
7. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3): L3 = =
7. Heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3):
L3 =
=

= 0.033 %

8. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4):

L4 =

% 8. Heat loss due to moisture present in air (L4): L4 = = = 0.42
= = 0.42 %
=
= 0.42 %

9. Heat loss due to radiation and convection (L6):

L6 = 0.548 * [

4 –
4

) 4 ]

+ 1.957 * (Ts Ta) 1.25 *

= 0.548 * [ 4 – ) 4 ] + 1.957 * (Ts – Ta) 1.25

= 0.548

* [

4 –

W/m 2

= 1303

= 1303 * 3.6

= 4690.8 kJ/m 2

) 4 ] +

1.957 * (353 303) 1.25 *

= 4690.8 kJ/m 2 ) 4 ] + 1.957 * (353 – 303) 1.25 * Total

Total radiation and convection loss per hour

% Radiation and Convection loss

L6

4690.8 * 90 m 2

=

= 422172 kJ

=

and Convection loss L6 4690.8 * 90 m 2 = = 422172 kJ = = =
and Convection loss L6 4690.8 * 90 m 2 = = 422172 kJ = = =
= = 0.38 %
=
= 0.38 %

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

21

2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) Note: Normally it is assumed this loss

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Note: Normally it is assumed this loss between 0.5 to 1 %

Boiler efficiency by Indirect Method

= 100 (L1 + L2 + L3 + L4 +L6)

= 100 (8.16 + 7.77+0.033 +0.42+0.38)

= 100 16.763

= 83.24 %

Summary of Heat Balance for the Boiler Using Furnace Oil:

Input / Output Parameter

kJ / kg of furnace oil

% Loss

Heat Input

41858

100

Losses in Boiler

1. Dry flue gas, L 1

3417.6

8.16

2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel, L2

3252.96

7.77

3. Loss due to Moisture in fuel, L3

14.184

0.033

4. Loss due to Moisture in air, L4

179.424

0.42

5. Partial combustion of C to Co, CO2

0

0

6. Surface heat losses, L6

159.422

0.38

Efficiency of Boiler = 100 (L 1 + L 2 + L 3 + L 4 + L 5 + L 6 )

 

= 100 (8.16+7.77+0.033+0.42+0.38)

= 83.24 %

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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2011 Student Design Competition

2011 Student Design Competition College Of Engineering, Pune (India) 1.9 Factors Affecting Boiler Performance The various

College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

1.9 Factors Affecting Boiler Performance

The various factors affecting the boiler performance are listed below:

Periodical cleaning of boilers Periodical soot blowingfactors affecting the boiler performance are listed below: Proper water treatment and blow down control Draft

Proper water treatment and blow down control Draft controlPeriodical cleaning of boilers Periodical soot blowing Excess air control Percentage loading of boiler Steam

Excess air control Percentage loading of boilerProper water treatment and blow down control Draft control Steam generation pressure and temperature Boiler insulation

Steam generation pressure and temperature Boiler insulationcontrol Excess air control Percentage loading of boiler Quality of fuel All these factors individually/combined,

Quality of fuelSteam generation pressure and temperature Boiler insulation All these factors individually/combined, contribute to the

All these factors individually/combined, contribute to the performance of the boiler and reflected either in boiler efficiency or evaporation ratio. Based on the results obtained from the testing further improvements have to be carried out for maximizing the performance. The test can be repeated after modification or rectification of the problems and compared with standard norms. Energy auditor should carry out this test as a routine manner once in six months and report to the management for necessary action.

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Determine Efficiency of Boiler

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