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P u b l i c A f f a i r s Office

M a r c h 15, 1968

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SATURN I WORKSHOP

The National A e r o n a u t i c s and Space A d m i n i s t r a t i o n p r o p o s e s to p l a c e i t s embryonic space station

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t h e Saturn I o r b i t a l w o r k s h o p

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into o r b i t in 1970

t o gain a b e t t e r understanding of t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a p e r m a n e n t m a n - m a d e i s l a n d in s p a c e . The o r b i t a l w o r k s h o p o r S a t u r n S-IVB spent s t a g e e x p e r i m e n t c a l l s f o r changing a propulsion s t a g e into a living a r e a a f t e r i t h a s p r o p e l l e d itself into space. In t h i s p r o j e c t , the S a t u r n S-IVB s t a g e ' s huge liquid hydrogen tank i s T h e s e modifications w i l l allow a s t r o n a u t s to

to be f i r s t modified on the ground.

change t h e t a n k a r e a into s p a c i o u s living and working q u a r t e r s o n c e i n s p a c e . The tank's 10,000 cubic foot i n t e r i o r i s many t i m e s l a r g e r than any s p a c e c r a f t flown thus f a r . The f i r s t o r b i t a l workshop m i s s i o n w i l l b e 28 d a y s , two weeks l o n g e r than the 14 day G e m i n i 7 m i s s i o n which i s the longest manned flight to d a t e . NASA w i l l launch the o r b i t a l workshop a s t h e f i r s t of i t s Apollo Applications missions. S a t u r n IB launch v e h i c l e s w i l l loft the w o r k s h o p a n d subsequent AAP launch vehicles w i l l b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e when they

manned Apollo s p a c e c r a f t .

a r e not needed f o r the m a i n s t r e a m Apollo lunar landing effort.

D r . George E. Mueller, a s s o c i a t e a d m i n i s t r a t o r for Manned Space Flight, s a i d the o r b i t a l workshop "will provide us with a m a j o r s t e p towards a n under standing of the r e q u i r e m e n t s for a s p a c e station.
"

He s a i d the e a r l y development of long duration flight capability i s c l e a r l y one of the m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r e a s to be p r e s s e d f o r w a r d , since i t i s a key r e q u i r e m e n t f o r m o s t of the possible significant advances in manned flight. Apollo Applications

flights of s e v e r a l months duration w i l l r e p r e s e n t a significant i n c r e a s e in the nation's o p e r a t i o n a l capabilities in s?ace arid w i l l provide opportunities for i m p o r t a n t scientific and technological experimentation. An extended duration

flight e x p e r i m e n t i s a l s o n e c e s s a r y to provide a sound b a s i s f o r those f u t u r e decisions on manned p r o g r a m s of the g r e a t e s t i n t e r e s t and potential. These

include p e r m a n e n t manned facilities in ::pace o r manned flights to the planets. Maximum economy w i l l be achieved in the Apollo Applications effort through the f u l l u s e and modification of Apollo s p a c e c r a f t and Saturn launch v e h i c l e s . Until the o r b i t a l workshop idea developed, a spent stage in o r b i t w a s c o n s i d e r e d to be u s e l e s s . Today, b a s e d on detailed s t u d i e s , the S-IVB spent

stage i s c o n s i d e r e d to be a flexible and economical r e s o u r c e , capable of fulfilling a v a r i e t y of manned s p a c e p r o g r a m r e q u i r e m e n t s a t r e l a t i v e l y low cost. The m a j o r pieces of new equipment being developed f o r the workshop e x p e r i m e n t a r e a n a i r l o c k and multiple docking a d a p t e r . The a i r l o c k , being

built for the Manned Spacecraft Center by McDonnell Douglas C o r p . , will allow a s t r o n a u t s to move f r o m t h e i r s p a c e c r a f t to the S-IVB stage without d e p r e s s u r i z i n g either. The docking a d a p t e r attached to the a i r l o c k provides a m e a n s of joining The NASA-Mar s h a l l Space Flight C e n t e r i s

together up to five payloads.

designing and manufacturing the multiple docking a d a p t e r .

RAP CLUSTER In t h i s s k e t c h the S a t u r n I o r b i t a l w o r k s h o p is a t bottom. Extending f r o m t h e a i r l o c k ( o p p o s i t e t h e engine end) is t h e multiple docking a d a p t e r , to which i s docked a n Apollo c o m m a n d / s e r v i c e module a n d Apollo t e l e s c o p e mount.

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-3 The s p a c e agency w i l l d e m o n s t r a t e with t h i s p r o j e c t the e f f e c t s of long d u r a t i o n flights on man a n d h i s equipment and w i l l c o n f i r m a n d r e f i n e t h e h a r d w a r e and techniques needed f o r o r b i t a l a s s e m b l y . These objectives will

be achieved by the crew p e r f o r m i n g extensive engineering, scientific a n d b i o m e d i c a l e x p e r i m e n t s during t h e flight. A follow-on s p a c e stiltion p r o j e c t called t h e S a t u r n V w o r k s h o p a l s o i s under study. The s a m e Saturn S-IVB s t a g e , in t h i s application a S a t u r n V ' s

t h i r d s t a g e , would b e completely outfitted on the ground and be " d r y launched. NASA h a s included plans f o r s u c h a follow-on e f f o r t i n i t s f i s c a l y e a r 1969 budget r e q u e s t . AAP MISSION SEQUENCE F o u r S a t u r n IB launch vehicles w i l l be u s e d to loft t h e s p a c e agencyls f i r s t AAP payloads. The c l u s t e r i n g concept will b e u s e d to join t h e payloads i n o r b i t .

C l u s t e r i n g the s m a l l e r payloads in o r b i t will provide g r e a t e r capability t o c a r r y out planned long t e r m e x p e r i m e n t s . T h e f i r s t two-stage S a t u r n IB vehicle w i l l launch t h e o r b i t a l workshop. The unmanned v e h i c l e , c o n s i s t i n g of the s p e n t S-IVB s t a g e , a i r l o c k a n d multiple docking a d a p t e r will b e placed in a 260 s t a t u t e m i l e c i r c u l a r o r b i t f r o m Launch Complex 37B a t t h e Kennedy Space C e n t e r , F l a . A day l a t e r , a manned Apollo s p a c e c r a f t w i l l be launched by another S a t u r n

IB f r o m Launch Complex 3 4 a t t h e Kennedy C e n t e r .

The manned Apollo

s p a c e c r a f t w i l l t r a n s f e r to the o r b i t of the o r b i t i n g workshop.

The t h r e e - m a n Apollo c r e w w i l l rendezvous with the workshop and dock a t one of the p o r t s on the multiple docking a d a p t e r . The a s t r o n a u t s w i l l i n s u r e

the tanks a r e vented and w i l l outfit the hydrogen tank f o r t h e i r 2 8 days i n s p a c e . N e a r the end of the s t a y , the a s t r o n a u t s w i l l p r e p a r e the workshop f o r s p a c e s t o r a g e and r e t u r n to e a r t h in t h e i r Apollo s p a c e c r a f t . About four months l a t e r another crew of t h r e e a s t r o n a u t s w i l l r e t u r n to the workshop and p e r f o r m e x p e r i m e n t s f o r up to 56 days. The fourth Apollo Applications flight is to be about five to s i x months l a t e r . This will be a n unmanned Apollo Telescope Mount, launched by another Saturn IB vehicle. A manned Apollo s p a c e c r a f t w i l l p r e c e d e the ATM flight. The manned

c r a f t w i l l rendezvous and dock with the Apollo Telescope Mount and then rendezvous and dock with the workshop. This t i m e , the t h r e e a s t r o n a u t s a r e expected to s t a y in s p a c e f o r s o m e 56 days. These a s t r o n a u t s will o p e r a t e the ATM s o l a r e x p e r i m e n t s to provide

s c i e n t i f i c information on the sun's activity. Once again the men will p r e p a r e the workshop for a n inactive period and will then r e t u r n to e a r t h with the f i l m used to r e c o r d s o l a r data. SATURN I WORKSHOP DESCRIPTION A flight Saturn S-IVB s t a g e , with s o m e modification, will be used f o r the o r b i t a l workshop. Along with the S-IVB s t a g e , m a j o r equipment being developed f o r the workshop a r e an a i r l o c k , a multiple docking adapter and s o l a r a r r a y . The a i r l o c k will be The

mounted on the f o r w a r d end of the stage a t the lunar module a t t a c h points.

multiple docking a d a p t e r w i l l b e rigidly mounted a t the f o r w a r d end of the a i r l o c k .

SATURN I WORKSHOP

-5Two s o l a r a r r a y s will be mounted to the s t a g e ' s o u t s i d e wall. S-IVB STAGE Once the liquid oxygen-liquid hydrogen propelled s t a g e h a s achieved o r b i t , the tanks will b e a u t o m a t i c a l l y vented t o expel1 t h e r e s i d u a l f u e l s a s p a r t of t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of making i t habitable. The p r e - i n s t a l l e d w o r k s h o p equipment will

not i n t e r f e r with the liquid hydrogen flow during t h e powered portion of t h e flight. Upper s t a g e s for l a t e r S a t u r n IB flights

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209 through 212

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are r e c e i v i n g

b a s i c modifications so any of t h e s e vehicles could b e u s e d f o r t h e w o r k s h o p r o l e . T h e s e b a s i c changes include t h e drilling of s o m e 100 h o l e s throughout t h e s t a g e t o b e u s e d a s a t t a c h points f o r t h e f l o o r , p a r t i t i o n s a n d e x p e r i m e n t r a c k s . McDonnell Douglas C o r p . , p r i m e S-IVB s t a g e c o n t r a c t o r , h a s a c o n t r a c t for the w o r k s h o p r o l e . The s t a g e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e workshop m i s s i o n will have a g r e a t d e a l of equipment i n s t a l l e d b e f o r e i t l e a v e s the launch pad. A quick-opening h a t c h r e p l a c e s a n existing manhole c o v e r in t h e f o r w a r d tank d o m e . t h e tank. An a l u m i n u m g r i d - p a t t e r n floor w i l l b e placed in the lower s e c t i o n of t h e tank to divide it into two " s t o r i e s .
"

The h a t c h i s designed f o r e a s y , t r o u b l e f r e e and quick a c c e s s to

P a r t i t i o n s will b e i n s t a l l e d along with a Another f e a t u r e w i l l b e a

f i r e r e t a r d a n t l i n e r a r o u n d t h e i n s i d e tank s u r f a c e . m e t e o r o i d s h i e l d on the outside of the s t a g e .

C r e w q u a r t e r s , one of the m o r e i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t s of t h e w o r k s h o p , w i l l be located in the a f t end of the liquid hydrogen tank. The c o m m o n floor s e p a r a t e s

t h e c r e w q u a r t e r s s e c t i o n of t h e tank f r o m a l a r g e l a b o r a t o r y a r e a .

-6P r e -installed partitions divide the c r e w q u a r t e r s into s l e e p c o m p a r t m e n t s , food and w a s t e management c o m p a r t m e n t s and a w o r k a r e a .
A cloth ceiling installed adjacent to the liquid oxygen tank-hydrogen tank

common bulkhead w i l l s e r v e a s a r e f e r e n c e s u r f a c e f o r the a s t r o n a u t s and w i l l r e f l e c t light in the a r e a . Ceiling b e a m s a l s o s e r v e a s h a n d r a i l s u p p o r t s .

Waste management and food management c o m p a r t m e n t s w i l l be s e a l e d to c o n t r o l the movement o r o d o r s and p a r t i c l e s . T h e s e a r e a s w i l l b e s e a l e d with

aluminum s h e e t and will have folding "telephone -booth1' type d o o r s D e s i g n e r s have provided r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e crew q u a r t e r s .

The food and


One s l e e p

w a s t e management a r e a s e a c h have 3 0 s q u a r e f e e t of floor a r e a . c o m p a r t m e n t i s 67 s q u a r e f e e t and the o t h e r i s 70 s q u a r e f e e t . c o m p a r t m e n t h a s 181 s q u a r e f e e t of floor a-rea.

The w o r k

A t h e r m a l c o n t r o l and ventilation s y s t e m w i l l give the a s t r o n a u t s a habitable


environment with a t e m p e r a t u r e i n the r a n g e of 60 to 90 d e g r e e s F a h r e n h e i t .

A two-gas (oxygen-nitrogen) environmental s y s t e m w i l l be used on the


workshop. inch. F a n s w i l l c i r c u l a t e the workshop a t m o s p h e r e to keep the t e m p e r a t u r e constant. Special fan a s s e m b l i e s w i l l be installed by the a s t r o n a u t s . This The i n t e r n a l p r e s s u r e w i l l be maintained a t 5-6 pounds p e r s q u a r e

equipment and the other a s t r o n a u t installed g e a r w i l l be s t o r e d during the launch in the multiple docking a d a p t e r .

E l e c t r i c a l power distribution s y s t e m will be p r e -installed and w i l l connect the workshop living and working a r e a s with power s o u r c e s in a i r l o c k and the s o l a r cell assemblies. Lights w i l l be installed by the a s t r o n a u t s and may be moved

about f o r lighting control. T h e r e w i l l a l s o be a caution and warning s y s t e m in the workshop. The

s y s t e m h a s s e n s o r s and indicator / c o n t r o l l e r panel to a l e r t the a s t r o n a u t s of h a z a r d o u s conditions.


A "fireman's" pole w i l l extend f r o m the quick-opening hatch v e r t i c a l l y

through the c r e w q u a r t e r s . c e n t e r of the workshop.

Astronauts w i l l u s e the pole to move through the

An e x p e r i m e n t t r a n s f e r device w i l l a l s o be used with

the f i r e m a n ' s pole to t r a n s f e r experiment and equipment containers f r o m the multiple docking adapter to the w o r k a r e a . The f o r w a r d portion of the workshop will be a work a r e a w h e r e e x p e r i m e n t s brought f r o m the multiple docking adapter will be p e r f o r m e d . The m e t e o r o i d shield w i l l d e c r e a s e the probability of h a z a r d o u s penetration of the workshop by m e t e o r o i d s . minimum stage modifications. The shield i s an 0. 0 2 5 inch aluminum s h e e t which i s held a g a i n s t the s t a g e ' s liquid hydrogen tank during launch. d r i v e n by t o r s i o n s p r i n g s . AIRLOCK The a i r l o c k i s made up of a load-bearing t r u s s f r a m e w o r k and a c e n t r a l , c o m p a r t m e n t e d tunnel a s s e m b l y . The 16-foot eight inch long a i r l o c k , including Once in s p a c e it i s deployed by swinglinks The shield w i l l b e installed a s a kit with

It i s held five inches f r o m the tank wall in o r b i t .

the s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n section, i s mounted a t the f o r w a r d end of the S-IVB

s t a g e within the i n s t r u m e n t unit and the s p a c e c r a f t lunar a d a p t e r s t r u c t u r e . The s t r u c t u r e i s attached to the vehicle a t the lunar module a t t a c h points in the s p a c e c r a f t lunar module a d a p t e r . T h e f o r w a r d end of the a i r l o c k i s rigidly attached to the multiple docking adapter. F o u r viewing p o r t s , spaced approximately 90 d e g r e e s a p a r t , a r e provided in the t r a n s i t i o n section, a s a r e m o s t of the a i r l o c k c o n t r o l s . The 6 5 inch d i a m e t e r tunnel a s s e m b l y includes two i n t e r n a l bulkheads with h a t c h e s and a flexible p r e s s u r e - t i g h t a s s e m b l y which i s connected to the liquid hydrogen tank of the S-IVB stage. The tunnel p e r m i t s i n t r a v e h i c u l a r t r a n s f e r

of crew m e m b e r s within the p r e s s u r i z e d environment of the o r b i t a l a s s e m b l y . The a i r l o c k c o m p a r t m e n t contains a Gemini hatch in the tunnel wall. This

c o m p a r t m e n t provides the crew a c c e s s to s p a c e without requiring d e p r e s s u r i z a t i o n of the e n t i r e c l u s t e r and i s s i z e d to p e r m i t occupancy by two c r e w m e m b e r s in p r e s s u r i z e d s u i t s with portable life support s y s t e m s . MULTIPLE DOCKING ADAPTER The multiple docking a d a p t e r i s a c y l i n d r i c a l p r e s s u r e v e s s e l which i s s t r u c t u r a l l y attached to the a i r lock by a s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i s t i o n section. The MDA i s 17 f e e t two inches long and 12 f e e t in d i a m e t e r a t i t s w i d e s t point. p The f o r w a r d end t a p e r s and includes a n a x i a l d o c k i ~ g o r t . Four

additional docking p o r t s a r e spaced a t 90 d e g r e e i n t e r v a l s , r a d i a l to the c y l i n d r i c a l section. T h r e e of the r a d i a l p o r t s and the a x i a l p o r t a r e configured for c o m m a n d / The other r a d i a l p o r t w i l l be configured for lunar module/

s e r v i c e module docking.

Apollo t e l e s c o p e mount docking.

F o u r windows a r e located 90 d e g r e e s a p a r t on the conical section.

g r i d f l o o r , n o r m a l to the longitudinal a x i s , i s located approximately 2 3 inches below the r a d i a l docking p o r t c e n t e r l i n e s . Four flat g r i d w a l l s , p a r a l l e l to

the longitudinal a x i s , a r e mounted between the s t r u c t u r a l t r a n s i t i o n section and g r i d floor. Hinging will p e r m i t a c c e s s to the backsides of the w a l l s ,

adjacent to the cylindrical s t r u c t u r a l s h e l l s o that e x p e r i m e n t s and equipment may be mounted on both s i d e s of t h e s e walls. Mounting provision f o r e x p e r i m e n t s to be conducted in the MDA a s w e l l a s f o r e x p e r i m e n t s and equipment to be moved to the Saturn I workshop a r e provided. T h e r e i s about 1,500 cubic f e e t of a r e a available for u s e a s a s t o r a g e

a r e a f o r e x p e r i m e n t s , equipment and supplies during launch and while in o r b i t . SOLAR ARRAY The s o l a r a r r a y will provide e l e c t r i c power f o r the workshop while the fuel c e l l s in the command and s e r v i c e modules will handle the CSM power r e q u i r e m e n t $ The s y s t e m s a r e , however, c r o s s linked f o r flexibility in handling peak loads a s w e l l a s f o r countering f a i l u r e situations. F o r the eight-week m i s s i o n , power

w i l l be supplied to the CSM f r o m the workshop s o l a r a r r a y s and the fuel c e l l s w i l l be operated a t a low level c o m m e n s u r a t e with w a t e r production r e q u i r e m e n t s in o r d e r to r e d u c e cryogenic loading r e q u i r e m e n t s . ORBITAL WORKSHOP EXPERIMENTS T h e r e a r e about 50 candidate e x p e r i m e n t s being c o n s i d e r e d f o r the f i r s t five Apollo Applications flights. f i r s t o r b i t a l workshop.

A m a j o r i t y of the e x p e r i m e n t s w i l l be on the

T h e s e e x p e r i m e n t s a r e categorized into s e v e r a l a r e a s :'

biomedical, engineering, technological and scientific.

-10 T h r e e NASA H e a d q u a r t e r s P r o g r a m Offices

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Space Science and

Applications, Advanced R e s e a r c h and Technology and Manned Space F l i g h t p l u s t h e D e p a r t m e n t of Defense, a r e contributing t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t pool. h a s the o v e r a l l e x p e r i m e n t m a n a g e m e n t c h o r e . T h e candidate e x p e r i m e n t s include: Scientific e x p e r i m e n t s SO27 SO6 1 SO65 SO69 SO73 G a l a c t i c x - r a y mapping Potato respiration Multi-band t e r r a i n photography X-ray astronomy Gegenschein f l a s h z o d i a c a l light

-OMSF

Technological e x p e r i m e n t s TO03 Inflight n e p h e l o m e t e r C r e w vehicle d i s t u r b a n c e Meteoroid impact and erosion P r e c i s i o n optical tracking J e t shoes M e t e o r o i d velocity Surface absorbed m a t e r i a l s C o r o n a g r a p h a n d contamination m e a s u r e m e n t s A T M contamination m e a s u r e m e n t s

TO 13
TO17 TO 18 TO20 TO21 TO23 TO25 TO27

DOD e x p e r i m e n t s DO08
>

Radiation in s p a c e c r a f t C a r b o n dioxide reduction Suit donning and s l e e p s t a t i o n evaluation

DO17 DO 19

DO20 DO2 1 DO22

A l t e r n a t e r e s t r a i n t s evaluation Expandable a i r lock technology Expandable s t r u c t u r e s

Engineering experiments M402 M415 M423 M439 M469 M479 M487 M489 M492 M493 M508 M509 Orbital workshop T h e r m a l c o n t r o l coatings Hydrostatic gas bearing Star horizon automatic tracking ST -124 guidance s y s t e m r e m o v a l Zero gravity flammability ~ a b i t a b i l i t ~ l c r eq u a r t e r s w H e a t exchanger s e r v i c e Tube joining a s s e m b l i e s E l e c t r o n b e a m welding EVA h a r d w a r e evaluation A s t r o n a u t m a n e u v e r i n g equipment

Medical e x p e r i m e n t s M070 M07 1 M072 M073 M074 M090 M09 1 M092 Nutriona and m u s c u l o s k e l e t a l function M i n e r a l balance Bone d e s i t o m e t r y B i o a s s a y of body fluids Small mass measurement C a r d i o v a s c u l a r function LBNP ( l o w e r body negative p r e s s u r e ) ( p r e a n d p o s t flight) L B N P ( l o w e r body negative p r e s s u r e ) (inflight)

Vectorcardiogram Antideconditioning g a r m e n t Neurophysiology Human v e s t i b u l a r function B e h a v i o r a l effects T i m e a n d motion study P u l m o n a r y function and e n e r g y m e t a b o l i s m Metabolic a c t i v i t y Body m a s s m e a s u r e m e n t ORBITAL WORKSHOP PASSIVATION AND ACTIVATION The S-IVB s t a g e a r r i v e s i n o r b i t with s o m e r e s i d u a l p r o p e l l a n t s , a n a c t i v e r a n g e s a f e t y s y s t e m and with o t h e r potential h a z a r d s t o a s t r o n a u t s a f e t y . These

s y s t e m s m u s t be put i n a s a f e condition b e f o r e the a s t r o n a u t s c a n begin outfitting the stage. P r i o r t o the Manned s p a c e c r a f t ciocking t o t h e s p e n t s t a g e , t h e r a n g e s y s t e m w i l l b e d e a c t i v a t e d by ground c o m m a n d . Venting of p r o p e l l a n t r e s i d u a l s w i l l b e

s t a r t e d by a p r e p r o g r a m m e d , t a p e - o p e r a t e d s e q u e n c e r i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t unit. Much of the p r o p e l l a n t s w i l l b e dumped t h r o u g h t h e J - 2 engine. This exercise

w a s conducted e x p e r i m e n t a l l y during t h e Apollo 5 m i s s i o n J a n u a r y 2 2 , 1968. It w a s s u c c e s s f u l in r e d u c i n g the t a n k p r e s s u r e s and p r o p e l l a n t s . T h e liquid

oxygen t a n k w i l l b e vented a n d then t h e hydrogen t a n k p r e s s u r e w i l l b e r e l i e v e d . Other venting p r o c e s s e s i n i t i a t e d by t h e i n s t r u m e n t unit s e q u e n c e r include venting of the cold h e l i u m s p h e r e s , venting of t h e J - 2 engine s t a r t bottle a n d venting the J-2 engine c o n t r o l s p h e r e .

-13 T h r e e functions w i l l be p e r f o r m e d by the a s t r o n a u t s in the a i r l o c k a f t e r docking. T h e s e include checking the liquid hydrogen tank low p r e s s u r e

i n d i c a t o r s , second, commanding liquid hydrogen tank non propulsive venting valve c l o s e d , and commanding the passivation of the s t a g e h e l i u m c o n t r o l bottle. After a l l the operational s y s t e m s and equipment have been put in a s a f e condition, the a s t r o n a u t s w i l l begin t a s k s r e q u i r e d to make the liquid hydrogen tank a habitable workshop. Activation p r o c e d u r e s a r e planned to provide

m a x i m u m safety, economy of effort, minimum tools and minimum t i m e f o r the astronauts. As m o s t of the f e a t u r e s r e q u i r e d for habitability s u c h a s flooring, mobility a i d s , t h e r m a l s l e e v e s , f i r e r e t a r d a t i v e coating, v a r i o u s mounting and stowage p r o v i s i o n s , and protective padding, w i l l be i n s t a l l e d in the tank p r i o r to launch. T h e s e things m u s t not c o m p r o m i s e the S-IVB1s p r i m a r y function a s a flight s t a g e nor i n t e r f e r e with passivation. P r o v i s i o n s f o r monitoring conditions in

the workshop s h a l l be provided in the command module. During the initial activation p e r i o d , the a s t r o n a u t s w o r k in t h e p r e s s u r i z e d a i r l o c k anci multiple docking a d a p t e r modules. workshop. They then p r e s s u r i z e the

Once the tank i s p r e s s u r i z e d , the a s t r o n a u t s r e l e a s e the quick-

opening hatch in the f o r w a r d dome of the tank and a p r e s s u r e - s u i t e d a s t r o n a u t enters. He p e r f o r m s c e r t a i n b a s i c t a s k s s u c h a s installing redundant s e a l s

a t a l l t a n k penetrations, installing fans a t a p p r o p r i a t e locations and attaching t h e m up to the p r e - i n s t a l l e d wiring o u t l e t s , and o t h e r w i s e making the workshop suitable f o r s h i r t s l e e v e operation.

The next s t e p then i s to t r a n s p o r t to and a s s e m b l e in the workshop the s y s t e m s involved with food p r e p a r a t i o n , w a s t e management, sleeping q u a r t e r s , and finally, the various medical, scientific and technical e x p e r i m e n t s to be conducted in that a r e a . At the end of the s t a y , the crew w i l l p r e p a r e the s t a g e f o r s p a c e s t o r a g e . The AAP plans c a l l f o r the stage t o be r e v i s t e d and r e a c t i v a t e d f o r 56 days and then for another 56 days in the s o l a r o b s e r v a t o r y m i s s i o n l a s t f r o m s i x months to one y e a r . ORBITAL WORKSHOP MANUFACTURE AND TESTING F i v e v e r s i o n s of the workshop a r e now scheduled f o r a s s e m b l y o r modification. The f i r s t workshop model i s the engineering mockup built a t the McDonnell Douglas Corp. facility a t Huntington Beach, Calif. The mockup i s p r e s e n t l y Later revisits may

a t the M a r s h a l l Center and i s being used in extensive design r e v i e w s . O t h e r s a r e a n e u t r a l buoyancy t e s t a r t i c l e f o r the M a r s h a l l C e n t e r , a n e u t r a l buoyancy t r a i n e r for the Manned Spacecraft C e n t e r , a flight t r a i n e r f o r a s t r o n a u t s a t MSC and the flight v e r s i o n . Many of the o r b i t a l workshop activation t a s k s have been p e r f o r m e d in " n e u t r a l buoyancy" o r w a t e r tank t e s t s . In t h e s e t e s t s , a p r e s s u r e suited man Thus "suspended" Of c o u r s e ,

h a s weights added to h i s s u i t s o h e neither r i s e s o r sinks.

the man w o r k s in much the s a m e environment a s i n w e i g h t l e s s n e s s .

the w a t e r pushing a g a i n s t h i m tends to hinder h i s movements but the u n d e r w a t e r t e s t s a r e called the b e s t long t e r m w e i g h t l e s s n e s s simulation available on e a r t h . T h e s e underwater t e s t s t e l l design e n g i n e e r s and human f a c t o r s people how w e l l t h e i r tools and equipment can be handled i n space.

PROJECT MANAGEMENT The organizations r e s p o n s i b l e f o r directing the o r b i t a l workshop p r o j e c t a r e the Office of Manned Space Flight within NASA H e a d q u a r t e r s ; the Apollo Applications Office within OMSF a t H e a d q u a r t e r s ; and the OMSF F i e l d C e n t e r s : Kennedy Space C e n t e r , Manned Spacecraft Center and the Mar s h a l l Space F l i g h t Center. At the M a r s h a l l C e n t e r , the I n d u s t r i a l Operations Apollo Applications P r o g r a m Office i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the o v e r a l l management of the s y s t e m design and payload integration f o r the m i s sion module o r o r b i t a l workshop, development of the m i s s i o n module (workshop plus multiple docking a d a p t e r ) . The M a r s h a l l C e n t e r ' s P r o p u l s i o n and Vehicle Engineering L a b o r a t o r y i s the lead l a b o r a t o r y f o r this p r o j e c t and i s the focal point for a l l the MSFC R e s e a r c h and Development Operations (R&DO) a c t i v i t i e s . The Manned Spacecraft C e n t e r h a s management responsibility f o r the a i r l o c k module, c o m m a n d - s e r v i c e module, s p a c e c r a f t / l u n a r module a d a p t e r and ground support equipment modifications in s u p p o r t of the above e l e m e n t s . The MSC d i r e c t o r h a s delegated the operation of the p r o j e c t t o the m a n a g e r of Apollo Applications. The Apollo Applications Office a t Kennedy Space C e n t e r i s established i n the P l a n s , P r o g r a m s and R e s o u r c e s D i r e c t o r a t e . o p e r a t i o n s , including facility p r e p a r a t i o n s . KSC i s in c h a r g e of launch

M a r t i n - M a r i e t t a C o r p . , Denver Division, h a s been s e l e c t e d by NASA t o p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s in the Apollo Applications p r o g r a m . The 27-month c o n t r a c t

c a l l s f o r payload integration of e x p e r i m e n t s and e x p e r i m e n t s support equipment in s p a c e v e h i c l e s . The w o r k w i l l include m i s s i o n a n a l y s i s and s y s t e m s engineering

a s s o c i a t e d with Apollo Applications fIights in addition to integration of e x p e r i m e n t s and slipport equipment. T h e c o n t r a c t o r will p e r f o r m t a s k s f o r the t h r e e NASA manned s p a c e flight centers. P r e s e n t l y Martin Denver i s doing w o r k at the M a r s h a l l C e n t e r Manned

involving the Saturn I workshop and the Apollo Telescope Mount.

S p a c e c r a f t Center w o r k w i l l involve meteorological and e a r t h r e s o u r c e s payloads. T e s t integration planning in support f o r launch o p e r a t i o n s w i l l be p e r f o r m e d f o r the Kennedy Space C e n t e r .