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1.

1 Introduction to functions

Calculus
Study Guides
13.
Input

1.1.1 and 1.1.2 Relations and functions


Determine if each of the following relations is a
function or just a relationship and justify your
answer. Write down its domain and range.

{(2, 5),(3, 6),(4, 2),(5, 5),(3, 2)}


2. {(4, 3),(5, 3),(6, 3),(7, 3),(8, 3)}
3. {(1, 2),(2, 4),(5, 3),(1, 3),(2, 2)}
4. {(0, 1),(1, 2),(3, 3),(4, 4),(5, 5)}
5. {(4, 5),(4, 2),(4, 1),(4, 3),(4, 0)}
6. {(0, 0),(1,1),(2, 4),(1,1),(2, 4)}
7. {(3,1),(3, 2),(4, 3),(4, 4),(5, 5)}
8. {(1, 0),(1, 2),(1, 3),(2, 4),(3, 6)}
9. {(1, 1),(2, 2),(3, 3),(4, 4),(5, 5)}
10. {(0, 0),(0,1),(0, 2),(0, 3),(0, 4)}

a. 0

b. 1

c. 2

d. 4

e. 6
Determine if the following relationships are also
functions.
12.

Output -8 -1 0

14.

1.

11. Which of the following numbers can you


choose as the value of a in the following
function:
f = {(2, 1),(1, 1),(6, 0),(0, 3),(a, 4)}

-2 -1 0

Input

10

7 10

Output

12 15

In the following exercises: Which set(s) of


ordered pairs represent(s) function(s) from A to
B? Explain.
15. A = {0,1, 2, 3} and B = {2, 1, 0,1, 2}
a. {(0,1),(1, 2),(2, 0),(3, 2)}
b. {(0, 1),(2, 2),(1, 2),(3, 0),(1,1)}
c. {(0, 0),(1, 0),(2, 0),(3, 0)}
d. {(0, 2),(3, 0),(1,1)}
16. A = {a,b,c} and B = {0,1, 2, 3}
a. {(a,1),(c, 2),(c, 3),(b, 3)}
b. {(a,1),(b, 2),(c, 3)}
c. {(1, a),(0, a),(2, c),(3, b)}
d. {(c, 0),(b, 0),(a, 3)}
Determine which of these equations could
represent y as a function of x.
17. x 2 + y 2 = 4
18. x 2 + y = 4
19. x = y 2
20. x + y 2 = 4
21. ( x 2 )2 + y 2 = 4
22. y = x + 5
23. y = 4 x
1

24. y = 4 x
25. x + y 3 = 27
26. xy 5y = 3
Determine if each of the following relations are
also functions. Justify your answer.
27.
28.

1.1.3 and 1.1.4 Domain and Range


Determine if each of the following relations is a
function, and write down its domain and range.
Justify your answer
1.

2.

29.

30.
3.

31.

32.

33.

34.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

1.1 Introduction to functions

9.

18.

10.
Domain and ranges can be expressed in three
different ways:
a) Interval: [ 2 , )
b) Set: { x x 2}

11.

c ) Graph:

12.

Find two different ways of expressing the


following, given that:
19.Interval: (2, 5]
20.Set: { x 2 x 5}
21.Graph:

13.

-2

22.Interval: (, 4]
23.Set: { x 0 x < 10}
24.Graph:

14.

25.Interval: [ 2 , )

26.Set: x x 17

15.
Using technology, find the domain of the
following functions.
27. f (x) = 5x 2 + 2x 1
28. g(x) = 1 2x 2

16.

29. h(t) =
30. s( p) =
17.

5
t
3p
p+5

31. g(y) = y 10
32. f (t) = 3 t + 4

1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

33. f (x) = 4 1 x 2

1.1.5 Ways of Representing Functions

10
x 2x
1
3
35. g(x) =
x x+2

Choose the correct answer:


1. Arthur heated a 5-liter oil container during 20
minutes. The data of temperature (C) and
time (min) are represented in the following
graph.

34. h(x) =

36. f (s) =

s 1
s4

Which is the temperature of the oil after 12 min?


a) -68
b)-28
c) 28
d) 68
2. Observe the following graph.

Of all the human activities, the burning of fossil


fuels and the deforestation process contribute the
most to the increasing rates in the level of carbon
dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Observe the
graph, which was the carbon dioxide
concentration, in parts per billions that are
expected in the year 2000?
a) 365
c) 375

b)360
c) 380

3. In a medical laboratory the growth of the


bacteria that produces cholera was
investigated. For this research a sample of the
4

1.1 Introduction to functions

bacteria is placed in a Petri box with water


and nutrimental components. In the graph we
represent the number of bacteria during the
first 2 hours of the experiment.

Which is the expression for the rule of


correspondence of the number of bacteria vs.
time?
a)

b)

c)

d)

4. The Biology teacher displayed to his students


the following table for the growth of a bacteria
colony, where t represents the time of growth
and V the speed.
T

10

12

20

35

54

Which is the algebraic equation that represents


the relation between the time and the speed of
the bacterial growth?
t(t 3)
a) V =
b) V = t 2 3t
2
t(t 2)
t 1
c) V =
d) V = t
3
2

1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

1.1.9 Increasing and Decreasing Intervals


1. Find the viewing rectangle (Window in your
graphing calculator) that shows the most
complete graph of the function. Explain your
decision.
a. f (x) = 0.2x 2 + 3x + 32
Xmin = -2
Xmax= 20
Xscl = 1
Ymin= -10
Ymax = 30
Yscl = 4

b.

Xmin = -10
Xmax = 30
Xscl = 5
Ymin = -5
Ymax = 50
Yscl = 5

Xmin = 0
Xmax = 10
Xscl = 0.5
Ymin = 0
Ymax = 200
Yscl = 4

f (x) = 4x 3 x 4

Xmin = -2
Xmax= 6
Xscl = 1
Ymin= -10
Ymax = 30
Yscl = 4

Xmin = -50
Xmax = 50
Xscl = 5
Ymin = -50
Ymax = 50
Yscl = 5

Xmin = 0
Xmax = 2
Xscl = 0.2
Ymin = -2
Ymax = 2
Yscl = 0.5

2. Using technology to graph the following


function. Find the intervals in which the
function is increasing, decreasing or remains
constant.
a. f (x) = 3x 4 6x 2
b.

f (x) = x x + 3

1.1.10 Maximums and Minimums


Evaluate the function. If:
1. f (x) = x x + 3; f (4) =
2.

g(x) =

3. h(x) =

x2
; g(1) =
x x2
2

x+39 3
;h(6) =
x

1
1

4. f (x) = x + 1 4 ; f (2) =
x3
5. h(x) = 2x ;h(3) =
4 x;if x < 2
6. g(x) = 2
; g(3) =
x 3;if x > 2
7. If the graph of f (x) is:

11. Given that f (x) = x 2 + 2x 1 , find the


answer to:

f (1) f (2)
=
f (0)

12. Given that f (x) =


answer to:

4
+ 3x , find the
x +1

f (3)
f (0) =
f (1)

a) -6
c) 2

b) -2
d) 6
3
f
2
13. Find the value of
, given that the
f (5)
graph for f (x) is:

Find f (2) =

8. If the graph of f (x) is:


14. Given that g(x) = x + x . Find the answer to
the following:

g(1) g(2)
=
g(5)

15. Given that f (x) is defined by the following


Find f (4) =

graph. Find

f (0)
f (2) =
f (1)

9. Hence find f (0).


10. Find the values of x for the following graph
for which f (x) = 0.

1.1 Introduction to functions

1.1.12 Transformations of Functions


Using technology solve questions 1-4
1. a. Sketch the graph of f (x) = x 2 .

16. Given that f (x) is defined by the following


graph.

b. On the same set of axes sketch the graphs


of:
i. y = f (x) + 2 , i.e., y = x 2 + 2
ii. y = f (x) 3 , i.e., y = x 2 3
c. What is the connection between the graphs
of y = f (x) , and y = f (x) + b if:
i. b > 0
ii. b < 0 ?
2. For each of the following functions f, sketch
on the same set of axes y = f (x) ,

y = f (x) + 1 and y = f (x) 2 .


a.

f (x) = x

a. Find f (2) f (1) =

b.

f (x) = 2 x

b. If f (2) f (1) = f (x) .

c.

f (x) = x 3

What is the value of x?


17. A function is defined as follows,
f : x 2x + 3, x 0.

1
x
Summarize your observations by describing
the graphical transformation of y = f (x) as it
d.

a. Find the value of f (0) , f (1) .

becomes y = f (x) + b .

b. Evaluate the expressions


i. f (x + a)

3. a. On the same set of axes, graphs:


f (x) = x 3 , y = f (x 3) and y = f (x + 2) .

ii. f (x + a) f (x)
c. Find { x : f (x) = 9} .

a.

x
, x [ 0,10 ] , find
x +1
f (0) , f (10)

b.

{x : f (x) = 5}

f (x) =

b. What is the connection between the graphs


of y = f (x) and y = f (x a) if:

18. If f (x) =

i. a > 0
ii. a < 0 ?
4. For each of the following transformations f,
sketch on the same set of axes y = f (x) ,

x
c. the range of f (x) =
, x [ 0,10 ]
x +1
1
19. For the mapping x 2 x 2 , x , find
2
a. f (x + 1) , f (x 1)
b. a, given that f (a) = 1 .

y = f (x 1) and y = f (x + 2)
a.

f (x) = x

b.

f (x) = x 3

c.

f (x) = ln x

d.

f (x) =

1
.
x

c. b, given that f (b) = 10 .


1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

Summarize your observations by describing


the graphical transformation of y = f (x) as it
becomes y = f (x a) .
For problems 5-11, use technology to graph
each pair of functions and describe the
geometric transformation.
2
5. f (x) = x 2 ; F(x) = 3( x + 5 ) 6
6.

f (x) = x 3; F(x) =

8.

f (x) = x 2 ; F(x) =

9.

f (x) = x 4 ; F(x) = 2 ( x + 3) + 1

1
( x + 4 )2 + 5
3
4

10. f (x) = x 4 ; F(x) =

f (x) = x 3; F(x) = 2 ( x 4 ) + 1

1
( x 2 )4 3
4

11. Match each graph to one of the following functions.


A. y = x 2 + 2
B. y = x 2 + 2

C. y = x + 2

D. y = x + 2

E. y = ( x 2 )

G. y = x 2

H. y = x + 2

I. y = 2x 2

J. y = 2x 2

K. y = 2 x

L. y = 2 x

F. y = ( x 2 )

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

1
( x 1)3 2
2

7.

1.1 Introduction to functions

10.

11.

12.

1.2.1 Linear Function


1. By finding an appropriate y-step and x-step,
determine the slope of each of the following
lines:

b.

c.
a.

d.

b.

c.

e.

d.

f.

e.

f.

2. Classify the following pairs of lines as


parallel, perpendicular or neither. Give a
reason.

3. State the slope of the line which is


perpendicular to the line with gradient (slope):
3
a.
4
11
b.
3
c. 4
1
d.
3
e. 5
f. 0

a.
1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

In Exercises 4-31, use the given conditions to


write an equation for each line in point-slope
form and slope-intercept form.
4. Slope = -2, passing through (3,5)
5. Slope = 4, passing through (1,3)
6. Slope = 6, passing through (-2,5)
7. Slope = 8, passing through (4,-1)
8. Slope = -3, passing through (-2,-3)
9. Slope = -5, passing through (-4,-2)
10.Slope = -4, passing through (-4,0)
11.Slope = -2, passing through (0,-3)
1

12.Slope = -1, passing through , 2


2

13.Slope = -1, passing through 4,

4
1
, passing through the origin
2
1
15.Slope = , passing through the origin
3
2
16.Slope = , passing through (6,-2)
3
3
17.Slope = , passing through (10,-4)
5
18.Passing through (1,2) and (5,10)
19.Passing through (3,5) and (8,15)
20.Passing through (-3,0) and (0,3)
21.Passing through (-2,0) and (0,2)
22.Passing through (-3,-1) and (2,4)
23.Passing through (-2,-4) and (1,-1)
24.Passing through (-3,-2) and (3,6)
25.Passing through (-3,6) and (3,-2)
26.Passing through (-3,-1) and (4,-1)
27.Passing through (-2,-5) and (6,-5)
28.Passing through (2,4) with x-intercept=-2
29.Passing through (1,-3) with x-intercept=-1
1
30.x-intercept = and y-intercept = 4
2
31.x-intercept = 4 and y-intercept = -2
In Exercises 32-41, give the slope and yintercept of each line whose equation is given.
Then graph the linear function.
32. y = 2x + 1
14.Slope =

10

33. y = 3x + 2
34. y = 2x + 1
35. f (x) = 3x + 2

3
x2
4
3
37. f (x) = x 3
4
3
38. y = x + 7
5
2
39. y = x + 6
5
1
40. g(x) = x
2
1
41. g(x) = x
3
In Exercises 42-51, graph each equation in a
rectangular coordinate system.
42. y = 2
36. f (x) =

43. y = 4
44. x = 3
45. x = 5
46. y = 0
47. x = 0
48. f (x) = 1
49. f (x) = 3
50. 3x 18 = 0
51. 3x + 12 = 0
52.Copy and complete:
Equation of
line
a

2x 3y = 6

4 x + 5y = 20

y = 2x + 5

x=8

Slope

x-intercept

y-intercept

1.1 Introduction to functions

Equation of
line
e

y=5

x + y = 11

4x + y = 8

x 3y = 12

Slope

x-intercept

y-intercept

4+t
=q
2
o. x + 4y = 2 x
n.

55.A scatter plot shows that from 1985 to 2001,


the number of Americans participating in
downhill skiing remained relatively constant.
Write an equation that models the number of
participants in downhill skiing, y, in millions, for
this period.

53.
a. Does ( 3, 4 ) lie on the line with equation

3x 2y = 1 ?
b. Does ( 2, 5 ) lie on the line with equation

5x + 3y = 5 ?
1

c. Does 6, lie on the line 3x 8y = 22 ?

2
54.Sketch the graph of the following lines. Find
the slope, angle of inclination, domain, range,
zeros and y-intercept.
a. y = x + 1
b. f (x) = x 2
c. y = 2x 3
d. y = 2 3x

If talk about a federal budget surplus sounded


too good to be true, thats because it probably
was. The Congressional Budged Offices
estimates for 2010 range from a $1.2 trillion
budget surplus to a $286 billion deficit. Use the
information provided by the Congressional
Budget Office graphs to solve Exercises 56-57

x +1
2
f. f (x) = 3 + 4x
e. y =

g. x + f (x) = 3
h. x + 2y = 4
i. x 3y = 6

x y
+ =1
2 5
y
k. x = 1
3
2x
l.
3y = 2
5
5y
m. x +
= 1
4
j.

1.1 Introduction to functions

56.Look at the previous graph at the line that


indicates hard times ahead. Find the slope of the
line using (2001,50) and (2010, -286). Use the
calculator to round to the nearest whole number.
Describe what the slope represents.
57.Use the previous graph at the line that
indicates the boom goes on. Find the slope of the
Autumn 2011

11

line using (2001,200) and (2010, 1200). Use the


calculator and round to the nearest whole
number. Describe what the slope represents.
58.Horrified at the cost that last time you needed
a prescription drug? The graph shows that the
cost of the average retail prescription has been
rising steadily since 1991.

a. According to the graph, what is the yintercept? Describe what this represents
in this situation.
b. Use the coordinates of the two points
shown to compute the slope. What does
it mean about the cost of the average
retail prescription?
c. Write a linear equation in slope-intercept
form that models the cost of the average
retail prescription, y, x years after 1991.
d. Use the model from part (c) to predict the
cost of the average retail prescription in
2010.
59. For 61 years, Social Security has been a huge
success. It is primary source of income for 66%
of Americans over 65 and the only thing that
keeps 42% of the elderly from poverty.
However, the number of workers per Social
Security beneficiary has been declining steadily
since 1950.

a. According to the graph, what is the yintercept? Describe what this represents
in this situation.
b. Use the coordinates of the two points
shown to compute the slope. What does
this mean about the number of workers
per beneficiary?
c. Write a linear equation in slope-intercept
form that models the number of workers
per beneficiary, y, x years after 1950.
d. Use your model from part (c) to predict
number of workers per beneficiary from
2010. For every 8 workers, how many
beneficiaries will there be?
60.We seem to be fed up with being lectured at
about our waistlines. The points in the graph
show the average weight of American adults
from 1990 through 2000. Also shown is a line
that passes through or near the points.

a. Use two points whose coordinates are


shown by the voice balloons to find the
point-slope equation of the line that
12

1.1 Introduction to functions

models average weight of Americans, y, in


pounds, x years after 1990.
b. Write the equation in part (a) in slopeintercept form.
c. Use the slope-intercept form equation to
predict the average weight of Americans in
2008.
61.Films may not be getting any better, but in
this era of moviegoing, the number of screen
available for new films and the classics has
exploded. The points in the graph show the
number of screens in the United States from
1995 through 2000. Also shown is a line that
passes through or near the points.

a. Use the two points whose coordinates are


shown by the voice balloons to find the
point-slope equation of the line that
models the number of screens, y, in
thousands, x years after 1995.
b. Write the equation in part (a) in slopeintercept form.
c. Use the slope-intercept equation to predict
the number of screens, in thousands, in
2008.
62.The scatter plot shows the relationship
between the percentage of married women of
child-bearing age using contraceptives and the
births per woman in selected countries. Also
shown is the regression line. Use two points on
this line to write both its point-slope and slopeintercept equations. Then find the number of
births per woman if 90% of married women of
child-bearing age use contraceptives.
1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

63.Shown, again, is the scatter plot that indicates


a relationship between the percentage of adult
females in a country who are literate and the
mortality of children under five. Also shown is a
line that passes through or near the points. Find
the linear equation that models the data by
finding the slope-intercept equation of the line.
Use the model to make a prediction about child
mortality based on the percentage of adult
females in a country who are literate.

In Exercises 64-67 , find a linear equation in


slope-intercept form that models the given
description. Describe what each variable in your
model represents. Then use the model to make a
prediction.
64.In 1995, the average temperature of Earth
was 57.7F and has increased at a rate of 0.01F
per year since then.
65.In 1995, 60% of U.S. adults read a newspaper
and this percentage has decreased at a rate of
0.7% per year since then.
66.A computer that was purchased for $4000 is
depreciating at a rate of $950 per year.
13

67.A business discovers a linear relationship


between the number of shirts is can sell and the
price per shirt. In particular, 20,000 shirts can be
sold at $19 each, and 2000 of the same shirts can
be sold at $55 each. Write the slope-intercept
equation of the demand line that models the
number of shirts that can be sold, y, at a price of
x dollars. Then determine the number of shirts
that can be sold at $50 each.
1.2.2 Quadratic Function
1. For each of the following functions:
i. state the equation of the axis of symmetry
ii. find the coordinates of the vertex
iii.find the y-intercept
iv. sketch the graph of the function
v. use technology to check your answer
a.

b.

c. y = ( x + 3) + 2
2

e. y =

1
( x 2 )2
2

d. y = 3( x + 2 ) 4
2

f. y =

3
( x + 2 )2 4
2

2. Match each quadratic function to its


corresponding graph:
a.

b.

c.

d. y = ( x 1) + 2

e.

f. y =

g.

h.

3. For each of the following find the equation


of the axis of symmetry:

1
( x + 3)2 3
3

i. y = 2 ( x + 2 ) 1
2

14

1.1 Introduction to functions

g.

h.

i.

4. For each of the following quadratic


functions:
i. sketch the graph using axes intercepts and
hence find
ii. the equation of the axis of symmetry
iii.the coordinates of the vertex.
a.

b.

c.

d. y = 2 ( x 1) ( x + 3)

e.

f.

5. For each of the following:


i. sketch the parabola
ii. find the equation of the axis of symmetry
a. x intercepts 3 and 1, y-intercept 4

8. For each of the following quadratics:


2
i. convert into the form y = a ( x h ) + k by
completing the square
ii. state the coordinates of the vertex
iii.find the y-intercept
iv. Hence, sketch the graph of the quadratic.
v. Use technology to check your answer.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e. y = x 2 + 4x + 2

f.

9. By using your graphics calculator, graph


each of the following functions, and hence
write each function in the form
2
y = a ( x h) + k .

b. x-intercepts 2 and 2, y-intercept 4

a.

b.

c. x-intercepts 3 (touching), y-intercept 6

c.

d. y = 2x 2 + 6x 4

e.

f.

d. x-intercepts 1 (touching), y-intercept 4


6. Find all x-intercepts of the following graphs
of quadratic functions:
a. cuts the x-axis at 2, axis of symmetry x = 4
b. cuts the x-axis at 1, axis of symmetry x = 3
c. touches the x-axis at 3
7. Write the following quadratics in the form
2
y = ( x h ) + k using completing the
square and hence sketch each function,
stating the vertex:
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

1.1 Introduction to functions

10. Using the axis intercepts only, sketch the


graphs of:
a.

b.

c. y = ( x + 5 ) ( x + 3)

d.

e.

f.

11. What is the axis of symmetry of each graph


in question 10?
12. Use the vertex, axis of symmetry and yintercept to graph:
a.
Autumn 2011

b.
15

c.

d.

e.

e.

f.

g.

h.

f.
i.

13. Find the turning point (vertex) for the


following quadratic functions:
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

h.
j.

i.

14. Find the x-intercepts for:


a. y = x 9
2

c.

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

17. By using the discriminant only, determine


which of the following quadratic equations
have rational roots which can be found by
factorization.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

b.
d.

e.

f.

g.

h.

i.

j.

k.

l.

15. For the following quadratics, find:


i. the equation of the axis of symmetry
ii. the coordinates of the vertex
iii.the axes intercepts, if they exist
iv. Hence, sketch the graph
v. domain and range
a.

b.

c.

d.

16

16. By using the discriminant only, state the


nature of the solutions of:

18. For the following quadratic equations,


determine the discriminant in simplest form
and hence find the values of m for which the
equations has:
i. a repeated root
ii. two distinct roots
iii.no real roots
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

1.1 Introduction to functions

Application Exercises
19. Please see the graph above. The function
f (x) = 3.1x 2 + 51.4 + 4024.5
models the average annual per capita
consumption of cigarettes, f (x) ,by
Americans 18 and older x years after 1960.
According to this model, in which year did
cigarette consumption per capita reach a
maximum? What was the consumption for
that year? Does this accurately model what
actually occurred as shown by the graph
above?
20. The function
f (x) = 104.5x 2 1501.5x + 6016
models the death rate per year per 100,000
males, f (x) , for U.S. men who average x
hours of sleep each night. How many hours
of sleep, to the nearest tenth of an hour,
corresponds to the minimum death rate?
What is the minimum death rate, to the
nearest whole number?
21. Fireworks are launched into the air. The
quadratic function
s(t) = 16t 2 + 200t + 4

off at the greatest height? What is that


height?
22. A football is thrown by a quarterback to a
receiver 40 yards away. The quadratic
function
s(t) = 0.025t 2 + t + 5
models the footballs height above the
ground, s ( t ) ,when it is t yards from the
quarterback. How many yards form the
quarterback does the football reach its
greatest height? What is that height?
In the United States, HCV, or hepatitis C virus, is
four times as widespread as HIV. Few of the
nations three to four million carriers have any
idea they are infected. The graph shows the
projected mortality, in thousands, from the virus.
Use the information in the graph to solve
Exercises 23-24.

models the fireworks height, s ( t ) , in feet t


seconds after they are launched. When
should the fireworks explode so that they go
1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

17

23. Why is a quadratic function an appropriate


model for the data shown in the graph?
24. Suppose that a quadratic function is to be
used to model the data shown with ordered
pairs representing (number of years after
2002, thousands of hepatitis C deaths).
Determine, without obtaining an actual
quadratic function that models the data, the
approximate coordinates of the vertex for
the functions graph. Describe what this
means in practical terms. Use the word
maximum in your description.
25. You have a 120 feet of fencing to enclose a
rectangular plot that borders on a river. If
you do not fence the side along the river, find
the length and width of the plot that will
maximize the area. What is the largest area
that can be enclosed?

26. The figure shown indicates that you have


100 yards of fencing to enclose a rectangular
area. Find the dimensions of the rectangle
that maximize the enclosed area. What is the
maximum area?

27. A rain gutter is made from sheets of


aluminum that are 20 inches wide. As shown
18

in the figure, the edges are turned up to form


right angles. Determine the depth of the
gutter that will maximize the cross-sectional
area allow the greatest amount of water to
flow.

28. Hunky Beef, a local sandwich store, has a


fixed weekly cost of $525.00 and variable
costs for making a roast beef sandwich are
$0.55.
a. Let x represent the number of roast beef
sandwiches made and sold each week. Write
the weekly cost function, C, for Hunky Beef.
(Hint: The cost function is the sum of fixed
and variable costs.)
b.T h e f u n c t i o n R(x) = 0.001x 2 + 3x
describes the money, in dollars, the Hunky
Beef takes in each week from the sale of x
roast beef sandwiches. Use its revenue
function and the cost function form part (a)
to write the stores weekly profit function, P.
(Hint: The profit function is the difference
between revenue and cost functions.)
c. Use the stores profit function to determine
the number of roast beef sandwiches it
should make and sell each week to maximize
profit. What is the maximum weekly profit?
Writing in Mathematics
29. What is a quadratic function?
30. What is a parabola? Describe the shape.
31. Explain how to decide whether a parabola
opens upward or downward.
32. Describe how to find a parabolas vertex if
its equation is in the form
f (x) ax 2 + bx + c . Use f (x) x 2 6x + 8
as an example.

1.1 Introduction to functions

33. A parabola that opens upward has its vertex


at (1,2 ) .Describe as much as you can about
the parabola based on this information.
Include in your discussion the number of xintercepts (if any) for the parabola.
34. The quadratic function
f (x) = 0.018x 2 + 1.83x 25.34
describes the miles per gallon, f (x) , of a
Ford Taurus driven x miles per hour. Suppose
that your own a Ford Taurus. Describe how
you can use this function to save money.
Technology Exercises
35.
a. U s e a g r a p h i n g u t i l i t y t o g r a p h
y = 2x 2 82x + 720 in a standard viewing
rectangle. What do you observe?
b. Find the coordinates of the vertex for the
given quadratic function.
c.The answer to part (b) is ( 20.5,120.5 ) .
Because the leading coefficient of the given
function (2) is positive, the vertex is a
minimum point in the graph. Use this fact to
help find a viewing rectangle that will give a
relatively complete picture of the parabola.
With an axis of symmetry at x = 20.5 , the
setting for x should extend past this, so try
X min = 0 and X max = 30 . The setting for y
should include (and probably go below) the ycoordinate of the graphs minimum point, so try
Ymin = 130 . Experiment with Ymax until
your utility shows the parabolas major
features.
d.In general, explain how knowing the
coordinates of a parabolas vertex can help
determine a reasonable viewing rectangle on a
graphing utility for obtaining a complete
picture of the parabola.
In exercises 36-39, find the vertex of each
parabola. Then determine a reasonable viewing
rectangle on your graphing utility and use it to
graph the quadratic function.
36. y = 0.25x 2 + 40x
1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

37. y = 04x 2 + 20x + 160


38. y = 5x 2 + 40x + 600
39. y = 0.01x 2 + 0.6x + 100
40. T h e f u n c t i o n y = 0.011x 2 0.097x + 4.1
models the number of people in the United
States, y, in millions holding more than one
job x years after 1970. Use a graphing utility
to graph the function in a [ 0,20,1] by [ 3,6,1]
viewing rectangle. r along the curve or
use your utilityx minimum value feature to
approximate the coordinates of the
parabolas vertex. Describe what this
represents in practical terms.
41. The following data show fuel efficiency, in
miles per gallon, for all U.S. automobiles in
their indicated year.
x
(Years after
1940)

y (Average Number of
Miles per Gallon for
U.S. Automobiles)

1940: 0

14.8

1950: 10

13.9

1960: 20

13.4

1970: 30

13.5

1980: 40

15.9

1990: 50

20.2

1998: 58

21.8

Source: U.S. Department of Transportation.


a. Use the graphing utility to draw a scatter
plot of the data. Explain why a quadratic
function is appropriate for modeling these
data.
b. Use the quadratic regression feature to find
the quadratic function that best fits the data.
c.Use the model in part (b) to determine the
worst year for automobile fuel efficiency.
19

What was the average number of miles per


gallon for that year?
d.Use the graphing utility to draw a scatter
plot of the data and graph the quadratic
function of the best fit on the scatter plot.
Critical Thinking Exercises
42. Which one of the following is true?
a. No quadratic function has a range of
( , ) .
b.The vertex of a parabola described by

f (x) = 2 ( x 5 ) 1 is ( 5,1) .
2

c. The graph of f (x) = 2 ( x + 4 ) 8


2

has

one y-intercept and two x-intercepts.


d.The maximum value of y for the quadratic
function f (x) = x 2 + x + 1 .
43. What explanations can you offer for your
answer to Exercise 19? Using the graphing
utility to graph f. Do you agree with the longterm predictions made by the graph?
Explain.
In Exercises 44-45, find the axis of symmetry for
each parabola whose equation is give. Use the
axis of symmetry to find a second point on the
parabola whose y-coordinate is the same as the
given point.
2
44. f (x) = 3( x + 2 ) 5; ( 1,2 )
45. f (x) = ( x 3) + 2; ( 6,11)
2

46. A rancher has a 1000 feet of fencing to


construct six corrals, as shown in the figure.
Find the dimensions that maximize the
enclosed area. What is the maximum area?

47. f

20

1.1 Introduction to functions

Answers
1.1.1 and 1.1.2 Relations and functions

23. Yes
24. No
25. Yes
26. Yes
27. Relation
28. Relation
29.Relation
30.Relation
31.Relation
32.Relation
33.Relation
34.Relation

1. Function
D:{-5,-4,-3,2,3}
R:{-2, 2, 5, 6}
2. Function
D:{4,5,6,7,8}
R:{3}
3. Relation
D:{-5,-2,-1}
R:{-3,-2,2,3,4}
4. Function
D:{0,1,3,4,5}
R:{-5,-4,-3,-2,-1}
5. Relation
D:{4}
R:{-1,0,2,3,5}
6. Function
D:{-2,-1,0,1,2}
R:{0, 1, 4}
7. Relation
D:{-3,3,4,5}
R:{-5,-4,-3,1,2}
8. Relation
D:{-3,-2,-1,1}
R:{-6, -4, -3, 0, 2}
9. Function
D:{-5,-4,-3,-2,-1
R:{-5,-4,-3,-2,-1}
10.Relation
D:{0}
R:{0,1,2,3,4}
11.D
12.No
13.Yes
14.No
15. a, c and d
16. b and d
17. No
18. Yes
19. No
20. No
21. No
22. Yes
1.1 Introduction to functions

1.1.3 and 1.1.4


Domain and Range
1. Function
D=[-2, 3), R=[-2, 3)
2. Function
D=[-2, 2), R=[-2, 2]
3. Relation
D=[-3, 3], R=[-2, 2]
4. Function
D=(-4, 4], R=[-2, 5]
5. Function
D=(0, 5],R=[-2, 2]
6. Relation
D=[-3,-1],R=[-3,3]
7. Relation
D=[-5, 5],R=[-3, 3)
8. Function
D=(-2, 6],R=[-5, 3)
9. Function,
D=(-,),R=(-,)
10.Relation
D=[-5, ),R=(-,)
11.Function
D=(-, 0)U(0, )
R=(-, 0)
12.Relation
D=(-6, -2]U[-1, )
13.Function
D=[-5, 1]U[0, 4]
R=[-5, 0]
14.Function
Autumn 2011

R=(-, -1]U[2, 6)

21

D=(,-2]U(-1,1)U[2,)
R=(-, -1]U[1]U[2, )
15.Relation
D=(-, )
R=(-, -1]U[1, )
16.Relation
D=(-2, 0]U[2, 4)
19. Interval: ( 2 , 5 ]
Set: { x 2 < x 5}

R=(-2, 2)
17.Function
D=(-, ), R=[-5, )
18.Function
D=(-4.5, 2]U(3, 5)
R=(-5, 5)

Set: x x 17

Graph:

Graph:
21.Interval: ( 2 , 4 ]

Set: { x 2 < x 4 }
Graph:

22.Interval: ( , 4 ]
Set: { x x 4 }
Graph:
23.Interval: [ 0,10 )

Set: { x 0 x < 10}


Graph:

24.Interval: ( , 5 )
Set: { x x < 5}
Graph:
25.Interval: [ 2, )
Set: { x x 2}
Graph:
22

Graph:

20.Interval: [ 2.5 ]

Set: { x 2 x 5}

26.Interval: , 17

27.(-,)
28.(-,)
29.(-, 0)U(0, )
30.(-, -5)U(-5, )
31.[10, )
32.(-,)
33.[-1, 1]
34.(-, 0)U(0, 2)U(2, )
35.(-, -2)U(-2, 0)U(0,
)
36.[1, 4)U(4, )
1.1.5 Ways of
Representing Functions
1. D
2. A
3. C
4. A
1.1.9 Increasing and
Decreasing Intervals
1.
a. Second Window
b. First Window
2.
a. D: (-, -1] and [0, 1]
I: [-1,0] and [1, )
b. D: [-3,-2]
I: [-2, )

1.1.10 Maximums and


Minimums
1. 4 7
2. Undefined

1 3 3
2
1
4.
12
5. 6
6. 7
7. -2
8. -2
9. Undefined
10. x = 5, 1, 0, 4
3.

11.9
12.-2
13.0
14.Undefined
2
15.
5
16. 3
17.
a. 3, 6
b. i. 2x + 2a + 3
ii. 2a
c. x = 3
18.
10
a. 0,
11

5
4
makes the equation
true, but is not

b. No solution.

1.1 Introduction to functions

included in the explicit domain of the


function.
10
c. 0,
11
19.

1
3
a. x 2 x +
2
2
1.1.12 Transformations of
Functions
1. a and b. c. answers will vary

b. 2
c. No solution. The
roots of the
equation are 4i ,
so its out of the
domain.

Summary will vary.


3. a and b

d.

2.
a.

Summary will vary.

c. answers will vary.


5.

4.
a.
b.

6.
b.
c.

7.

c.
d.
1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

23

2.

2
a. parallel, slopes
5
b. parallel, slopes

c. perpendicular, slopes

9.
3.

Descriptions will vary.


11.
A-10 B-3 C-8
D-7 E-6
F-9
G-1 H-11 I-4
J-2
K-5 L-12
1.2.1 Linear Functions
1.
2
a.
3
2
b.
5
c. 1
d. 0
e. -4
f. undefined
24

19.
20. y = x + 3

1
, 2
2
21.
1
22. y = x + 2
d. neither, slopes 4,
3
23.
2 1
4
e. neither, slopes ,
24. y = x + 2
7 5
3
1 25.
f. perpendicular, slopes 2,
2 26. y = 1

8.

10.

1
7

2
16. y = x + 2
3
17.
18. y = 2x

4
a.
3
3
b.
11
1
c.
4
d. 3
1
e.
5
f. undefined
4. y = 2x 1
5.
6. y = 6x + 17
7.
8. y = 3x 9
9.
10. y = 4x 16
11.
12. y = x
13.
14. y =
15.

1
x
2

5
2

27.
28. y = x + 2
29.
30. y = 8x + 4
31.
32. m = 2;b = 1
33.
34. m = 2;b = 1
35.
36. m =

3
;b = 2
4

37.

3
38. m = ;b = 7
5
39.
1
40. m = ;b = 0
2
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
1.1 Introduction to functions

48.
49.
50.
51.
52.

d.
m = !3, angle = 71.57

D = ( , ) , R = ( , )
m = 3,angle
2 = 71.57
zero = , 0 , y int = ( 0, 2 )
3 ) ,R = ( , )
D = ( ,

2
zero = , 0 , y int = ( 0, 2 )
3

1
m = , angle = 18.43
3
D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

zero = ( 6, 0 ) , y int = ( 0, 2 )

e.

53.

a.
b.
c.

yes
no
yes

54.

!1
m = , angle = 26.56
e. 2
D = (!1, ) , R = ( , )
m = , angle = 26.56
1
2
zero = ( 1, 0 ) , y int = 0,
D = ( , ) , R = ( , ) 2
1
zero = ( 1, 0 ) , y int = 0,
2

j.

! 5
m = , angle = 68.2
2
D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

zero = ( 2, 0 ) , y int = ( 0, 5 )

1.1 Introduction to functions

a.
m = !1, angle = 45

D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

zero = ( 1, 0 ) , y int = ( 0,1)

b.
! angle = 45
m = 1,

D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

f.

! angle = 75.96
m = 4,

D = ( , ) , R = ( , )
3
zero = , 0 , y int = ( 0, 3)
4

g.
m =!1, angle = 45

D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

c.

h.

D = ( , ) , R = ( , )
3
zero = , 0 , y int = ( 0, 3)
2

d.

zero = ( 3, 0 ) , y int = ( 0, 3)

! 1
m = , angle = 26.57
2
D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

zero = ( 4, 0 ) , y int = ( 0, 2 )

i.
!

1.1 Introduction to functions

D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

zero = (1, 0 ) , y int = ( 0, 3)

l.

zero = ( 2, 0 ) , y int = ( 0, 2 )

! angle = 63.43
m = 2,

k.
m = !3, angle = 71.57

2!
, angle = 7.6
15
D = ( , ) , R = ( , )
m=

zero = ( 5, 0 ) , y int = 0,

m.

!4
m = , angle = 38.66
5
D = ( , ) , R = ( , )
4

zero = ( 1, 0 ) , y int = 0,

!
n.

Autumn 2011

!
25

1
m = , angle = 26.57
2
D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

zero = ( 4, 0 ) , y int = ( 0, 2 )

o.

! 1
m = , angle = 26.57
2
D = ( , ) , R = ( , )

c. 178 lbs
61.
a. y 30 = 4(x 2)
b. y = 4x + 22
c. 74
62. 0.75
63. y = 2.3x + 255 , where x is

the percentage of adult


females who are literate and y
is under-five mortality per
thousand; For each percent
1
zero = (1, 0 ) , y int = 0,
increase is adult female
2
literacy, under-five mortality
55. y = 15
decreases by 2.3 per thousand.
56. 37 ; The federal budged has 64. T = 0.01y + 57.7 where T
a deficit of 37 billion each
represents the temperature
year.
and y years after 1995.
57. 111; The federal budget
Predictions will vary.
surplus is increasing $111
65. y = 0.7%x + 60% ; y
billion each year.
represents the percentage of
58.
U.S. adults who read a
a. 24. In the year 1991 the
newspaper x years after 1995
cost of the average cost of a 66.
y = $950x + $4000 where y
retail prescription was $24.
is the value of the computer x
b. 2. Every year the average
years after its purchase.
cost has been rising by
67. y = 500x + 29500
$2.00.
c. y = 2x + 24
4,500 shirts can be solved at $50
each.
d. $62
1.2.2 Quadratic Functions
59.
a. 16, In 1950, there were 16 1.
a.
workers per Social
i.
beneficiary
b. -0.24; the number of
ii.
workers per Social Security iii.y-int=19
beneficiary is decreasing
b.
by 0.24 workers each year
i. x = 1
c. y = 0.24x + 16
1, 0 ) !
ii. (
d. 1.6;5
iii.y-int= 2 !
60.
c.
a. y 162 = 1(x 2)
i. x = 3
b. y = x + 160
26

3, 2 )!
ii. (
iii.y-int= 7
d.
i. x=-2
2, 4 )
ii. (
iii.y-int=8
e.
i. x = 2 !
2,0
ii. ( )
iii.y-int= 2 !

f.
i. x = 2
2, 4 )
ii. (
iii.y-int= 10
2.
a. G
b. A
c. E
d. B
e. H
f. C
g. D
h. F
i. I
3.
a. x = 2
5
b. x =
2
c. x = 1
d. x = 3
e. x = 4
f. x = 4
4.f
a.

1.1 Introduction to functions

V(-3'
5 2)a

c
x=
= 3
iv
3(!3
+ 2)W iv
V(-3'
2)i @ =
y 4
ii (3, 2)
(3, 2)
Color profile: Disabled
iii 7
7 Composite Default screen
x

Color profile: Disabled


c screen
i x
Composite Default

ii
iii

( )

i x = 2 iv
ii (2, 4)
ANSWERS
iii
8

760

x
-1

-2
-1

2
3

x x

-2

-4

a. 2 and 6
!\=\0
!\=\0
b. -1 andii -5axis of sym. x = 3
iiii axis
ii axis
axis of
of sym.
sym. x
axisofofsym.
sym.
x=
= 01
ii axis of 8sym.x x c.
ii
= 13 (touching)
y
c i
i
!\=\1
b !\=\1
1 and 5 c d3 (touching)
c V(2'
i 0)
7. 6 abd 2i iand 6y!\=\-3
y y
a i
y
!\=\-3
4
!\=\1
1
x
EXERCISE 8C 2
yy
1
xx a.
6
6 y = ( x 1) + 22
51 a a iy = (x 1) + 2
bb i y = (x + 2)2y 6

(2, 4)
f.
8

ii
iii

-7
@ = _Qw (! - 2)W
x!"#$
x!"!%
y
x!"#%
-4

e@ =i -(!
x =+23)W +iv2-7 y
ii
(2, 0)
x!"#$
iii.y 1,
0
iii i 2x = 2
d x!"#%
iv

!\=\1
y
4
1

b i

y 4 y!\=\1 y
!\=\-3

xx

V(-2'-4)

@ = -(! + 3)W + 2

5 ba i i

!\=\1

-3
-4

8
@ = 3(! + 2)W - 4
@
=
3(!
+
2)W
4
760
ANSWERS
5
c
i x = 3
iv
V(-3' 2)
y
f
i x = 2
iv
ii (3, 2)
x
i. iii 7
c
iii x(2,
= 3
4) iv
V(-3' 2)
y
xV(-2'-4)
y
4
!\=\1
y
V(-2'-4)
V(-2'-4)
iiiii (3,
102)
x
x
-2y
2
ii. x = 2
-4
e
i
x
=
2
iv
iii
7
y
-4
-1
3
e
i x=2
iv
x
@ = Qw_ (! - 2)W
x
y
= Qw_ (! --7
2)W
x
-(!
3)W + 2
ii (2,@0)
x
iii. @ =
2,
4+
ii (2,
0)
x!"!%
-2
2
-10
-3
x!"!%
-3
x!"#$
-13
3
iii 2Ew_ (! + 2)W - 4
@ =-2
iii 2
-7
@ =x!"#%
-(! + 3)Wi.+y2
-4
!\=\0
2
2
b. d i x = 2 iv
ii axis
axis V(1'
of sym.
sym.
ii axis of sym.
2) xx =
= 3
x!"#$
x!"!#%
ii. x = 0
ii axis of sym. x x = 3
ii
of
x 1
ii (2, 4)
x
y of sym. x = 1
-4
!\=\0
x!"#%
ii
axis
ii
axis
of
sym.
x
=
0
d
i
x
=
2
iv
2 a G b A iii.
c E 8d B e I f C V(2'
g D0) h F i H
iii 8
V(2' 0) 0.12
6
a
2
and
6
b
1
and
5
c
3
(touching)
V(-2'-6)
6
a
2
and
6
b
1
and
5
c
3
(touching)
y
dii iaxis of
3 a iix =(2,
2 b4)
x = 52 c x = 1 dc x i= 3 e x = 4
sym.!\=\1x = 1
ii axis of sym. x
@ = 3(! + 2)W - 4
iii
84
2
y
8
!\=\-3
EXERCISE
8C
f
i
x
=
2
iv
f
x
=
y
EXERCISE 8C
2 9
5. y
f
i x = 2
iv
2)1)262 21+42
x dd yi = xy + 3 !\=\1
x b. y1 c=ca ixyy+
x
==2
(x(x+

4)
b y = (x +22)2
46
6
4 a iii@ =(2,
b 1 i a y = (x
y 1)2 + 2
ii (2, 4)
b y=
(x
2)

6
3(!a.
+ 2)Wy - 4 x
y
!\=\-3
V(-2'-4)
iii 10
y
y
V(-2'-4)
yy
iii 10
y
1
@\=\!X+4!
V(-2'-4)
y
x
6
@\=\!(!-4)
-4
e
i x=2
iv
y
@ = -10
Qw_ (! - V(-2'-4)
2)W
x
-10
4 x
xx
i. @ =#(
ii (2,
0)
x
@
=_
w
E
(!
+
2)W
4
-2
x!"!%
Ew_ (! + 2)W - 4
3
-2
-4
3 -3
e
i x=2
iv
y
iii
2
@ = Qw_ (! - 2)W
x
ii. x = 2
V(1' 2)
x!"!#%
ii (2, 0)
V(1' 2)
2
x!"!#%
x!"!%
x
-3
ii axis of sym. x x= 3
ii axis
of sym. x = 1
iii
2
&#%'#()
iii.
2,
4
x
e I f C g D h F i H
2 a G b A c E d B 2
e Ia f GC bg AD ch EF di B
H
V(2'-4)
V&-\E
w_\'-\Or_*
2
V(-2'-6)
5
V(-2'-6)
iiix=(2,
= 32 eiii x (2,
4)
3 =a1 iixd=xxV(2'
2=
b30)xe=
c 4)
x = 16 iida xx2=
4
axis
of sym. x = 3
ii axis of sym. x
3 a x = 2 b x = 52 c x
= 2
2 4
and 6 b =x1
and 5 c ii 3 (touching)
c.

2 33

2
i.
y
f x = 4
c.6y =a ecx2 y
26(x
43522)1
c f i x = 4y
d i
=
x+
f yy =
=xx+
3322
9
22 9 4
V(2'
0)8C
2
y
=

4
d
EXERCISE
and
b
and
5
c
3
(touching)
f
i x = 2
iv
y
c
y
=
(x

2)

4
d
y
=
x
+

2
4
4
a
i
b
i
y
ii.
2
4
4 a i
b i
y x y= 1 x
y
y
2
2
y
ii (2, 4)
1 a -3y =
(x 1)1 + 2
b y =y(x + 2) 6
y
y
yy
EXERCISE 8C
f @\=\!X+4!
i x12= 2b.
iv
@\=\!X+4!
y
V(-2'-4)
iii 10
@\=\!(!-4)
xx
@\=\!(!-4)
y
ii (2, 4)
1 a y = (x 1)2 + 2 -2 x b y = (x + 2)2 6
@\=\3(!-2)X V(-2'-4)
&
2
y
4 x
x
iii 10#(
4 xx
x
#(
x
y
-10
@\=\2(!-1)(!+3)
-6
x
x
x
@ =- Ew_ (! + 2)W - 4
-2
(-1'-8) 3
2
-10
V(1'
2)
x!"!#%
@ =Ew_&#%'#()
(! + 2)W - 4
-2
&#%'#()
w_\'-\Ef_E_*
3V&-\T
x
V&Ew_\'-\Q
r_*r_*
V(2'-4)
V&-\E
w_\'-\O
V(2'-4)
V&-\E
w_\'-\Or_*
i.
ii x = 2 2
iii (2,
0)(2, 4)ii xii= 1
iii
(1,(2,8)
iii
x
=
2
iii
4)
2 a iiG xb=A2c iii
E d(2,
B 4)
e I fiiiiC xxg==D
h
F
i
H
V(1'
2)
2 iii (2, 4)
x!"!#%
2
22 33x
2 3 2
yy 5 2 33
3)5329
3(xV(-2'-6)
3ii. ax =x 2
= 2 b x = 52 c xe =i1 dy x = 3 e x = 4f i
gef yyy==

4 14
h fy =y (x
y xd B e dI if Ce gy D
xx +
= +x4)
2 18
2 d ca i iG b A1 y c E
h +F i
H
c i
=12 x
=

y
2
d.
y
=
x
+

2
4
2
4

V(-2'-6)
f
x
=
4

iii. 2, 0
y
2

i.= 52 c x = 1 d cx =y 3= (xe x2)=24


3 a x=2 b x
y
y
d y =2yyx + 32 4 94 y
-3
1 4
4 a i
b i -2-3
y
y
1
f
x
=
4

2
12
ii. x = 0x @\=-3(!+2)(!-2)y
12
x
d. @\=\!X+4!
2)2 4 y-2 xd y = x + 32 94
x c y = (x
4 a i@\=\!(!-4) @\=\3(!-2)X
b i
y
y
-2
5
@\=\3(!-2)X
2
c.
x
y2
-2
2
y
@\=\!X+4!
-6
x
@\=\2(!-1)(!+3)
-64 x @\=\2(!-1)(!+3)
@\=\-2(!-1)X
x
@\=\!(!-4)
#(
x
x
x
(-1'-8)
xx
(-1'-8)
2
2
4 x
x
#(
&
x
V(3'-4)
V&-\T
w_\'-\E
V(-4'-18)
V&-\T
w_\'-\E
f_E_*
V&Ew_\'-\Qr_*
V&Ew_\'-\Q
r_*f_E_*
ii
x
=
1
iii
(1,
0)
ii
x
=
0
iii
(0,
12)
ii
x
=
2
iii
(2,
0)
ii
x
=
1
iii
(1,
8)
ii x =&#%'#()
2 iii (2, 0)
ii x = 1 iii (1, 8)
V(2'-4)
V&-\Ew_\'-\Or_*
y 2
e i i ii &#%'#()
f i
22 4
y x = 2 y iii (2, 4)
e i ii y x = 2 iii (2, f4)
h y = (x + 4)2 18
g y = (x
4
h g y y==V(2'-4)
(x(x+24)3)
18
12
x
V&-\Ew_\'-\Or_*
1 12
x
3)5

1
2
2
y
i.c i
f y 5=y x 3233y 14
y (2, 4)
ii e x y==2 xiii+ (2, 4)
d iii x = 2 iii
33
y
2
4
y
e. y = x + 2
1.2.2&Quadratic&Function&
&17&&

2 IB_
-2
i.
ii. x = -2
1
y
5
33
3

y
y
4 4
c@\=-3(!+2)(!-2)
i
d @\=-3(!+2)(!-2)
i
e y= 2
x+ 2
f y = x 2 14
y
-3
1
cyan
black
ii.
x
=
3
5
12
5
y
iii. 1, 8
y
x
x x
Y:\...\IBBK1_AN\760IB1AN.CDR
21
-3 -2
x
-2
2
-2 x x
x
@\=\3(!-2)X
@\=\-2(!-1)X
Thu
May
06
11:18:05
2004
d.
12
2
@\=\-2(!-1)X
x
-2
e.
@\=\2(!-1)(!+3)
-6
-2 x
@\=\3(!-2)X
x
2
x
(-1'-8)
V(3'-4)
V(-4'-18)
V(-4'-18)
-6
(1, 0) @\=\2(!-1)(!+3)
ii x = 0 iii V(3'-4)
(0, 12)
ii x = 1 2 iii (1, 0)
ii ii xx==0 1 iiiiii (0,
x 12)
V&-\T
_
w
\'-\E
_
f
_
E
*
(-1'-8)
V&Ew_\'-\Qr_*
ii x = 2 iii (2, 0)
ii x = 21 iii (1, 8)
V&-\Tw_\'-\Ef_E_*
V&Ew_\'-\Qr_*
ii x = 1 iii (1,2 8)
y 0)
e i
f ii i x = 2 iii (2,
y
g y = (x 3) 4
h y = (x + 4)2 18
12
x
2
1
y
y
e i
f i
3 3)2 1 IB_01
= (x
y
h y = (x + 4)2 18IB
12 y
x cyan
f. y =g xy
4
1
black

-2
cyan
black
y

@\=-3(!+2)(!-2)
4
y2
Y:\...\IBBK1_AN\760IB1AN.CDR i.
i.
Y:\...\IBBK1_AN\760IB1AN.CDR
-2
5
Thu May 06 11:18:05 2004
Thu May 06 11:18:05 2004
x @\=-3(!+2)(!-2)
x
-2 ii. x2 = 1
ii. x = 1
x
5
@\=\-2(!-1)X
-2
x
6.
-2
2
x
@\=\-2(!-1)X
-2
V(3'-4)
V(-4'-18)
ii
x
=
1
iii
(1,
0)
ii
x
=
0
iii
(0,
12)
1.1 Introduction to functions
Autumn 2011
27
V(3'-4)
V(-4'-18)

100

95

75

50

100
95

25

100

95
75

95

75
50

75

50
25

100

95

75

50

25

ii

100

x = 1 iii (1, 0)

ii

25
5

50

100

95

75

50

25

50

25

x = 0 iii (0, 12)

100

95

75

50

25

100

95

75

50

25

IB_01

2 d 17 x = , 2p
2 ca yx==(x
b 2)x2 =
3
13

+
9 2 ,d7 yc= x2 =x
+332, 6 d
2x =
12 7 e
2
3
2
2

2
2 x 47
e x = 2 , 1 f 5x = 27
, 2 g x = 3 , 43 h
= 12 , 32
3
4
V(-1'
2
e 3)i y =x(x 2)e2 +y6= 2
iv x +y 2 + 23 5f 6)y = 3 1x
V(2'-4)
V&-\E
w_\'-\Or_*
EXERCISE
V(2'-4)
i x = 14 , 3 j x = V(2'
, 3 k x = 7 , 1
l x = 8F
2, 28
V&-\E
_
w
\'-\O
_
r
*
x
4
15
ii
(2,
6)
V(-2'-6)
EXERCISE 8D.1
ANSWERS
761
= 2 iii (2, 4)
1
a
x
=
3:414
or 0:5
V&T
_
w
\'-5\Q
_
r
*
3
7 b x = 3, 21 c x = 0,
7
112

iii
2
3
a
x
=
2,
5
d
x
=
1,
2
2
1
a
x
=
0,

b
x
=
0,

c
x
=
0,
d
x
=
0,
5
33
3 2
1

c
x
=
2:77
or
1:27
2
4
3
3
2
2
x +y 2 4
f
y
=
x

5
33
3
1

2
4
2
1 8
e y = x +3 2 9 4
f y = x 2 4y
2x = 3
2 e x = 0:892 or 3:64
51)22 2+
, 1
+
y2=
(xf2fx2)=
(x 2)2 4
d y = 2yx +
ab 2 i i yyy=
ee3 xxa==0,
0,332 bg yx==(x
3,+2 3)h
x6 = 4, 2
y
x
+
5315 iviv
2(x
4 =2(x
y
3
2 2) 4
y
2 3a2 x =174:83 or 0:828
y
5
49
y

2
ii
(1,
3)
4 i a xxc=
= 3,
3
bj xx
==2)
3
or
2
c 4,
x=
=321 x
or
4x =
d 11,
no
ii y(2, 5)
y
7 (x
3
k
x
=
l
3
y ii.
=
+
9
d
y
+
solution
x
1
1
,
2c x =20:697 or 4:30
2
1
iiiiii 53
2d 1x47= 3
3
x
5
a
x
=
0
b
x
=
or
2
c
x
=
or
7
x
2 or 3
1 32
2 2
5
27
3
4
8
-2
, 7+2 c2 x f=
, 6 d x
, 42 or 1:62
5
x 2 a xe= y3 =b2x x=+
x=
=30:618
2
3 3 xe
-2 x
2
x !45
4xm! 2y =
2
6 a i 253 m ii 25 ym2#2"iii
@ = 2!W2 !+!4!!+!5
2
1
x
x
e
x
=
,
1
f
x
=

,
2
g
x
=

,
4
h
x
=
,
32
8D.1
bEXERCISE
i 22secs
and 4 secs3 ii 0 secs and3 6ANSWERS
secs
2
iii.3
EXERCISE
8G
-6
x
V(-1' 3) V&Tw_\'-5\Qr_*
761 11
7and once
7
x
1= 0,
28 0,
once
a=49
xgoing
b 3x, =5coming
0,k x13 =down
c1 , x1
= 0,
x or
=
x i y = x2(x + 5i)c12 x
-8)
, 3 jup
x
l7 x
=d5
2,
1
and
and 5
4 =r_
3
4 iv
4O_* 3 y
7
157 2
f
+
V&-\T
\\'
_
k
R
@
=
2!W
!
8!
!
+
!
3
4 a i 8$30 ii8 $105 b 63 or 58 cakes
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7
2
2
2
V&-\Tw_\'-\Ef_E_*
y
2
a
i
y
iv
5= 2(x +
1 1) + 3
3 214 h 4 x =
3
18
and
20
or
e
x
=
0,
f
x
=
0,
g
x
=
3,
4,
2
V&E
_
w
\'-\Q
_
r
*
+
3
b
y
=
(x
+
3)

6
3
a
y
=
(x

2)
V(2'-5)
V&-\T
_
w
\'-\E
_
f
_
E
*
y
i w_y\'-\O
=r_* x 2 5 4
a x = 2, 5 b 3 x = 3, 2 2c x = 0, 2 d x = 1, 2
V&-\E
ii ( 54 , 49
) 3EXERCISE

32 15
iv.V&Ew_\'-\Qr_*
1 V(2'-4)
iii (1, 8)
ii (1, 3)
8
8D.2
2j x = 3 k x = 4,3 5
17
and
17
or
15
and
i
x
=
3,
7
l
x
=
11,
3
1
y = (x
p
2)f +
p
ec x
, 1
x 9= 3d y = 2px + 2 2
y1
y = 52(x 2)2 5 iv
2
iii 3
2 i iii
1
a
x
=
5

2
b
x
=
11
c
=
4

2
2

2
1 6
2 x
1 by 7 cm
y 3)5 22 4 33 g. y =h xy
2+b4)4
7
6
cm
by
6
cm
c.
2
2
(x
=
(x

18
2
2
2
3
x2
=b3x
x+
=or27
2
,7 x
c==3x1=
x = 3 , 2
5x
3
47
px
4 ae2 xya==3
=5 3
nodp
solution
gf yy =
h y = (x + 4) 18
2 f3c yp
ii (2,
+b
xor
4332,d6
= 12x + 2 4
= (xx
3)
4 145)
2 3
2 y
d x = 8 2 3 7 2e x =
5 f 1x
412
6 221
2
10=
ha 13
!4!!y+!5
2
2 2no
3 2
7@ = 2!W !+
2
2xor= ,p
p
y
3
y
iii
3
e
1
f
x
=

,
2
g
x
=

,
4
h
x
= 312 , 32
5
a
x
=
0
b
x
=
3
or
2
c
x
=
or
7
d
c
i
y
=
2(x

iv
)

3
7
y
y V(-1'
# 2x "3)6x ! 1
yg# "x2=
x8D.1
" 53x2! 310 h x =3 1 1 32 153 553 kmph
y
y
2
2
EXERCISE
1
16
51:1
2
2
i.
y
=
2
x

x
V&T
3
28

w_\'-5\Qr_* x61 aa ixi =25x0,m


25 jmx =
iii 45
7ii1 , 3
1 , 5m
11
p
pk x = 17, 1
=
x 0,
= 2,
ii ( 32 , 72 )
d xl p=
2)
x
4 b x = 0,
4
3c x = 0, 73
15
2
2
4
30
2
1
b
i
2
secs
and
4
secs
ii
secs
and
6
secs
2
a
x
=
2

3
b
x
=
3
7
c
x
=
7

3
x
5
-2
2
3 p
8 p
=
2, f75 and
=32 3
3,
d7 2
x = 1, 2
xxa =
0,
xeb=once
0,=
g 2xp=
h=
ced3 once
coming
down
225 a iiii y1 = 2(x
x + 1) + 3 iv
x
2 = 4,
3 up
=xgoing
2iv.

xx
2c 3,fx2=x 0,
1x
x y
x
2
2
@
=
2!W !
8!
!
+
!
3
3
7
x
p
p

1
-2 3)x
ii (1,
7 aig x
i xe==
$30
58 6cakes
3,
7 2jii, 1
x$105
= f3h xb
kx==6x34or
=4,
3 i l nox real
= 11,
3
x3
=
y V(2'-5)
b
i y = 2(x 2)2 ii.
5 iv , -2
11
solutions
9.
x
iii 5
p
1 solution
2 2
x23= 3
b x =1 ,3
2
c x2 =
no
ii (2, 5)
EXERCISE
8D.2
23 aa4 xxa=
72= or5c
xp=19
, 61 or
d 42
xd=
, 2
5
3 7
V(3'-4)
=
1 b
pp1x2 = b 2 x
p
p2 3c x =
V(-4'-18)
1
2
3
V(3'-4)
V&-\Tw_\'-\Ef_E_*
@
=
2!W
!
+
!
4!
!
+
!
5
a.
y
=
x

2
+
3
V(-4'-18) 3
V&Ew_\'-\Qr_*iii 3
5
a
x
0
or
b
3
or
2
c
x
=
or
7
3=
2
2
1
1
a
x
=
5
2
b
x
=
6

11
c
x
=
4

2
iii (0, 12)
e x = 2 , 1p
x = 3 , 4 2h xp= 2p
,d2 32x = 3
pf 73x = 3 , 2 3 g p
p
V&Ew_\'-\Uw_*
iii.
1
37
1
6
V(-1'
3)
25 m
iii 45
2

x=3m
=
x=
2 6
2 28
dd6 xxa==i81
7 eiie x25
520mf1 f x =
2
1
52
2,3
3 2
7
x
pj3 xand
p7 , 1
y y # 2x 2 " 6x ! 1x cyan
h. y =h xy += 4(x +c 4)18
i xb=
3secs
=
kii1 x0=
x=
2, 15
2i
black
ib.4 ,2y
4
secs
and 6l secs
1secs
4 3
=
x
+
3

6
(x 3)2 4
y18= 2(x 2 ) 2 2 iv
g
x
=
1

10
h
x
=

3
2coming
2
2
d
i y3 = 3(x
1) +Y:\...\IBBK1_AN\761IB1AN.CDR
2 iv
EXERCISE
c =8E
once
going
up
and
once
down
y
3
7
y
#
3
x
"
6
x
!
5
p
p
p
p
p
p
3
a
x
2,
5
b
x
=
3,
2
c
x
=
0,

d
x
= 1, 2
iiii y( (1,
, )
2
@ =Wed
2!W May
-!8!
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2 2)2
05!+
13:00:13
2004
y
2
21 aa7 xxa==2i21
37 bbii xx$105
==3
3
c xcakes
x=
=72 33
$30
bp
672or c58
p
p
p
p
p
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May 05 13:00:13
2004
EXERCISE 8Ep
y
V(1'
@ = (!
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1)W + 3
y # 3x " 6 x ! 5
p p
p p
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iii x-intercepts x =

x
b
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2 a1 xa =x2=
2 3 b
x
=
3

7
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V(-2'
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x=1
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x =x2=
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=
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7
x = 2 -32 f x = 2 2 7
3
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p
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9
2
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1
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Fri May 07 11:22:49 2004
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x-intercepts
1,
y-intercept
1
3
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=
x =23
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,
)
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2 49)
x-intercepts
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2
y-intercept
0
-intercept 2
f. iv '$
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1
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i. x =
4
x-intercepts 1 , 1,

1 4,
iii y-intercept
x-int. 2,
y-intercept 8

y
x
0
1 V&Qr_\' Oi_*
*
=!#$
-\Qx!w_x+*
1 8I.1x
EXERCISE

ii. ( 4,5 )

4 ! 2 "4
5

iii.

xx

"2
4"2 5

x int 4 x!*
2 5")
x!"#
y int 1

763

b
d
3 a
d (1, 4), (4, 1)

$
x!= #*

25
4
ANSWERS
c. = 1 4m
(3, 4) touching
c graphs do not meet
1
i. m =18:81) and (1:56, 1:81)
(2:56,
(2, 4), (1,4 1) b (1, 0), (2, 3) c (1, 4)
iii. m >

x '$
int

9
4
b. = 25 4m
25
i. m =
4
25
ii. m <
4
iii. m >

EXERCISEii.
8Lm <
1 a 9 seconds 4b 162 m c 18 seconds
2 a 12 b $100
1 c $244
ANSWERS
763
3 a 15iii.
m/sm >
b 12 sec; since the car was travelling downhill,
4
was4)
accelerating.
)c when
thedobrake
was applied, the
b it (3,
touching
graphs
not meet
speed
of
the
vehicleand
still(1:56,
increased
for a short time.
d d.
(2:56,
18:81)
1:81)
1 = 4 12m
m/s d 6 seconds
3 c a 15(2,
8 4), (1, 1) b (1, 0), (2, 3) c (1, 4)
1 1)
4 a d 21(1, b4),$837
c $45 5 a 30o C b 5:00 am c 5o C
(4,
i.
m
=
2
6 EXERCISE
b x = 10
8L c3 200 m
2
1
7 1 a a y 9=seconds
100 x +b 70162b m supports
are 21 m, 34 m, 45 m,
c 18 seconds
1 66 m,c 69$244
m, b
61 m,
m
2 a 5412
$100
ii. m(30,
< 30) 1 b y = 1 (x 30)2 + 30 c 38:89 m
8 3 a a vertex
15 m/s b
45 the car was travelling downhill,
3 sec; since

i x
= 4 roots biv a repeated rooty V$*%&+(
1 a i 2 real
distinct
2
it was
(4, 5) roots d 2 real distinct roots
REVIEW SET
8A accelerating. ) when the brake was applied, the
V c#$* , #2"* iireal distinct
p
1
2 1
1 vehicle still increased for a yshort time.
e no
roots 4
f 2a repeated
root
speed of the
, )
x
iii realx-int.
5,
3 3
1 a 2,
iii.11m
> de 6 seconds &-\Qw_\' Ow_\*
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x
1
a,
b,
d,
f
_
r
c
15
m/s
y-intercept
1
1
1
#
-intercepts 3 , 1,
b x =8 2 3
*
4
9
9
9
!'
211 b9 $837 c $45 5 a 30o C b 5:00 am c 5o C
-intercept 1
13 a = 9 4m i m = 4 254 ii! 2 m5 < 4 25iii m > 44 " 252 5 4 c a e.
(
,
)
2
=2 49c 200
8mm
x=3
iv x int y- ,1 b = 25 4m i m =
2
6 b x
= 10
ii m < 4x!*iii m > 4
4
1
d a 4y = 1 x2 + 70 -2
iii.
2 V,*-.(/
(3, 9)
1
1
1
iv.
7
b supports are 21 m, 34 m, 45 m,
100
49
$c = 1 4m i m = 4 ii m < 4 iii m > 4
x
# IB_01
x-intercepts 0, 6,
x!=
i.54mm,=61 m, 66 m, 69 m
*
y

int
1
1
1
1
16.
EXERCISE
8I.1
d

=
4

12m
i
m
=
ii
m
<
iii
m
>
y-intercept 0
@=-2(!+2)(!-1)
3
3
3
8 30) b y = 451 x=-\Q
(x w_30)2 + 30 c 38:89 m
8 a vertex (30,
49
1 e a 2=real
b 49real
a repeated
y
roots
49
8m roots
i ma.2
=
ii distinct
m <root
iii m > 49
x distinct
= 14
iv
0
8
8
8
REVIEW SET 8A 49
1 V&Qr_\' Oi_*c 2 real distinct roots d 252 real distinct25roots
f e no
= 25
16m i mb.a
= 16repeated
iirootm <root
iii m > 25
16
16
, 98 )
y
2 1 a a xii.
=m
2 1<
de
y
2,
xreal roots f a repeated
-\Qw_
x+* 1
2 a, b, 8I.2
d, f
&-\Qw_\'x!2
Ow_\*
EXERCISE
1
1 8
b
(2,
4)
c.2
real
distinct
roots
intercepts 2 , 1,
b x = 2
4
m < 94 iii m > 94
=
9 4m
= 94 ii x-axis
c
2
1 3 a a cuts
x-axis
twice i bm touches
intercept 1
1 9 49
d.2
real
distinct
roots
c
(
,
)
25
c b cuts
2 2>
iii. m
x-axis
= 25 twice
4m id mcuts
= x-axis
ii twice
m < 25
iii m > 25
4
4
4
e cuts x-axis twice f e.no
touches
x-axis
-2
1 x
d 4
8
1 real roots
1
1
-2
=
1which
4mis >
i 0mand
= 4 ii= 15
m < which
iii is m
>
!=\Q
r_ a c a
x
4
4
2
=
1
<
0
iv.
f.2=real
distinct
1
1 roots
f. @=\Q
= 25
16m
bd a
==
14
which
ii= 8
12mis <
i 0m and
m <which
iiiis <
m 0> 13
@=-2(!+2)(!-1)
w_\(!-2)X-4
3
3
c a = 2 which is > 0 17.
and
is < 0
=3
ivg.
x=-\Qw_
49 = 40 which
y
e = 49 8m i m =a,b,d,f
ii m < 49
iii m > 49
25
8
V,*-.(/
d a = 2 which is < 0 and 8 = 23 which
is < 0 8
3, 9)
i. x = 3
i.
m
=
(2'-4)
25
25
25
= 25 is16m
i 18.
m==16k2 +
ii 12m which
< 16 isiiialways
m > 16
3 a f=IB_01
3 which
> 0 and
-intercepts 0, 6,
yy
32a a y x
==
(x216
2)2 d5 d
2
> 0 fas8I.2
k > 0 for all a.
kg = 9 4m
x!2
-intercept 0
ii. 3,9
EXERCISE
4)
b b (2,(2,5)
2
25
16
)
positive
definite
4 10 a a= 2cuts
which
is
>
0
and

=
k
2
x 2x-axis twice b touches
c c 1
9 x-axis
ii.
m<
k x-axis
16 <
0 i.e.,
k2 <x-axis
16
i.e.,
x int 0,6 when
c cuts
twice
d i. cuts
twice4 < k < 4
m
=
16
xx
iii.
e
cuts
x-axis
twice
f
touches
x-axis
4
8J
-1
-2
y intx+*
0 EXERCISE
2
1
which
15
is < 0
25
1 2 a a y a==2(x
1)(x is>
2)0 bandy
==
2(x
2)which
9
iii. m@=\Q
>w_@=!X-4!-1
b
a
=
1
which
is
<
0
and

=
8
which
\(!-2)X-4
c y = (x 1)(x 3) dii. m
y =<(x 3)(x + 1) is < 0
16
c a = 2 which 2is > 0 and = 40 which is < 0
(2'-5)
edy a
==
3(x
1) isf <y0=and
2(x4+=2)(x
3)
2
which
23 which
is < 0

3 2
15
(2'-4)
23 a a C
b
E
c
B
d
F
e
G
2 f H g A h D
19.
1968:
4238
cigarettes
per
4
a
y
=
2
x
+

d
2
2
= 3 which is > 0 and = k + 12 which is always
3
1
3 a y3= (x15 2)2 5 d
y
(xk2 2)(x
3 a >y0=fas
y
>0
for4)all b
kg y = 2 (x + 4)(x 2)
2
Yes
b b person;
((2,
,

)
2 5)2
2
4
2
(x
+
3)
16
)
positive
definite
4 c a y==2 which
is
>
0
and

=
k
x
3
c c 3
1
when k22 16 < 0 i.e., k2 < 16 2 i.e., 4 < k < 4
4 aIB_01
y = 3x 18x + 15 b y = 4x + 6x + 4
30
1.1 Introduction to functions
x
EXERCISE
8J 2 + 6x 9 d y = 4x2 + 16x + 16
-1
c y = x
-3
@=2!X+6!-3
2
1 2(x
1 e a y y==3 2(x
1)(x
x2 6x
+ 92 2)f yb = y=
x2 +23 x2)+ 5
@=!X-4!-1
2
3
c y = (x 1)(x
2 3) d y = (x 23)(x + 1)
5 a y = (x 2) +24 b y = 2(x 2) 1
(2'-5)
e y = 3(x 1) f y = 2(x + 2)(x 3)
&-\Ew_\'-\Qs_T_*
2

2
=
y-intercept
1 iv
3

1 9 y
ii. ,
4 8

20.
21.6.25s; 629 ft
22.
23.The graph has a shape of a
parabola
24.
25.30ft; 60ft; 1800ft2
26.
27.5 in
28.
29.
30.
31.f
32.f
33.f
34.f
35.

40.f
41.

a.
The data decrease and then
increase.
b. y = 0.01x 2 0.22x + 15.10
c. x 18;1940 + 18 = 1958;
worst year: 1958;
fuel efficiency: about 13.1 mpg

a.
You can only see a little of the
parabola
b. ( 20.5,120.5 )

d.
42.
43.Answers will vary.

c. Ymax = 750
d.You can choose Xmin and
Xmax so the x-value of the
vertex is in the center of the
graph. Choose Y min to include
y-value of the vertex.
44.f
36.
45. x = 3; ( 0,11)
37. ( 2.5,185 )

38.
39. ( 30,91)

1.1 Introduction to functions

Autumn 2011

31