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AVR for MOTOR CONTROL

- AT90PWM
October 2005
Jean Desuché

© Atmel Norway 2005


Motor Control Applications: PWM3 Focus

• 3 Phase Brushless DC • 3 Phase Induction AC


Motor Motor
• HVAC • HVAC (Heating, Ventilating,
• Refrigerators Air Conditioning)
• Fans • Washing machine
• Pumps • Blowers
• High tech Industrial, constant • Fans
speed applications • Pumps
• Traction elevator • Industrial control
• Medical equipment
• Hard disk, CD drives
• Automotive

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AT90PWM Family Range

AT90PWM1 AT90PWM2 AT90PWM3


Pins 24 24 32
I/O's 19 19 27
Flash 4 KB 8 KB 8 KB
SRAM 256 B 512 B 512 B
EEPROM 256 B 512 B 512 B
ADC 8 ch, 10-bit 8 ch, 10-bit 11 ch, 10-bit
Amplifier Yes Yes Two
Analog comparator 2 2 3
D/A 10-bit
Timer 8b 1 1 1
Timer 16b 1 1 1
PWM channels (timer) 3 3 4
Timer 12b: PSC 2 2 3
PWM channels (PSC) 4 4 6

• Features available in All AT90PWM :


• ISP, One pin DebugWire, RC oscillators, UART
• 64 MHz PLL for PSC & core (16 MHz), Vcc=2.7-5.5V

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3-phase BLDC Motor Basics

U C
Stator
+
V C Rotor
N S
-

W C

Six possible Magnetic field values


one rotor revolution
Sensor mode :

U
• Rotor position with Hall
sensor

V Sensorless mode :

• Rotor position with Back


W EMF on floating coil

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BLDC Motor Application

Hall sensors to INT (sensor)


Back EMF to ADC (sensor-less)

C
U
0 2 4
D
3

R
M

From PWM Channels

+ C
W

I
3
M
0P

PW

0
V V N S
9

-
90
AT

1
AT

2
E
3 R 1 3 5
C
4 S W
5

To amplifier and ADC for regulation


To comparator for emergency stop

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AC Induction Motor Basics

U C
Stator

+
V C Rotor
-

W C

Rotating field with scalar or space vector modulation

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Three Phases Induction AC Motor Application

Hall sensors to INT


Tachimeter to ADC

C
U
0 2 4
D
R
3

From PWM Channels

+
M

C
I
W

V
0P

0
V
M

-
PW
9

1
E
AT

90
AT

2
3 R 1 3 5
C
4 S W
5

To amplifier and ADC for regulation


To comparator for emergency stop

www.atmel.com AVR FAE Training 2005


Target applications

AT90PWM1 AT90PWM2 AT90PWM3

BLDC motor with Hall sensor x x x


BLDC motor with Hall sensor
x
+AC/DC converter(PFC)
BLDC motor sensorless Vs Motors x

3-phase Induction AC motor x

DC motor x x
2 DC motors
x
+AC/DC converter(PFC)

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AT90PWM3 : Key Advantages For Motor Control

• PSC
• 6 synchronized PWM channels for 3 phase motors
• Fast emergency shut down of PWM outputs (only few 10 ns)
• 64 MHz PLL, providing 12-bit PWM accuracy up to 16 KHz.

• ADC and Amplifier


• Feedback control and current & power regulation
• Possible synchronous current measurement

• Three comparators for Back EMF for Sensorless motors


• DAC for variable comparator threshold (10-bit resolution)
• Performances with a 3 phase BLDC with Hall sensors
• CPU 18% with 8 Mhz oscillator, 14 K RPM
• Code 3175 bytes (38%)
• RAM 285 bytes (55%)

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Requirements for a 3-phase BLDC Motor Control MCU

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P1 P2
0

0 2 4 1

+ U 3

V
- W
4

1 3 5
U

• Up to 6 Synchronous PWM channels (12 bit precision or more)

• PWM Timer Min clock frequency = 20MHz for 10 bit accuracy

• According to schemes : Minimum dead time controlled by hardware for all 6 channels

• All PWM must be disabled by hardware (Input) when overcurrent

• Capability to support the 4 PWM schemes for BLDC control + the sinusoidal PWM mode

• 4MIPS for 3 phase BLDC with Hall sensors, more for sensorless

• Exemple above shows 1 PWM scheme (4 Quadrant Switching Simultaneous)


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Requirements for a 3-phase AC Motor Control MCU
PWM cycle PWM cycle

U
0 2 4 0

+ U 1
V
V 2
- W
W
3

1 3 5 4

Mandatory min. Dead Time

• Up to 6 Synchronous PWM channels (12 bit precision or more)

• PWM Timer Min clock frequency = 64MHz for 12 bit precision, 12KHz

• Minimum dead time controlled by hardware for all 6 channels

• All PWM must be disabled by hardware (Input) when overcurrent

• Capability to support Scalar Algorithm and Space Vector Algorithm

• 10 to 16 MIPS for 3 phase AC induction with Space Vector Algorithm

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MC100 : BLDC Motor Control Demo Board

• Uses AT90PWM3
• Power bridge for BLDC motors
• Interface for Hall Sensor
• Interface for Sensorless mode (Zero crossing Back EMF detection )
• Hardware overcurrent detection
• Voltage operation from 8V to 14V DC
• ISP connector for on-chip ISP
• On Board LIN transceiver Atmel ATA6661
• Includes BLDC motor
• Software
• Sensor mode with PID speed
regulation

www.atmel.com AVR FAE Training 2005


MC200 : Induction Motor Demo Board

• Uses AT90PWM3
• IPM (Intelligent Power Module) to drive 3 phase induction
motors
• Interface for speed & position Sensor
• Hardware overcurrent detection
• Voltage operation from 110 to 230V
• ISP connector for on-chip ISP

www.atmel.com AVR FAE Training 2005


www.atmel.com AVR FAE Training 2005