1. Mech. Phys. Solids,
1965, Vol.
13, pp. 213 to 222.
Pergamon
Press Ltd.
Printed in Cleat
Britain.
A
SELFCONSISTENT
MECHANICS
OF
Ry
R.
HILL
COMPOSITE
MATERIALS
lhzpartrncnt of Applied Nuthenlutics and Theoretical
Physics,
University
of Cambridge
SUMMARY
takes
account of the inhomogeneity of stress and strain in a way similar to the HersheyKriiner theory
of crystalline aggregates. The phases may be arbitrarily neolotropic and in any concentrations,
but are required to have the character of 8 matrix and cffcctivcly ellipsoidal inclusions. IMailed
results arc given for an isotropic dispersion of sphcrcs.
THE WACROSCOP~C elastic nloduli of twophase composites
arc tstimated
by a method
that
hkx~~cwoxs
been
restrict4
of macroscopic
to
stating
properties
universal
of twophase
bounds
on
solid
various
composites
mostly
overall elastic moduli
have
_{(}_{I}_{}_{l}_{a}_{s}_{~}_{r}_{~} _{1} _{C}_{%}_{}_{$}_{;} _{1} _{O}_{6}_{5} _{;} _{H}_{I}_{L}_{L} _{1}_{9}_{6}_{3}_{)}_{.} Such hounds depend only on the relative volumes 

and 
do not 
reilect 
any 
particular 
geometry, except when 
one 
phase consists of 
continuous 
aligned 
fibres 
(H~srrrs 
and ROSES 1964; HILL 
19(X). 
HoweTer, when 

one 
phase 
is a dispersion 
of ellipsoidal inclusions, not necessarily 
dihltc, a much 
more
direct
approach
is
availahlet.
This
is
the
‘ selfconsistent
method
’
of
HERSHEY
(I 054) and KWSNEIL(LX%), origirlally proposed for aggregates of crystals.
In 
&at 
connexion 
it 
has 
recently 
been 
reviewed 
and 
elaborated 
by 
the 
writer 

(1065a). 

The 
method draws 
on 
the familiar 
solution 
to 
an 
auxiliary 
elastic 
prohlem, 

namely 
a uniformly 
loaded 
infinite 
mass 
containing 
an ellipsoidal 
inhomogeneityy. 
In 
applying 
this 
solution 
the 
properties 
and oriel~tation 
of a typical crystal are 

assigned 
to the inchtsion, 
and 
the macroscopic properties 
of the polycrystal to the 

matrix. 
For 
selfconsistency 
the 
orientation average 
of 
the 
inclusion stress 
or 

strain is set equal 
to the 
overall 
stress or strain. 
The result is an implicit tensor 

formula 
for 
the macroscopic 
moduli. 

The analysis for the composite 
proceeds in similar spirit but necessarily tliffcrs 
in 
an 
important 
respect 
: 
only 
the particulate 
phase can reasonably 
be treated 

on this footing. 
However, 
as is well known 
(op. cit. 1063; 5 2 (iii)), a knowledge 
of 
average
stress or strain
in this one phase
sull?ces to determine
the overall properties
when 
the 
matrix 
is I~oinogeI~co~~s. 
As 
a matter 
of 
fact, not~itlistanclii~g 
this 

difference in viewpoint, 
the 
entire analysis 
is found 
to remain strurturally 
close 

to that for a crystal 
aggregate 
(as given in 011.cit. 1965a, §$ 3 and 
4). 

tNo 
mentionof it in this context 
has been traced 
in the literature. But Professor B. Budiaasky recently informed 
me that he tried the npprowh in 1961; his conclusions appear elserhere
tion dates from March 1962. when prelimituiry results were given in a letter to Dr. J. D. Eshctby.
in this issue of the Journal.
213
My own invest@
214 
It. HILL 

2. 
SYMBOLIC 
NOTATION 

For 
brevity Cartesian 
tensors 
of 
second 
order are denoted simply 
by their 

kernel 
letter, u say, 
set in lower 
case 
bold face 
as 
if for a vector. 
Correspondingly, 

their 
tensor components are 
considered 
to 
be 
arranged in 
some definite 
sequence 

as 
a 
9 
X 
1 column. 
Tensors 
of 
fourth 
order 
are 
denoted 
by 
an ordinary 
capital, 

A 
say, 
and are regarded 
as 
9 x 
9 matrices. 
_{M}_{o}_{r}_{e} _{p}_{r}_{e}_{c}_{i}_{s}_{e}_{l}_{y}_{,} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} 
_{p}_{a}_{i}_{r} 
_{o}_{f} 

indices 
is 
set in 
correspondence 
with 
rows, 
_{a}_{n}_{d} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} _{t}_{e}_{r}_{m}_{i}_{n}_{a}_{l} 
_{p}_{a}_{i}_{r} 
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} 
_{c}_{o}_{l}_{u}_{m}_{n}_{s} 

(both 
in the chosen 
sequence), 
so that 
the secondorder inner product 
of tensors 
4 

and u can 
be written 
as the 
matrix product 
Au. 
_{S}_{i}_{m}_{i}_{l}_{a}_{r}_{l}_{y}_{,} 
_{A}_{R} _{c}_{a}_{n} 
_{s}_{t}_{a}_{n}_{d} 
_{f}_{o}_{r} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} 

fourthorder inner 
product 
of A 
and 
B. 

We 
shall only 
be 
concerned with fourthorder 
tensors 
that 
are symmetric! with 
respect
to
interchange
of the
leading
pair
of
indices
and
also
of the
terminal
pair.
The 
representative 
matrices 
are 
consequently 
singular, 
with 
rank 
< 
6. 
Neverthe 

less, 
equations 
of 
type u 
= 
Au 
are 
compatible 
when u and v are any symm&ric 

secondorder 
tensors and 
matrix 
A has 
rank 
6. 
In this 
sense we can define a unique 

inverse 
A1 
as 
the 
solution 
of 

AA1 = 
I 
or 
d1 
A 
= 
I 

where 
I 
is 
the 
suitably 
symmetric 
‘ unit 
’ tensor 

Ii/k2 = 
!? (&lc s/1 + 
&1 &c) 

formed 
with the 
Kronecker 
delta. 
One 
can then 
verify 
that 

A‘u=A‘Av=~v=v 

as 
required, 
for 
any A, u and 
v with 
the 
stated 
properties. 

3. 
THE 
AI’XILIAKY 
PROBLEM 

4 single 
inclusion, arbitrarily 
ellipsoidal 
in shape, 
is imagined 
to 
be 
embedded 

in 
a homogeneous 
mass of some 
different 
material. 
The 
tensors 
of elastic moduli. 

not 
necessarily 
isotropic, 
are 
denoted 
by 
L, 
and 
L, respectively, 
and 
their inverse 

compliances 
by 
Jf, 
and 
~11. In 
addition 
to the 
symmetries 
mentioned 
already 
in 

5 2, 
the 
representative matrices 
have 
full 
diagonal 
symmetry 
so that 
all 
cross 

moduli 
and 
compliances 
are 
pairwise 
equal. 

The 
displacement at 
infinity 
is prescribed 
to 
correspond 
to 
a uniform overall 

_{s}_{t}_{r}_{a}_{i}_{n} 
_{2}_{.} 
Across the phase interface 
both 
displacement and 
traction 
are required 

to 
be 
continuous. 
The solution, 
certainly 
unique 
when the 
tensors 
of 
moduli 
are 

positive 
definite, 
has the 
character 
of 
a 
uniform field 
locally 
perturbed 
in 
the 

_{n}_{e}_{i}_{g}_{h}_{b}_{o}_{u}_{r}_{h}_{o}_{o}_{d} 
_{o}_{f} _{t}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{c}_{l}_{u}_{s}_{i}_{o}_{n}_{.} 
In 
particular 
the 
overall 
average, 
or macroscopic. 

stress 
0 
is 
equal 
to L;i, 
since 
the 
contribution 
from 
the 
inclusion 
is 
vanishing11 

small; 
furthermore, 
ti and 
Z are 
also 
the local field 
values 
at infinity. 
The principal 

feature 
of 
the 
solution 
is that 
the 
inclusion 
is 
strained 
uniformly, 
though 
not 
necessarily’
coaxially
(ESHELBY
1957
;
1961).
This 
property 
prompts 
t,he 
introduction 
of 
an 
‘ overall constraint 
’ tensor 

_{L}_{*} 
_{f}_{o}_{r} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} 
_{L} _{p}_{h}_{a}_{s}_{e}_{.} 
_{w}_{i}_{t}_{h} 
_{i}_{n}_{v}_{e}_{r}_{s}_{e} 
_{i}_{l}_{J}_{*}_{,} 
in respect 
of 
loading over 
the interface 
by 
A selfconsistent mechanics of composite materials
any distribution of tractionrate
That is, if E* is the accompanying uniform strain of the ellipsoid,
compatible
with
a uniform
field of stress,
o*
=

L*
2*,
l* =  M*o*.
215
u* say.
_{(}_{I}_{)}
The corresponding matrices naturally have diagonal symmetry, as may be shown by Retti’s reciprocal theorem, and are functions of L or 111and the aspect ratios
of the ellipsoid.
problem follows by superimposing
with crl  5 and l* with c1  Z where o1 and s1 are the actual fields in the inclusion.
Then
Once L* and M*
have been determined,
the
uniform
fields
the solution
0 and
Z, and
of the auxiliary
identifying
u*
and
so
_{(}_{L}_{*}
_{+}
_{=}_{1} _{}
_{6}
_{=}
_{L}_{,}_{)} _{E}_{1}_{=}
_{L}_{*}
_{(}_{L}_{*}
_{(}_{Z} _{}
_{+}
_{L}_{)}
_{q}_{)}_{,}
_{z}_{,}
q

(Al*
+
c =
M,)
At*
(a 
UJ,
a71=
(Au* +
M)
0,
_{(}_{2}_{)}
_{(}_{8}_{)}
which furnish the required stress and strain in the inclusion in terms of the macro scopic quantities (HERSHEY 1954).
In
an
alternative
approach
(ESHELBY 1957), seemingly
adopted
by
all
later
writers, attention is focussed first on a certain transformation problem for an
infinite homogeneous elastic continuum with stiffness tensor L. In this, an ellipsoi dal region would undergo a transformation strain e if free, but attains only the strain Se in situ. The components of tensor S, being dimensionless, are functions of the moduli ratios and of the aspect ratios of the ellipsoid and its orientation in the frame of reference. When L is isotropic, explicit formulae for the components on the principal axes have been given by Eshelby (op. cit.). When L is orthotropic and the transformed region is an elliptic cylinder whose axes coincide with the material axes, explicit formulae have been given by BHARGAVA and RADHAKRISHNA
(1964); when 
L 
has 
cubic 
symmetry equivalent 
results 
have also 
been 
given 
by 

WILLIS (1964). 

The general 
connexion 
with 
L* or M* 
is most 
easily 
obtained 
by 
imagining 
the 
transformation problem solved from the viewpoint of (1). That is, we substitute
E* = 
Se, 
u* 
= 
L 
(c* 
 
e) 
in 
U* = 
 
L* 
f*. 

Then, 
since 
these 
hold 
for 
all 
e, 
_{L}_{*} _{s} _{=} _{L} _{(}_{I}_{}_{s}_{)}_{,} (Is) nI*=s,u,
_{(}_{4}_{)}
where 
1 
is the 
unit 
tensor 
defined 
in 
$2. 
These 
are 
equivalent 
formulae 
for 
L* 

or ill* in terms 
of S. 
Or they can be put 
inversely 
as 

s 
= 
(L* 
+ L)‘L 
= 
x* (M* 
+ 
Al)1 
for 
S in terms 
of 
L* or M*. 

Another dimensionless 
tensor 
T, 
the 
dual 
of S, could 
just 
as well 

on 
this footing. 
Set 

JI* 
T 
= 
SM = 
P, 
say, 

TL=L*S=Q, 
say, 

so 
that 

iIf* 
T 
= 
M 
(I 
 
T), (I 
 
T) L* 
= 
TL, 

and 
T 
= 
L* (L* 
+ 
L)’ 
= 
(M* 
+ 
Al)1 M. 
be admitted
(5)
>
(6)
_{>}
216 
R. HIM, 

The significance 
of T 
is that 
the 
stress 
U* _{i}_{n} _{t}_{h}_{e} 
_{t}_{r}_{a}_{n}_{s}_{f}_{o}_{r}_{m}_{e}_{d} 
_{r}_{e}_{g}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
_{c}_{a}_{n} 
_{b}_{e} _{w}_{r}_{i}_{t}_{t}_{e}_{n} 

as Ts, 
where 
s 
is 
the 
stress 
that would remove 
the strain e. 
_{S}_{e}_{p}_{a}_{r}_{a}_{t}_{e} 
_{s}_{y}_{m}_{b}_{o}_{l}_{s} 

P and 
Q haIe been 
introduced 
for the products 
in 
(5) 
since 
these 
appear 
frequently 

hereafter. 
We 
note 
thr further 
connexions 

PI, 
1 JfQ 
 
I. 
_{}_{l} 

I’ 
: 
.lf 
(I 
 
2’). 
y 
== I4 (f  
S), 
(7) 

and 
P1 
= 
L* 
r I,, 
Q1 
= 
df * I Jf. 
_{i} 

From 
the 
latter 
pair one sees 
that matrices 
P 
and Q have 
the 
diagonal 
symmetry 

stipulated 
for 
the moduli and 
compliances 
(while 
S 
and T generally 
do not). 
This 

can 
of 
course 
also 
be 
established 
purely within 
the 
context 
of 
the 
transformation 

problem 
by means 
of 
Uetti’s 
reciprocal 
theorem. 
_{T}_{h}_{e} _{i}_{n}_{t}_{e}_{r}_{p}_{r}_{e}_{t}_{a}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{n} 
_{o}_{f} 
_{Q} 
_{i}_{s} 
_{t}_{h}_{a}_{t} 
an 
ellipsoidal 
cavity 
in 
a 
medium under 
stress QE at 
infinity 
wo111d deform 
by 

amount E: 
a dual intrrprctntion may 
be gi\en for 
1’. 

_{4}_{.} 
S1:I.l~'CO~SISTl~~'~‘~IIEOILY 

We consider statistically 
homogeneous 
dispersions 
in which 
the inclusions 
can 

be 
treated, 
on average, 
either as variouslysized 
splleres 
or 
as 
similar ellipsoids 

with corresponding 
axes 
aligned?. 
Each 
phase 
may 
be 
arbitrarily anisotropic 
but
every
inclusions.
is assumed
tensor
Let
the
let c1 and
clemcntnry
homogeneous
in
the
generic
respecti\e c2 be the
relations
i/Lai2u. 
Consequently, 
in a common 

auxiliary 
problem 
has 
the 
same 
properties be distinguished 
by 
concentrations
bctwcen
the
phase
by
and
vohm~,
o\crall
such
frame
of reference,
1
for
all
and
c2 =
2,
1.
and
components
subscripts
that
c1
of
+
phase
fractional
and
The
averages
stress
strain 
arc 

Cl 
(ii1 
 
a) 
+ 
c2 
(;iz 
 
5) 
= 
0, 
1 

Cl 
(Z1  
Z) 
+ 
cg (Z,  
a) 
= 
0. 
(*) 

These 
incidentally imply 
tlir 
\,nnisliing 
of the 
n\‘crages of the ‘ polarization ’ stress 

or strain 
: 

Cl (tT1 
G,) 
$mc2(52  
LE*) = 
0, 

El (Z,  
*Ifi?,) 
+ 
c2 (Z,  
MO,) 
: 
0, 
1 
(9) 

since 
0 
= 
LZ and Z = JfO. 

Now, 
according 
to tlic basic 
postulate 
of 
the 
srlfconsistent method. 

o1 
 
a 
= 
IA* (Z  
q, 
_{(}_{1}_{0}_{)} 

_{f}_{r}_{o}_{m} 
_{t}_{h}_{e} 
_{l}_{e}_{a}_{d}_{i}_{n}_{g} _{e}_{c}_{j}_{l}_{l}_{i}_{l}_{t}_{i}_{o}_{l}_{l} 
_{(}_{2}_{)}_{.} 
It 
follows alltomatically 
from (X) 
that 

o2 
 
0 
= 
L* 
(E  
Z,), 
_{(}_{1}_{1}_{)} 

and 
vice rewn. Thus. 
right at 
the 
outset, it 
is evident 
that both phases will enter 

subsequent 
formulae 
on the same footing. 
However. 
this 
does not 
imply that 
the 
+Fibren
of
analysis
direct
elliptic
section
may
is given
rlarwlwrc
be c~rrvisagrd as R limiting (1111.r. 1!)65b).
raw
in which
one
prinripal
axis
beromes
infinite.
:\
A selfconsistent mechanics of composite materials
_{2}_{1}_{7}
matrix phase also is treated as particulate in the theory, through a kind of con ceptual fragmentation. It simply means that the same overall moduli are predicted
for another composite in which the roles of the phases are reversed : that is, where
the first phase fortis
inclusions shaped and oriented as before, both in their original concentrations.
a coherent
matrix
and
the
second
phase
is distributed
as
It is also obvious
that
either
of (8) would
imply
the other,
and
then
(9),
if both
(10) and (11)were postulated. This, indeed. is the standpoint in the polycrystal theory, where an equation corresponding to (2) is assumed for grains of all orienta tions. But, as already remarked, such an a priori standpoint for a dispersion would
seem unconvincing. Equations (10)and (ll), rearranged as
which
may
as
well
now
be
taken
together,
can
be
(L* 
+ 
L,) 
2, = 
(L* 
$ L,) 5, = 
(L* 
+ 
L) 
z 

or 
dually 
as 

(AU* + 
31,) Q1 = (Ill* 
+ 
11,) Gz =7 (111* + ill) Cr 
_{1} 

as 
in 
(3). 
Combining 
these 
with 
(8) 
yields 
a pair 
of 
equivalent 
formulae 
for 

overall 
stiffness 
and 
compliance 
tensors 
L 
and Jf 
: 

Cl 
(L* 
+ 
L,)1 
+ c* (L* 
+ 
L,)1 = 
(L* 
+ 
L)1 = 
I’, 
Q. 1 

rl (Al* 
+ 
111,)l + 
r2 (Jf* 
+ 
;II,)’ 
= (*II* + 
N1 
: 

Since the constraint 
tensor 
L* 
and 
its 
inverse 
&II* are themselves functions 

L and AI, these formulae 
are actually 
quite complex. 
Variants 
obtainable 

the help of the last pair 
in 
(7) are 

c, 
[(L, 
 
L)1 
+ PI1 
+ 
c2 [(L,  
L)’ 
+ 
PI’ 
= 
0. 
1 

c1 [(M, 
 
ill)’ 
+ 
Q]’ 
+ 
c2 [(ill,  
M1 
+ 
e]1 
= 
0, 
_{(}_{1}_{2}_{)}
the
^{(}^{1}^{3}^{)}
of
with
(14)
which 
are essentially 
in the form 
(9). 
An inversion immediately 

Cl 
(L 
 
L,)1 
+ 
c2 
(L 
 
45,)l = 
P. 

c, 
(Ill 
 
Jf,)1 
+ 
c2 (flf 
 
*If,)’ 
= 
_{Q}_{,} 

which 
seem to be the simplest 
obtainable, 
superficially 
at least. 
produces
1
(15)
Finally, 
we 
can 
read 
off 
from 
(12) 
the 
phase 
‘ concentrationfactor ’ tensors, 

A, and 
A, 
for 
strain, 
B, 
and 
B, 
for 
stress, 
which 
are defined 
bj 

A,1 
z, 
= 
A,’ 
z, 
= 
z, 
B,1 
ii1 
= 
B,l 
OS = 
o. 

Thus 
: 

f/l 
= 
P 
(L* 
+ 
L,) 
_{=} 
_{f} 
_{+} 
_{P} 
_{(}_{L}_{,} 
_{} 
_{L}_{)}_{,} 

A,1 
= 
P 
(L* 
+ 
L*) 
_{=} 
_{f} 
_{i}_{} 
_{P} 
_{(}_{L}_{,} 
_{} 
_{L}_{)}_{,} 

f&l 
= 
Q (M* 
+ 
Jfl) 
= 
f 
+ 
Q (iif, 
 
N), 

f&l 
= 
Q (Jf* 
+ 
Jf,) 
= 
f 
f 
Q (Jf, 
 
ill). 

Equations 
(13) 
are of 
course 
an expression 
of 
the basic 
connexions 

c1 A, 
+ 
C2A, 
= 
I 
= 
C1II, 
t C2II,. 
218
When
the dispersion
is dihlte,
IX.HILL
with
cr small,
(14)
reduces
to
L 
 
L, 
= 
Cl (L, 
 
L,) 
[I 
+ 
p, 
(L, 
 
&)I‘, 

M 
 
M, 
2: 
c1 (M, 
 
M,) 
[I 
+ 
Q2 (M, 
 
A&)]‘, 
^{(}^{1}^{6}^{)} 
correct 
to 
first 
order. 
These 
can alternatively 
be 
obtained 
(HILL 1962, 5 7) by 

substituting 
the 
zeroth 
order 
approximation 
for 
the concentration 
factors 
in 

L 
 
L, 
= c, (L, 
 
L,) A,, 
M 
 
M, 
= 
Cl (W, 
 
M,) R,, 

which 
are 
exact 
relations. 
5. ISOTROPIC DISPERSION OF SPHERES
Suppose 
that 
the inclusions are spheres 
distributed 
in any 
way 
such 
that 
the 

composite 
is statistically isotropic 
overall. 
The 
first 
equation 
(15)then reduces 
to
a pair
of scalar
formulae
for
the bulk
and
shear
moduli,
K and
p
:
(17)
where
X=3/?=K/(K+$&
(18)
_{(}_{1}_{9}_{)}
The
of Eshelby’s
dimensionless
quantities
a and
in the auxiliary
S tensor
/3 are those
problem
that
appear
in the
specific
form 3 4 (ii))
for a sphere
(cf. HILL 1965a,
:
After substituting 
for 
CL,(17) 
can 
be 
solved 
for 
K parametrically 
in terms 
of 

t.~,for instance 
in the 
form 
It is noteworthy that this is identical with the known exact solution for composites
with arbitrary geometry, when the phases have equal shear moduli (HILL 1963, § 4; 1964,$6),and also with the solution for a spherical composite element whose
shell
has
rigidity
p.
To discuss 
(18)in general 
terms 
one may retain /l as a parameter 
in view 
of its 

restricted range, namely 

8 
< 
fl 
< 
1 When 
K, 
p 
> 
0. 

Then, clearing 
fractions, 

(1 
 
P) CL2+ 
(P (P1 
+ 
PZ)  
(c1 IL1 + 
c2 
P2)) CL  
B Pl Pz = 
0. 

The left 
side 
is found 
to 
be positive 
or negative 
respectively 
when 
p 
is put 
equal 

in turn 
to the 
socalled 
Voigt 
and 
Reuss estimates 
: 
A selfconsistent mechanics of composite materials 
_{2}_{1}_{9} 

Consequently, 
the 
required root lies 
between 
these limits. It 
follows 
that 
K is 

certainly in 
the interval 
obtained by 
substituting ~LB and fir 
in 
the 
monotonic 

relation (20), 
and 
hence 
a fortiori between 
the 
rigorous 
bestpossible 
bounds for 

arbitrary geometry, 
which 
are known 
to 
correspond 
to 
pL1and p2 in 
(20) 
(HILL 

1963, 
5 5). These 
are further satisfactory 
features of 
the 
theory. 

To 
derive 
the 
explicit 
equation for 
p 
in 
its 
most 
convenient 
form, 
however, 

we express both sides of the first of (19) 
in terms 
of (Lwith 
the help of (18) and (20). 
The 
result 
is 

Cl 
KI 
+ 
+ Cl Pz 
c2 
Pl 
+2=0. 
_{(}_{2}_{1}_{)} 

Kl ++cL 
P 
 I*2 
CL  
Pl 

[This 
could 
be 
multiplied out 
as a quartic 
but 
is far 
better 
left 
as it stands 
for 

iterative 
or graphical solution, 
by 
tabulating 
ci 
or 
c2 as 
a function 
of 
TVbetween 

_{P}_{I} _{a}_{n}_{d} 
_{p}_{2}_{]}_{.} 
_{A}_{s} 
_{t}_{o} increases 
from 
0 
to co, 
the 
first 
bracketed 
function 
decreases 

monotonically 
to zero 
from 
1 
if 
pi 
~~ # 
0, 
from 
c1 
if 
~~ = 
0, 
from 
c2 if or 
= 
0, 

and 
vanishes if both pi and 
K2 
are 0. If 
pi 
p2 # 
0, with 
p1 
> 
cl2 say, 
the second 

bracketed 
function 
decreases 
monotonically 
from 
 
1 
to 
 
00 
in 
the range 

(0, p2); 
from + 
co to 
 
co in 
(p2, pl), with 
values 
6 and 
 
1 
at 
tan and PV; 
and 

from 
+ 
co to 
o 
in (pi, 
co). 
confirmed 
again, 
provided 
neither phase 

rigidity 
vanishes, 
that 
there It is thereby is precisely one positive 
root 
and 
that it lies between 

the 
Reuss 
and 
Voigt 
estimates. 
This 
root can 
be 
stated 
explicitly 
when the 
dispersion 
is 
dilute. 
Thus, 
if 

ci 
Q 
1, 
we find 
p 
z 
p2 (1 
+ A ci) where 

1 

CL1 = (2 
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