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1. Mech. Phys. Solids,

1965, Vol.

13, pp. 213 to 222.

Pergamon

Press Ltd.

Printed in Cleat

Britain.

A

SELF-CONSISTENT

MECHANICS

OF

Printed in Cleat Britain. A SELF-CONSISTENT MECHANICS OF Ry R. HILL COMPOSITE MATERIALS lhzpartrncnt of Applied

Ry

R.

HILL

COMPOSITE

MATERIALS

lhzpartrncnt of Applied Nuthenlutics and Theoretical

Physics,

University

of Cambridge

and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge SUMMARY takes account of the inhomogeneity of stress and

SUMMARY

takes

account of the inhomogeneity of stress and strain in a way similar to the Hershey-Kriiner theory

of crystalline aggregates. The phases may be arbitrarily neolotropic and in any concentrations,

but are required to have the character of 8 matrix and cffcctivcly ellipsoidal inclusions. IMailed

results arc given for an isotropic dispersion of sphcrcs.

THE WACROSCOP~C elastic nloduli of two-phase composites

arc tstimated

by a method

that

of two-phase composites arc tstimated by a method that hkx~~cwoxs been restrict4 of macroscopic to stating

hkx~~cwoxs

been

restrict4

of macroscopic

to

stating

properties

universal

of two-phase

bounds

on

solid

various

composites

mostly

overall elastic moduli

have

(I-las~r~

1 C%-$; 1 O65

; HILL 1963).

Such hounds

depend

only on the relative volumes

and

do

not

reilect

any

particular

geometry,

except

when

one

phase

consists

of

continuous

aligned

fibres

(H~srrrs

and

ROSES 1964;

HILL

19(X).

HoweT-er,

when

one

phase

is a dispersion

of

ellipsoidal

inclusions,

not

necessarily

dihltc,

a much

more

direct

approach

is

availahlet.

This

is

the

self-consistent

method

of

HERSHEY

(I 054) and KWSNEIL(LX%), origirlally proposed for aggregates of crystals.

In

&at

connexion

it

has

recently

been

reviewed

and

elaborated

by

the

writer

(1065a).

 
 

The

method

draws

on

the

familiar

solution

to

an

auxiliary

elastic

prohlem,

namely

a uniformly

loaded

infinite

mass

containing

an ellipsoidal

inhomogeneityy.

In

applying

this

solution

the

properties

and

oriel~tation

of

a typical

crystal are

assigned

to the inchtsion,

and

the macroscopic

properties

of the polycrystal

to the

matrix.

For

self-consistency

the

orientation

average

of

the

inclusion

stress

or

strain

is set equal

to the

overall

stress

or strain.

The

result

is an implicit

tensor

formula

for

the macroscopic

moduli.

 
 

The

analysis

for the composite

proceeds in similar spirit but necessarily tliffcrs

in

an

important

respect

:

only

the

particulate

phase

can

reasonably

be

treated

on this footing.

However,

as is well known

(op.

cit. 1063;

5 2 (iii)),

a knowledge

of

average

stress or strain

in this one phase

sull?ces to determine

the overall properties

when

the

matrix

is

I~oinogeI~co~~s.

As

a

matter

of

fact,

not~itlistanclii~g

this

difference in viewpoint,

the

entire

analysis

is found

to

remain

strurturally

close

to that

for a crystal

aggregate

(as given

in 011.cit.

1965a,

§$ 3

and

4).

tNo

mentionof it in this context

has been traced

in the literature.

But Professor B. Budiaasky recently informed

me that he tried the npprowh in 1961; his conclusions appear elserhere

tion dates from March 1962. when prelimituiry results were given in a letter to Dr. J. D. Eshctby.

in this issue of the Journal.

213

My own invest@

214

 

It. HILL

 
 

2.

SYMBOLIC

NOTATION

 
 

For

brevity

Cartesian

tensors

of

second

order

are

denoted

simply

by

their

kernel

letter,

u say,

set

in lower

case

bold

face

as

if for

a vector.

Correspondingly,

 

their

tensor

components

are

considered

to

be

arranged

in

some

definite

sequence

as

a

9

X

1 column.

Tensors

of

fourth

order

are

denoted

by

an

ordinary

capital,

A

say,

and

are

regarded

as

9 x

9

matrices.

 

More

precisely,

the

leading

pair

of

indices

is

set

in

correspondence

with

rows,

and

the

terminal

pair

with

columns

(both

in the

chosen

sequence),

so that

the

second-order

inner

product

of tensors

-4

and

u can

be

written

as the

matrix

product

Au.

Similarly,

AR

can

stand

for

the

fourth-order

inner

product

of A

and

B.

 

We

shall

only

be

concerned

with

fourth-order

tensors

that

are

symmetric!

with

respect

to

interchange

of the

leading

pair

of

indices

and

also

of the

terminal

pair.

The

representative

matrices

are

consequently

singular,

with

rank

<

6.

Neverthe-

less,

equations

of

type

u

=

Au

are

compatible

when u and v are any symm&ric

second-order

tensors

and

matrix

A has

rank

6.

In this

sense

we can

define

a unique

inverse

A-1

as

the

solution

of

 

AA-1

=

I

or

d-1

A

=

I

where

I

is

the

suitably

symmetric

unit

tensor

 
 

Ii/k2 =

!? (&lc s/1 +

&1 &c)

 

formed

 

with

the

Kronecker

delta.

One

can

then

verify

that

 
 

A-‘u=A-‘Av=~v=v

 

as

required,

for

any

A,

u and

v with

the

stated

properties.

 
 

3.

THE

AI’XILIAKY

PROBLEM

 
 

-4 single

inclusion,

arbitrarily

ellipsoidal

in shape,

is imagined

to

be

embedded

in

a homogeneous

mass

of some

different

material.

 

The

tensors

of

elastic

moduli.

not

necessarily

isotropic,

are

denoted

by

L,

and

L,

respectively,

and

their

inverse

compliances

by

Jf,

and

~11. In

addition

to

the

symmetries

mentioned

already

in

5 2,

the

representative

matrices

have

full

diagonal

symmetry

so

that

all

cross-

moduli

 

and

compliances

are

pairwise

equal.

 
 

The

displacement

at

infinity

is prescribed

to

correspond

to

a

uniform

overall

strain

2.

Across

the

phase

interface

both

 

displacement

and

traction

are

required

to

be

continuous.

The

solution,

certainly

unique

when

the

tensors

of

moduli

are

positive

 

definite,

has

the

character

 

of

a

uniform

field

locally

perturbed

in

the

neighbourhood

of the

inclusion.

In

particular

the

overall

average,

or macroscopic.

stress

0

is

equal

to

L;i,

since

the

contribution

from

the

inclusion

is

vanishing11

small;

furthermore,

ti and

Z are

also

the

local

field

values

at

infinity.

The principal

feature

 

of

the

solution

is

that

the

inclusion

is

strained

uniformly,

 

though

not

necessarily’

coaxially

(ESHELBY

1957

;

1961).

 

This

property

prompts

t,he

introduction

of

an

overall

constraint

tensor

L*

for

the

L phase.

with

inverse

ilJ*,

in

respect

of

loading

over

the

interface

by

A self-consistent mechanics of composite materials

any distribution of traction-rate

That is, if E* is the accompanying uniform strain of the ellipsoid,

compatible

with

a uniform

field of stress,

o*

=

-

L*

2*,

l* = - M*o*.

215

u* say.

(I)

The corresponding matrices naturally have diagonal symmetry, as may be shown by Retti’s reciprocal theorem, and are functions of L or 111and the aspect ratios

of the ellipsoid.

problem follows by superimposing

with crl - 5 and l* with c1 - Z where o1 and s1 are the actual fields in the inclusion.

Then

Once L* and M*

have been determined,

the

uniform

fields

the solution

0 and

Z, and

of the auxiliary

identifying

u*

and

so

(L*

+

=1 -

6

=

L,) E1=

L*

(L*

(Z -

+

L)

q),

z,

q

-

(Al*

+

c =

M,)

At*

(a -

UJ,

a71=

(Au* +

M)

0,

(2)

(8)

which furnish the required stress and strain in the inclusion in terms of the macro- scopic quantities (HERSHEY 1954).

In

an

alternative

approach

(ESHELBY 1957), seemingly

adopted

by

all

later

writers, attention is focussed first on a certain transformation problem for an

infinite homogeneous elastic continuum with stiffness tensor L. In this, an ellipsoi- dal region would undergo a transformation strain e if free, but attains only the strain Se in situ. The components of tensor S, being dimensionless, are functions of the moduli ratios and of the aspect ratios of the ellipsoid and its orientation in the frame of reference. When L is isotropic, explicit formulae for the components on the principal axes have been given by Eshelby (op. cit.). When L is orthotropic and the transformed region is an elliptic cylinder whose axes coincide with the material axes, explicit formulae have been given by BHARGAVA and RADHAKRISHNA

(1964); when

L

has

cubic

symmetry

equivalent

results

have

also

been

given

by

WILLIS (1964).

The general

connexion

with

L*

or M*

is most

easily

obtained

by

imagining

the

transformation problem solved from the viewpoint of (1). That is, we substitute

 

E* =

Se,

u*

=

L

(c*

-

e)

in

U* =

-

L*

f*.

Then,

since

these

hold

for

all

e,

L* s = L (I-s), (I-s) nI*=s,u,

(4)

where

1

is the

unit

tensor

defined

in

$2.

These

are

equivalent

formulae

for

L*

or ill* in terms

of S.

Or they

can be put

inversely

as

 

s

=

(L*

+

L)-‘L

=

x*

(M*

+

Al)-1

for

S

in terms

of

L*

or M*.

 

Another

dimensionless

 

tensor

T,

the

dual

of S,

could

just

as well

on

this

footing.

Set

 

JI*

T

=

SM

=

P,

say,

TL=L*S=Q,

 

say,

so

that

 

iIf*

T

=

M

(I

-

T),

(I

-

T) L*

=

TL,

and

T

=

L* (L*

+

L)-’

=

(M*

+

Al)-1 M.

be admitted

(5)

>

(6)

>

216

R. HIM,

 

The significance

 

of T

is that

the

stress

U* in the

transformed

region

can

be

written

as Ts,

where

s

is

the

stress

that

would

remove

the

strain

e.

Separate

symbols

P

and

Q haI-e been

introduced

for the

products

in

(5)

since

these

appear

 

frequently

hereafter.

We

note

thr

further

connexions

 
 

PI,

-1 JfQ

-

I.

-l

 

I’

:

.lf

(I

-

2’).

y

== I4 (f

--

S),

(7)

and

P-1

=

L*

-r I,,

Q-1

=

df *

-I- Jf.

 

i

From

the

latter

pair

one

sees

that

matrices

P

and

Q have

the

diagonal

 

symmetry

stipulated

for

the

moduli

and

compliances

(while

S

and

T generally

do not).

 

This

can

of

course

also

be

established

purely

within

the

context

of

the

transformation

problem

by

means

of

Uetti’s

reciprocal

theorem.

The

interpretation

of

Q

is

that

an

ellipsoidal

cavity

in

a

medium

under

stress

QE at

infinity

 

wo111d deform

by

amount

E:

a dual

intrrprctntion

may

be

gi\-en for

1’.

 

4.

S1:I.l~'-CO~SISTl~~'~‘~IIEOILY

 
 

We

consider

statistically

homogeneous

dispersions

in

which

the

inclusions

can

be

treated,

on

average,

either

as

variously-sized

splleres

or

as

similar

ellipsoids

with

corresponding

axes

aligned?.

Each

phase

may

be

arbitrarily

anisotropic

but

every

inclusions.

is assumed

tensor

Let

the

let c1 and

clemcntnry

homogeneous

in

the

generic

respecti\-e c2 be the

relations

i/Lai2u.

Consequently,

in a common

auxiliary

problem

has

the

same

properties

be

distinguished

by

concentrations

bctwcen

the

phase

by

and

vohm~,

o\-crall

such

frame

of reference,

1

for

all

and

c2 =

2,

1.

and

components

subscripts

that

c1

of

+

phase

fractional

and

The

averages

stress

strain

arc

 
 

Cl

(ii1

-

a)

+

c2

(;iz

-

5)

=

0,

1

 

Cl

(Z1 -

Z)

+

cg (Z,

-

a)

=

0.

(*)

These

incidentally

imply

tlir

\,nnisliing

of the

n\‘crages

of the

polarization

stress

or strain

 

:

 

Cl (tT1-

G,)

$mc2(52 -

LE*) =

0,

El (Z, -

*Ifi?,)

+

c2 (Z, -

 

MO,)

:

0,

1

(9)

since

0

=

LZ and

Z =- JfO.

 

Now,

according

to

tlic

basic

postulate

of

the

 

srlf-consistent

method.

 
 

o1

-

a

=

IA* (Z -

 

q,

(10)

from

the

leading

ecjlliltioll

(2).

It

follows

alltomatically

 

from

(X)

that

 

o2

-

0

=

L*

(E -

Z,),

 

(11)

and

vice rewn.

Thus.

right

at

the

outset,

it

is evident

that

both

phases

will

enter

subsequent

formulae

on the

same

footing.

However.

this

does

not

imply

that

the

+Fibren

of

analysis

direct

elliptic

section

may

is given

rlarwlwrc

be c~rrvisagrd as R limiting (1111.r. 1!)65b).

raw

in which

one

prinripal

axis

beromes

infinite.

:\

A self-consistent mechanics of composite materials

217

matrix phase also is treated as particulate in the theory, through a kind of con- ceptual fragmentation. It simply means that the same overall moduli are predicted

for another composite in which the roles of the phases are reversed : that is, where

the first phase fortis

inclusions shaped and oriented as before, both in their original concentrations.

a coherent

matrix

and

the

second

phase

is distributed

as

It is also obvious

that

either

of (8) would

imply

the other,

and

then

(9),

if both

(10) and (11)were postulated. This, indeed. is the standpoint in the polycrystal theory, where an equation corresponding to (2) is assumed for grains of all orienta- tions. But, as already remarked, such an a priori standpoint for a dispersion would

seem unconvincing. Equations (10)and (ll), re-arranged as

which

may

as

well

now

be

taken

together,

can

be

 

(L*

+

L,)

2,

=

(L*

$- L,)

5, =

(L*

+

L)

z

or

dually

as

 

(AU* +

31,)

Q1 =

(Ill*

+

-11,) Gz =7 (111* +

ill) Cr

 

1

as

in

(3).

Combining

these

with

(8)

yields

a pair

of

equivalent

formulae

for

overall

stiffness

and

compliance

tensors

L

and

Jf

:

 

Cl

(L*

+

L,)-1

+

c* (L*

 

+

L,)-1

=

(L*

+

L)-1

=

 

I’,

Q. 1

 

rl (Al*

+

111,)-l

+

r2 (Jf*

+

;II,)-’

=

(*II*

+

N-1

:-

Since the constraint

tensor

L*

and

its

inverse

&II* are

themselves

functions

L and AI, these formulae

are

actually

quite

complex.

 

Variants

obtainable

 

the help

of the last pair

in

(7)

are

 
 

c,

[(L,

-

L)-1

+

PI-1

+

c-2 [(L,

-

L)-’

+

PI-’

=

0.

1

 

c1 [(M,

-

ill)-’

+

Q]-’

+

c2 [(ill,

-

M-1

+

e]-1

=

0,

(12)

the

(13)

of

with

(14)

which

are essentially

in the form

(9).

An

inversion

immediately

 

Cl

(L

-

L,)-1

+

c2

(L

--

45,)-l =

P.

c,

(Ill

-

Jf,)-1

+

c-2 (flf

-

*If,)-’

=

Q,

which

seem

to be the simplest

obtainable,

superficially

at least.

produces

1

(15)

Finally,

we

can

read

off

from

(12)

the

phase

concentration-factor

tensors,

A,

and

A,

for

strain,

B,

and

B,

for

stress,

which

are defined

bj

 

A,-1

z,

=

A,-’

z,

=

z,

B,-1

ii1

=

B,-l

OS =

o.

Thus

:

 

f/-l

=

P

(L*

+

L,)

 

=

f

+

P

(L,

-

L),

A,-1

=

P

(L*

+

L*)

=

f

i-

P

(L,

-

L),

f&-l

=

Q (M*

+

Jfl)

=

f

+

Q (iif,

 

-

N),

f&-l

=

Q (Jf*

+

Jf,)

=

f

f

Q (Jf,

-

ill).

Equations

(13)

are of

course

an expression

 

of

the basic

connexions

 
 

c1 A,

+

C2A,

=

I

=

C1II,

-t C2II,.

 

218

When

the dispersion

is dihlte,

IX.HILL

with

cr small,

(14)

reduces

to

L

-

L,

=

Cl (L,

-

L,)

[I

+

p,

(L,

-

&)I-‘,

M

-

M,

2:

c1 (M,

-

M,)

[I

+

Q2 (M,

 

-

A&)]-‘,

(16)

correct

to

first

order.

These

can

alternatively

be

obtained

(HILL 1962, 5 7) by

substituting

the

zeroth

order

approximation

for

the

concentration

factors

in

 

L

-

L,

=

c, (L,

-

L,) A,,

M

-

M,

=

Cl (W,

-

M,) R,,

which

are

exact

relations.

 

5. ISOTROPIC DISPERSION OF SPHERES

Suppose

that

the

inclusions

are spheres

distributed

in any

way

such

that

the

composite

is statistically

isotropic

overall.

The

first

equation

(15)then reduces

to

a pair

of scalar

formulae

for

the bulk

and

shear

moduli,

K and

p

:

(17)

where

X=3--/?=K/(K+$&

(18)

(19)

The

of Eshelby’s

dimensionless

quantities

a and

in the auxiliary

S tensor

/3 are those

problem

that

appear

in the

specific

form 3 4 (ii))

for a sphere

(cf. HILL 1965a,

:

After

substituting

for

CL,(17)

can

be

solved

for

K parametrically

in terms

of

t.~,for

instance

in the

form

in terms of t.~,for instance in the form It is noteworthy that this is identical with

It is noteworthy that this is identical with the known exact solution for composites

with arbitrary geometry, when the phases have equal shear moduli (HILL 1963, § 4; 1964,$6),and also with the solution for a spherical composite element whose

shell

has

rigidity

p.

To

discuss

(18)in general

 

terms

one may

retain

/l as a parameter

 

in view

of its

restricted range, namely

 
 

8

<

fl

<

1

When

K,

p

>

0.

Then,

clearing

fractions,

 
 

(1

-

P) CL2+

(P

(P1

 

+

PZ) -

(c1 IL1 +

c2

P2)) CL -

B Pl Pz =

0.

The

left

side

is found

to

be positive

or negative

respectively

when

p

is put

equal

in turn

to the

so-called

Voigt

and

Reuss

estimates

 

:

when p is put equal in turn to the so-called Voigt and Reuss estimates   :
 

A self-consistent mechanics of composite materials

 

219

Consequently,

the

required

root

lies

between

these

limits.

It

follows

that

K is

certainly

in

the

interval

obtained

by

substituting

~LB and

fir

in

the

monotonic

relation

(20),

and

hence

a fortiori

between

the

rigorous

best-possible

bounds for

arbitrary

geometry,

which

are

known

to

correspond

to

pL1and

p2 in

(20)

(HILL

1963,

5 5).

These

are further

satisfactory

features

of

the

theory.

 

To

derive

the

explicit

equation

for

p

in

its

most

convenient

form,

however,

we express

both

sides of the first of (19)

in terms

of (Lwith

the help of (18)

and (20).

The

result

is

 

Cl

KI

+

-+- Cl Pz

 

c2

Pl

+2=0.

 

(21)

 

Kl ++cL

 

P

-

I*2

 

CL -

 

Pl

[This

could

be

multiplied

out

as a quartic

but

is far

better

left

as it stands

 

for

iterative

or graphical

solution,

 

by

tabulating

ci

or

c2 as

a function

of

TVbetween

PI and

p2].

As

to increases

from

0

to

co,

the

first

bracketed

 

function

decreases

monotonically

to

zero

from

1

if

pi

~~ #

0,

from

c1

if

~~ =

0,

from

c2 if

or

=

0,

and

vanishes

if both

pi and

K2

are 0.

If

pi

p2 #

0, with

p1

>

cl2 say,

the second

bracketed

function

decreases

monotonically

from

-

1

to

-

00

in

the

range

(0, p2);

from

+

 

co to

-

co in

(p2, pl),

with

values

6 and

-

1

at

tan and

PV;

and

from

+

co to

o

in (pi,

co).

confirmed

again,

provided

neither

phase

rigidity

vanishes,

that

there

It is thereby is precisely

one positive

root

and

that

it lies between

the

Reuss

and

Voigt

estimates.

 
 

This

root

can

be

stated

explicitly

when

the

dispersion

is

dilute.

Thus,

if

ci

Q

1,

we

find

p

z

p2 (1

-+

A ci)

where

 

1

CL1

-= (2