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UA5000 Universal Access Unit Product Description

Contents

Contents
1 System Overview .......................................................................................................................1-1
About This Chapter ........................................................................................................................... 1-1 1.1 Product Orientation ..................................................................................................................... 1-2 1.2 Features and Benefits .................................................................................................................. 1-3 1.2.1 Multi-Service Access Platform .......................................................................................... 1-3 1.2.2 High-Density Subscriber Line Access ............................................................................... 1-4 1.2.3 Service Processing Capabilities ......................................................................................... 1-4 1.2.4 Operable Broadband Video Services ................................................................................. 1-4 1.2.5 Flexible Networking Modes............................................................................................... 1-4 1.2.6 Reliability........................................................................................................................... 1-5 1.2.7 Range of UA5000 Models ................................................................................................. 1-6 1.2.8 Element Management System............................................................................................ 1-6 1.3 Major Service Offerings .............................................................................................................. 1-7 1.3.1 PSTN Voice Services ......................................................................................................... 1-7 1.3.2 Next Generation Voice Services......................................................................................... 1-8 1.3.3 Broadband Services ........................................................................................................... 1-8 1.3.4 Private Circuit Services...................................................................................................... 1-9

2 System Structure ........................................................................................................................2-1


About This Chapter ........................................................................................................................... 2-1 2.1 Logical Structure ......................................................................................................................... 2-2 2.2 Software Structure ....................................................................................................................... 2-3 2.3 Cabinet......................................................................................................................................... 2-4 2.3.1 Cabinet Specifications ....................................................................................................... 2-4 2.3.2 Power Supply System and its Monitoring Functions......................................................... 2-5 2.4 Shelves......................................................................................................................................... 2-8 2.4.1 Rear-Access Shelf .............................................................................................................. 2-8 2.4.2 Front-Access Shelf............................................................................................................. 2-9 2.4.3 Shelf Hardware Description............................................................................................. 2-13 2.5 Cards.......................................................................................................................................... 2-15

3 Service Implementation............................................................................................................3-1

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About This Chapter ........................................................................................................................... 3-1 3.1 VoIP Service ................................................................................................................................ 3-2 3.1.1 Voice Codecs...................................................................................................................... 3-2 3.1.2 Echo Cancellation .............................................................................................................. 3-4 3.1.3 Generating Tones ............................................................................................................... 3-5 3.1.4 Digit Collection.................................................................................................................. 3-5 3.1.5 Message Waiting Indicator Service.................................................................................... 3-6 3.1.6 Equipment Authentication ................................................................................................. 3-6 3.1.7 Standalone Capability ........................................................................................................ 3-8 3.1.8 DDI and Escape Channel ................................................................................................... 3-9 3.1.9 Dual Homing.................................................................................................................... 3-10 3.1.10 Hairpin Connection........................................................................................................ 3-11 3.1.11 Overload Control............................................................................................................ 3-11 3.1.12 VAG ............................................................................................................................... 3-12 3.1.13 IP Address Separation of Signalling Flow and Media Flow .......................................... 3-12 3.2 FoIP Service .............................................................................................................................. 3-13 3.3 MoIP Service ............................................................................................................................. 3-15 3.4 VLAN ........................................................................................................................................ 3-16 3.4.1 Overview.......................................................................................................................... 3-16 3.4.2 Standard VLAN ............................................................................................................... 3-17 3.4.3 MUX VLAN .................................................................................................................... 3-17 3.4.4 Smart VLAN .................................................................................................................... 3-18 3.4.5 Super VLAN .................................................................................................................... 3-18 3.4.6 Comparisons Between Different VLANs ........................................................................ 3-19 3.4.7 QinQ................................................................................................................................. 3-20 3.4.8 Stacking............................................................................................................................ 3-22 3.5 ARP and ARP Proxy .................................................................................................................. 3-24 3.6 DHCP Relay .............................................................................................................................. 3-26 3.7 Multicast.................................................................................................................................... 3-28 3.8 QoS............................................................................................................................................ 3-31 3.8.1 Precedence Tagging ......................................................................................................... 3-31 3.8.2 Traffic Policing ................................................................................................................ 3-33 3.8.3 Port Rate Limiting............................................................................................................ 3-33 3.8.4 Queue Scheduling ............................................................................................................ 3-33 3.8.5 Traffic Mirroring .............................................................................................................. 3-35 3.8.6 RTCP Detection ............................................................................................................... 3-35 3.9 MAC Address Management ...................................................................................................... 3-37 3.10 STP and RSTP ......................................................................................................................... 3-38 3.11 Routing Management .............................................................................................................. 3-39

4 Typical Application Scenarios.................................................................................................4-1

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Figures

Figures
Figure 1-1 The UA5000 in the overall solution................................................................................ 1-2 Figure 2-1 The UA5000 logical structure......................................................................................... 2-2 Figure 2-2 The UA5000 software architecture ................................................................................. 2-3 Figure 2-3 HABA shelf layout.......................................................................................................... 2-9 Figure 2-4 HABD shelf layout ....................................................................................................... 2-11 Figure 2-5 HABF shelf layout ........................................................................................................ 2-11 Figure 2-6 HABL shelf layout ........................................................................................................ 2-12 Figure 2-7 Hardware architecture of the master shelf .................................................................... 2-13 Figure 2-8 Hardware architecture of the extended shelf................................................................. 2-14 Figure 3-1 Authentication procedure based on the H.248 protocol .................................................. 3-7 Figure 3-2 DDI and escape channel application scenario................................................................. 3-9 Figure 3-3 Heartbeat detect and switchover process based on H.248 ............................................ 3-10 Figure 3-4 The implementation of the VBD fax............................................................................. 3-13 Figure 3-5 The implementation of the T.38 fax .............................................................................. 3-14 Figure 3-6 Implementation of the MoIP service............................................................................. 3-15 Figure 3-7 QinQ application........................................................................................................... 3-21 Figure 3-8 VLAN stacking application .......................................................................................... 3-23 Figure 3-9 The implementation of the ARP proxy ......................................................................... 3-24 Figure 3-10 Implementation of DHCP relay .................................................................................. 3-26 Figure 3-11 ToS field of the IP header............................................................................................ 3-32 Figure 3-12 DS field of the IP header............................................................................................. 3-32 Figure 3-13 Frame structure of 802.1Q .......................................................................................... 3-33 Figure 3-14 Schematic diagram of PQ ........................................................................................... 3-34 Figure 4-1 NGN consolidation ......................................................................................................... 4-2 Figure 4-2 Private circuit service...................................................................................................... 4-3 Figure 4-3 Triple play application .................................................................................................... 4-4

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Figures

UA5000 Universal Access Unit Product Description

Figure 5-1 Maintaining the UA5000 through the CLI...................................................................... 5-2 Figure 5-2 Inband EMS networking ................................................................................................. 5-7 Figure 5-3 Outband EMS networking .............................................................................................. 5-8

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Tables

Tables
Table 1-1 Description of the UA5000 broadband subsystem ........................................................... 1-3 Table 1-2 Description of the UA5000 narrowband subsystem ......................................................... 1-3 Table 2-1 Specification of the cabinet that houses the UA5000 shelves .......................................... 2-4 Table 2-2 Description of the power supply system........................................................................... 2-5 Table 2-3 Description of the control cards...................................................................................... 2-15 Table 2-4 Description of the narrowband line cards ....................................................................... 2-16 Table 2-5 Description of the broadband line card........................................................................... 2-17 Table 2-6 Description of the broadband and narrowband combo line cards................................... 2-18 Table 2-7 Description of the other cards......................................................................................... 2-18 Table 3-1 Rates and packetisation delays of various codecs............................................................. 3-2 Table 3-2 Voice codecs and the required bandwidths ....................................................................... 3-4 Table 5-1 Configuration functions of UA5000 NE Manager............................................................ 5-5 Table 6-1 Dimensions of the cabinet that houses the UA5000 shelf ................................................ 6-2 Table 6-2 Dimensions of the UA5000 shelves.................................................................................. 6-2 Table 6-3 Weight of the UA5000 cabinet ......................................................................................... 6-2 Table 6-4 The running environment of the UA5000......................................................................... 6-3 Table 6-5 Power supply parameters of the UA5000 ......................................................................... 6-3 Table 6-6 System performance specifications .................................................................................. 6-3 Table 6-7 Types and number of the management interfaces ............................................................. 6-4 Table 6-8 Types and number of the network interfaces .................................................................... 6-4 Table 6-9 Types and number of the customer interfaces................................................................... 6-5 Table 6-10 Technical specifications of the STM-1 port.................................................................... 6-7 Table 6-11 Technical specifications of the 100Base-Tx port ............................................................ 6-7 Table 6-12 Technical specifications of the 100Base-Fx port ............................................................ 6-8 Table 6-13 Technical specifications of the 1000Base-Sx port .......................................................... 6-9 Table 6-14 Technical specifications of the 1000Base-Lx port.......................................................... 6-9

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Tables

UA5000 Universal Access Unit Product Description

Table 6-15 Technical specifications of the 1000Base-Zx port........................................................ 6-10 Table 6-16 Technical specifications of the E3 electrical port ......................................................... 6-10 Table 6-17 Technical specifications of the T3 electrical port ......................................................... 6-11 Table 6-18 Technical specifications of the ADSL port ................................................................... 6-11 Table 6-19 Technical specifications of the ADSL2+ port ............................................................... 6-11 Table 6-20 Technical specifications of the SHDSL port................................................................. 6-12 Table 6-21 Technical specifications of the VDSL port ................................................................... 6-12 Table 6-22 Technical specifications of the E1 port ......................................................................... 6-13 Table 6-23 Technical specifications of the V.35 port ...................................................................... 6-13 Table 6-24 Features and specifications of the IP service ................................................................ 6-15 Table 6-25 Features and specifications of the AG service .............................................................. 6-17 Table 6-26 Features and specifications of terminal management and line test............................... 6-20 Table 6-27 Standards compliance ................................................................................................... 6-21

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1 System Overview

1
About This Chapter
Section 1.1 1.2 Product Orientation Features and Benefits Describes 1.3 Major Service Offerings

System Overview

The following table lists the contents of this chapter.

The position of the UA5000 in a telecommunications network. The major features and benefits of the UA5000 The major services offered by the UA5000, including the voice, broadband and private circuit services

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1 System Overview

UA5000 Universal Access Unit Product Description

1.1 Product Orientation


With an increasing demand in telecommunications services such as voice, data, video and multi-media, the need for an access network that can provide multiple large-capacity, high-speed and high-quality services has become imperative. The Huawei UA5000 Universal Access Unit (referred to as the UA5000) provides the legacy voice access, broadband access, voice over IP (VoIP) and multimedia services. The UA5000 helps you to construct a multi-service access network at low cost. Figure 1-1 shows the position of the UA5000 in an overall network solution.
H.248 PSTN DDN ATM IP

E1(V5) Aggregation layer

E1

STM-1

FE/GE

H.248

STM-1/FE

MSTP

Access layer

CPE

V.24 V.35 E1

POTS ADSL LAN ISDN ADSL2+ VDSL VoIP SHDSL

: UA5000 : Media Gateway Controller (MGC) PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network DDN: Digital Data Network ATM: Asynchronous Transfer Mode IP: Internet Protocol STM-1: Synchronous Transfer Mode 1 FE: Fast Ethernet GE: Gigabit Ethernet CPE: Customers Premises Equipment VDSL: Very High Speed Digital Subscriber Line POTS: Plain Old Telephone Service ADSL: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line ISDN: Integrated Services Digital Network SHDSL: Single-pair High-speed Digital Subscriber Line LAN: Local Area Network MSTP: Multi-service Transport Platform

Figure 1-1 The UA5000 in the overall solution

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1.2 Features and Benefits


1.2.1 Multi-Service Access Platform
The UA5000 consists of the broadband and narrowband subsystems. The broadband subsystem is controlled by the IPMB card, and the narrowband subsystem is controlled by the PVMB card or the PVU card. Table 1-1and Table 1-2 describe these two subsystems.
Table 1-1 Description of the UA5000 broadband subsystem Control Card IPMB Function Supports: Broadband access Broadband private circuit Interface Description Customer interfaces: ADSL, ADSL2+, VDSL, ATM SHDSL and FE Network interfaces: FE, GE, STM-1, E3, T3 and IMA

Table 1-2 Description of the UA5000 narrowband subsystem Control Card PVMB Function Supports: VoIP voice services Legacy voice services Narrowband private line service PVU Supports: Legacy voice services Narrowband private circuits Interface Description Customer interfaces: POTS, ISDN BRI, ISDN PRI, TDM SHDSL, 2/4W, Voice frequency (VF), 64k VF Network interfaces: FE and E1 Customer interfaces: POTS, ISDN BRI, ISDN PRI, TDM SHDSL, 2/4W, VF, 64k VF, E&M, Z, FE1, E1, V.35 and V.24 Network interface: E1

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1.2.2 High-Density Subscriber Line Access


The UA5000 allows a high-density subscriber line access. The maximum number of ports provided by the UA5000 in a single cabinet is 1920 for narrowband only configuration 1920 for broadband only configuration 1920 for narrowband and broadband combination configuration

1.2.3 Service Processing Capabilities


The UA5000 supports TDM, IP and VoIP technologies, and features powerful service processing capabilities. The call processing capability of the PVMB card reaches 15 CAPS. The backplane capacity reaches 100 Gbit/s. The IPMB card provides two GE network interfaces. The system supports 1024 multicast channels.

1.2.4 Operable Broadband Video Services


The IPMB card of the UA5000 supports multicast protocols and controlled multicast for broadband video services. The features of the UA5000 for the multicast services are as follows: GE ports for video services and a high-speed bus to guarantee non-blocking forwarding of video streams Fast switching between channels Channel preview function Audience statistics function Controlled channel access Connection to the Service Management System (SMS)/Operating Support System (OSS) through the transaction language 1 (TL1) interface of the Element Management System (EMS) to support service auto provisioning Guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) to forward video streams

1.2.5 Flexible Networking Modes


The UA5000 adapts to various access network scenarios. You can use the UA5000 in complex topologies and challenging engineering environments. The UA5000 networking features include: Structure: supports the 2-layer structure (the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) and the Optical Network Unit (ONU)), and the 1-layer structure (ONU independent).

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Topology: supports the ring, star and tree topologies, or a combination of them. Broadband network interface: supports the IP interface to connect to the upper layer network. Bearing technology: supports the MSTP bearing technology. Subtending: supports local subtending through a star bus, and remote subtending through the FE or the SHDSL ports.

1.2.6 Reliability
The UA5000 adopts reliability design in terms of system, software and networking to ensure the robustness of the system.

System Reliability Design


The features of the system reliability design are as follows: Redundant backup of the control systems, switching fabrics, clocks, service processing modules and uplink interface cards Multiple clock references Redundant fan configuration with intelligent control and alarm functions Redundant backup of the primary power supplies and the secondary power supplies. Both power supplies work in the load-sharing mode. The power supplies support the real-time monitoring and alarm function. The power loads to different components are isolated. Load sharing of the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) resource of the PVMB card

Software Reliability Design


The features of the software reliability design are as follows: Modularisation and platform design Advanced design technologies including object-oriented design, error tolerance, error correction and auto recovery Capability maturity model (CMM) compliance

Networking Reliability Design


The features of the networking reliability design are as follows: 1+1 backup of the broadband star bus for local subtending MSTP networking to prevent single point of failures Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) protection and trunk for FE/GE ports Sub-network Connection Protection (SNCP) and Multiplex Section Protection (MSP) of Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) ports

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Support of dual homing. One UA5000 can register with two call servers. If one call server is faulty, the UA5000 switches over to the other.

1.2.7 Range of UA5000 Models


The UA5000 provides a wide range of models for a variety of situations. Capacities ranging from dozens to thousands of ports Indoor and outdoor cabinets for mild and harsh climates Large and small sized units (cabinet, chassis and desktop) Front-access and rear-access cabinets A wide variety of terminals

1.2.8 Element Management System


The UA5000 adopts the Huawei iManager N2000 Fixed Network Integrated Management System (hereinafter referred to as N2000) as its Element Management System (EMS). The following describes the features of the N2000. Uniform management mode: The N2000 provides a centralized management for the narrowband and broadband services of the UA5000. Rich interfaces: The N2000 provides various southbound interfaces such as Telnet, Man Machine Language (MML) and Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) V2 to connect to the managed devices. It also provides standard SNMP and TL1 northbound interfaces to connect to the OSS. The N2000 helps the carriers to build an integrated and automatic OSS platform at the network layer. Security management: The N2000 provides abundant user management and authentication functions down to the shelves and cards of the managed devices. In-service upgrade and maintenance: The N2000 supports the online reporting of hardware and software versions, in-service upgrade and loading of card software and host software, as well as the in-service loading and management of patches. Environment monitor: The environmental monitoring unit (EMU) carries out the real-time monitoring and generates remote alarms with regard to humidity, temperature, access control sensors and power systems. Traffic measurement: The system supports to collect traffic data periodically, and provides the traffic query and analysis function. Terminal management: The system supports to configure, test and monitor ADSL and ATM SHDSL terminals in a centralised manner to facilitate large scale deployment. Performance measurement: The system provides port-based traffic measurement function, MG interface call measurement function, H.248 message measurement function and call measurement at overload.

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1.3 Major Service Offerings


The UA5000 supports multiple services including voice, broadband and private circuit services. The PVMB card controls the voice and narrowband private circuit services, and the IPMB card controls the broadband access and broadband private circuit services.

1.3.1 PSTN Voice Services


The UA5000 supports the standard V5.1 and V5.2 protocols, and provides standard V5 interface to connect to Local Exchanges (LEs) to access PSTN services. The major features of the PSTN voice service are as follows:

POTS
The UA5000 provides POTS ports to support the access of analogue subscribers and PBXs. The UA5000 supports supplementary services such as Central Exchange (CENTREX) and Caller Identification Display (CID).

ISDN
The UA5000 provides ISDN BRI (2B+D) ports and ISDN PRI (30B+D) ports, and supports various N-ISDN services, including: Video conferencing Videotext G4 facsimile E-mail Data retrieval LAN interconnection Internet access The UA5000 also supports ISDN supplementary services. These ISDN supplementary services include: Direct dial-in (DDI) Multi-subscriber number (MSN) Calling line identification presentation (CLIP) The UA5000 supports a mixed configuration of ISDN subscribers and analogue telephone subscribers.

Direct-Dial-In
The UA5000 provides DDI subscriber ports to support the subscriber line extension service. This service enables the external analogue subscriber ports of other exchanges to be transparently extended inside the access network.

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1.3.2 Next Generation Voice Services


Service Types
Working as an access media gateway (AMG), the UA5000 provides the following services under the control of a call server. Basic voice services and complementary services, supporting the applications such as DEL, earthing calling PBX, loop calling PBX and payphone. ISDN BRA and ISDN PRA Fax over IP (FoIP ) in the Voice Band Data (VBD) mode FoIP in the T.38 mode Modem over IP (MoIP) in the VBD mode Communication between textphones

Service Features
The major features of the next generation voice services are as follows: Supports the Virtual Access Gateway (VAG) capability. Supports the G.711 (a-law/-law), G.723.1 and G.729 (A/B) codecs Supports the G.711 codec with 10 ms packetisation delay Supports the standalone capability Supports echo cancellation complying with ITU-T G.165/G.168 Supports point to point delay <= 25 ms with net jitter = 2 ms Supports pulse metering and polarity reversal metering Supports Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) statistics Supports the measurement of the H.248 protocol messages and the traffics on the FE port Supports call traffic measurement Supports playing announcement tones Provides QoS assurance for voice traffics with functions including priority queuing, jitter buffering, IP Type of Service (ToS), Differentiated Service Code Point (DSCP), 802.1Q VLAN, packet loss compensation, voice activation detection (VAD), and comfortable noise generation (CNG) Supports separate gain control of the transmission and reception streams

1.3.3 Broadband Services


Broadband Service Interface
The UA5000 provides the following broadband customer interfaces: ADSL and ADSL 2+

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SHDSL VDSL Ethernet The UA5000 provides the following broadband network interfaces: FE GE

Customer Security Management


The UA5000 provides the following methods to guarantee the security of the customer data and the network. Customer isolation at layer 2 through the VLAN Customer isolation within one Smart VLAN Host number restriction of each port Port searching by a MAC address Binding of a MAC address and a port Binding of an IP address and a port MAC address filtering Controlled number of multicast groups to access a port

Layer 2 and Layer 3 Features


The UA5000 provides a complete TCP/IP protocol stack through its IPMB card. The layer 2 and layer 3 features of the UA5000 include: DHCP relay ARP proxy PPPoE+ Protocol conversion between IP over ATM (IPoA) and IP over Ethernet (IPoE) Protocol conversion between PPP over ATM (PPPoA) and PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) ACL RIP OSPF

1.3.4 Private Circuit Services


The UA5000 provides rich private circuit services to meet the needs of enterprise customers. The major private circuit services offered by the UA5000 are as follows:

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Local and remote DDN access through DDN ports such as E1, V.35, V.24, TDM SHDSL and 2/4-wireVF SHDSL access through ATM SHDSL ports Private circuit data at a symmetric rate of 10 Mbit/s within 1.5 km through VDSL ports Broadband private circuit LAN interconnection through the Ethernet ports

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2 System Structure

2
About This Chapter
Section 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Logical Structure Software Structure Cabinet Shelves Cards Describes

System Structure

The following table lists the contents of this chapter.

The logical structure of the UA5000 and the function of each module. The software structure of the UA5000 and the function of each module. The cabinet specifications and the power supply system. The structure and hardware principles of the HABA, HABD, HABF and HABL shelves. The cards of the UA5000, including the control card, line card, interface card, splitter card, environment monitoring card and secondary power supply card.

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2.1 Logical Structure


Figure 2-1 shows the logical structure of the UA5000. The UA5000 consists of the following modules: TDM control and switching module Packet control and switching module Packet voice processing module Network-network interface (NNI) module User-network interface (UNI) module
POTS ISDN E1 TDM SHDSL V.24 TDM control and switching module E1

NNI Module

Figure 2-1 The UA5000 logical structure

The following describes the UA5000 logical structure. The TDM control and switching module implements the switching and convergence of narrowband services through the TDM switching fabric. The packet control and switching module implements the switching and convergence of broadband services through the packet switching fabric. The packet voice processing module converts the voice stream to IP packets through voice encoding and sends them to the NGN. The NNI module provides various network ports including the STM-1, E3/T3, TDM E1, IMA E1, FE and GE ports. The UNI module provides various service ports including POTS, ISDN BRI (2B+D), ISDN PRI (30B+D), V.24 sub-rate, V.24/V.35 64 kbit/s, V.35/FE1 N x 64 kbit/s, E1, ADSL, ADSL2+, VDSL, SHDSL (TDM/ATM), Ethernet and 2/4-wire VF ports.

U NI Module

V.35 N x 64k 2/4-w VF Packet voice processing module FE/GE

ADSL ADSL2+ VDSL ATM SHDSL Ethernet Packet control and switching module STM-1 E3/T3 TDM E1 IMA E1 FE/GE

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2.2 Software Structure


Figure 2-2 shows the software structure of the UA5000 system. The UA5000 software consists of the card software and the host software.
NMS Inband/outband Serial port terminal Serial port connection Telnet Inband/outband

Host software

Communication control bus

Card software 1

Card software 2

...

Board Card software N software

Figure 2-2 The UA5000 software architecture

Card software
The card software runs on a line card, an interface card, a monitor card or a power supply card of a certain type. The software drives the card and implements service management, data management, alarm management and fault diagnosis for the card.

Host software
The host software runs on a control card. The software consists of four layers as follows: System support layer: drives the system hardware. System service layer: provides basic services for the software running. Its fundamental module is the operating system. System management layer: provides users with the means to manage the equipment and services. Service control layer: interprets and executes the commands for service configuration. It carries out the protocol communication between devices, handles the service requests and provides the services.

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2.3 Cabinet
2.3.1 Cabinet Specifications
Table 2-1 lists the cabinet that houses the UA5000 shelves.
Table 2-1 Specification of the cabinet that houses the UA5000 shelves Model Type Shelf Max. Number of Ports POTS Only ONU-F01D2001 ONU-F01D5002 ONU-F01D10003 Outdoor, front-access Outdoor, front-access Outdoor, front-access Indoor, rear-access 1 HABD 1 HABD + 1 HABF 1 HABD + 1 HABF + 1 HABD 1 HABA 1 HABA+ 1 HABA ONU-F02AF4 Indoor, front-access 1 HABD+ 1 HABF 1 HABD+ 2 HABFs+ 1 HABD 1. 2. 384 960 1344 ADSL Only 32-port: 384 16-port: 192 32-port: 672 16-port: 480 32-port: 960 16-port: 480 960 1920 960 1920 32-port: 960 16-port: 480 32-port: 1920 16-port: 960 32-port: 960 16-port: 480 32-port: 1344 16-port: 960 POTS & ADSL Combo 32-port: 384 16-port: 192 32-port: 672 16-port: 480 32-port: 960 16-port: 480 32-port: 960 16-port: 480 32-port: 1920 16-port: 960 32-port: 960 16-port: 480 32-port: 1344 16-port: 960

ONU-F02A

3.

4.

The F01D200 can be fully populated with 32-port combo line cards or 32-port broadband line cards. The F01D500 can be configured with up to two service shelves. In the two service shelves, you can configure up to twenty-one 32-port broadband line cards or 32-port combo line cards owing to the power consumption. The F01D1000 can be configured with up to three shelves. In the three service shelves, you can configure up to thirty 32-port broadband line cards or 32-port combo line cards owing to the power consumption. The F02AF can be configured with up to four shelves. The maximum number of 32-port broadband line cards or 32-port combo line cards is 42 owing to the cabling. When 32-port broadband line cards are used, up to three shelves can be configured, and the fourth shelf cannot be configured. When 32-port combo line cards are used, up to 42 slots can be configured with the combo line cards while the others can be configured with only narrowband line cards.

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2.3.2 Power Supply System and its Monitoring Functions


Power Supply System
The power supply system used by the UA5000 can be any one of the PS4860, PS4845 or a DC distribution unit. Refer to Table 2-2 for details.
Table 2-2 Description of the power supply system Parameter Input voltage Composition GEPS4860 220 VAC Rectifier unit: HRS1150-9000 Power monitoring unit: PSM-B9 Structure Applied cabinet Features 19 inches wide, 3 U high Rear-access cabinet Stable and reliable operation, flexible configuration; outstanding power supply and battery management, and environment and power supply monitoring GEPS4845 220 VAC or 110 VAC Rectifier unit: 4815 Power monitoring unit: PSM-B5 Power distribution unit 19 inches wide, 3 U high Front-access cabinet N+1 backup of the rectifier modules; safe and reliable power supply and DC distribution functions; outstanding environment, and power monitor and battery management 19 inches wide, 2 U high Front-access cabinet and rear-access cabinet / DC Distribution Unit 48 VDC (two inputs) /

Environmental Monitoring System


The UA5000 has powerful environmental monitoring functions to monitor the following items: Environmental parameters inside and outside the cabinet Power supply Fan Battery The EMUs include: Environmental monitoring card Environmental monitoring box

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Power monitoring unit Built-in monitor card in the power distribution unit

Environmental Monitoring Card


The environmental monitoring card includes the H303ESC and H304ESC cards. Here, the H304ESC card is taken as an example to introduce the functions and features. Note that although the H303ESC and H304ESC cards have the same basic features, the H304ESC card has a battery management function, but no humidity monitoring function. The H304ESC card communicates with the control card through serial ports. The H304ESC card can monitor 8 analogue parameters, 22 digital parameters, and multiple types of intelligent power supply through serial ports. The detailed functions of the H304ESC are as follows: Analogue parameter monitoring: The H304ESC card has built-in temperature and humidity sensors, which monitor the temperature and humidity in the cabinet. It also provides six analogue signal interfaces to connect external analogue sensors. For each monitor signal, you can set the alarm upper and lower limits and the sensor properties. Digital parameter monitoring: The H304ESC card monitors the power distribution unit and door status. It also provides 20 digital sensor interfaces to connect various external digital sensors. The external sensors use a 12 V or 24 V power supply. You can define the effective level of the sensors. Fan monitoring: The H304ESC card provides the power supply interfaces for the cabinets fan shelf and controls the fan speed with respect to the temperature. It can also monitor the running status of each fan through the fan monitor card. Intelligent power supply monitoring: The H304ESC card monitors and manages multiple types of intelligent power supplies through its serial port. Battery management function: The H304ESC card monitors and manages the powering on, powering off and the equalized charging of batteries.

Environmental Monitoring Box


The environmental monitoring box consists of the H304ESC card, the H601ESBB plane and the H601ESFB front panel. The box has the following functions: Monitors various environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, smoke, water, door status and main distribution frame (MDF) Provides multiple types of extended monitoring interfaces Monitors the power system when connected to the monitoring unit of the GEPS4845 power module.

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Power Monitoring Unit


The power monitoring unit includes PSM-B9 and PSM-B5. The unit has following functions: Monitors the power supply in real time Manages the battery based on the configuration Obtains the running parameter values of the power supply system Configures and controls the power supply system

Built-in Monitor Card in the Power Distribution Unit


The built-in monitor card can monitor the following parameters: Lightning protection components Input voltage Output voltage Shunt protection switch Temperature and humidity in the power distribution unit The card provides eight digital monitor interfaces to detect other environment parameters, such as water, door status and MDF.

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2.4 Shelves
There are two types of shelves: the front-access shelf and the rear-access shelf. This section describes the structure and the hardware principles of the UA5000 shelves.

Note For details about the cards mentioned in this section, refer to "2.5

Cards".

2.4.1 Rear-Access Shelf


The HABA shelf is the master shelf of the rear-access UA5000, which stands at a height of 16 U (1 U=44.55 mm). The HABA shelf can subtend another HABA shelf and aggregate services from the subordinate shelf. The HABA shelf provides 36 slots, of which 30 are available for line cards. You can insert narrowband line cards and broadband line cards in any of the 30 line card slots. However, if you are using the TSSB card, you must insert the TSSB card in the positions shown in Figure 2-3. The two narrowband control cards and the two broadband control cards in the shelf support backup in the event of a primary controller failure. The HABA shelf can use a minimum of one and a maximum of two PWX cards. The two PWX cards in the shelf share the power supply load, and if one PWX fails, the other dynamically provides the necessary power. When one HABA shelf is subtended with another HABA shelf through the highway, the subordinate HABA shelf is equipped with only broadband control cards and as many as 30 line cards. Figure 2-3 shows the layout of the HABA shelf.

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Fan
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

2 System Structure

I I P P P P W W M M X X B B

P V x / R S U x

P V x / R S U x

A I U B / x S L

T A S I S U x x x x x x x x x B B S S S S S S S S S / / L L L L L L L L L x x S S L L

Cable routing area Fan


18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L

Cable routing area


PWX: Secondary power supply card IPMB: Broadband control card PVx: Narrowband control card RSUx: Remote subscriber unit (RSU8/RSU4) AIUB: ATM interface card xSL: Line card (ASL/DSL/ADMB/VDLA/SDLB) TSSB: Test card

Figure 2-3 HABA shelf layout

2.4.2 Front-Access Shelf


Overview
There are four models of the UA5000 front-access shelves: the HABD (master shelf), HABF (extended shelf) and HABL (mini shelf). The HABD shelf controls the HABF shelf. The switching resource and the uplink bandwidth between the master and extended shelves are shared. The HABL shelf applies to the mini-capacity UA5000.

HABD Shelf
The HABD shelf is the master shelf of the UA5000, which stands at a height of 10 U. The HABD shelf can be subtended with HABD and HABF shelves, and the HABD shelf aggregates the services from the subordinate shelves.

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The HABD shelf provides 18 slots, of which 12 are reserved for line cards. You can insert narrowband line cards, broadband line cards and combo line cards as desired, while you can insert the TSSB card only in the position as shown in Figure 2-4. The two narrowband control cards and the two broadband control cards in the shelf support backup in the event of a primary controller failure. The HABD shelf can use a minimum of one and a maximum of two PWX cards. The two PWX cards in the shelf share the power supply load, and if one PWX fails, the other dynamically provides the necessary power. When one HABD shelf is subtended with another HABD shelf, the subordinate HABD shelf is equipped with only broadband control cards and as many as 12 line cards. Figure 2-4 shows the layout of the HABD shelf.

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Fan
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

2 System Structure

P V I I x P P P P / W W M M R X X B B S U x

P V x / R S U x

A I U B / x S L

A T I S U S x x x x x x x x x B B S S S S S S S S S / / L L L L L L L L L x x S S L L Cable routing area

Control & interconnect cable connecting area

Line card cable connecting area

PWX: Secondary power supply card IPMB: Broadband control card PVx: Narrowband control card RSUx: Remote subscriber unit (RSU8/RSU4) AIUB: ATM interface card xSL: Line card (ASL/DSL/ADMB/VDLA/SDLB) TSSB: Test card

Figure 2-4 HABD shelf layout

HABF Shelf
The HABF shelf is the extended shelf of the UA5000, which stands at a height of 10 U. It operates under the control of the HABD shelf, and provides the power supply to the HABD shelf. The HABF shelf provides 18 slots. They are all line card slots. You can insert narrowband line cards, broadband line cards and combo line cards as desired. Figure 2-5 shows the layout of the HABF shelf.
Fan
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17

x x x x x x S S S S S S L L L L L L

x x x x x x x x x x x x S S S S S S S S S S S S L L L L L L L L L L L L

Cable routing area Interconnect cable connecting area Line card cable connecting area

xSL: Line card (ASL/DSL/ADMB/VDLA/SDLB)

Figure 2-5 HABF shelf layout

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HABL Shelf
The HABL shelf is the mini shelf of the UA5000, which stands at a height of 10 U. The HABL shelf provides 12 slots, of which 5 are available for line cards. You can insert the narrowband and the broadband line cards as desired. The shelf supports up to three 32-port ADSL/ADSL2+ line cards, three POTS and ADSL/ADSL2+ combo line cards, or five other line cards. The TSSB card can be installed only in slot 11. The two narrowband and the two broadband control cards in the shelf support backup in the event of primary controller failures. The HABL shelf can use a minimum of one and a maximum of two PWX cards. The two PWX cards in the shelf share the power supply load, and if one PWX fails, the other dynamically provides the necessary power. Figure 2-6 shows the layout of the HABL shelf.
Fan
00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11

P V I I x P P P P / W W M M R X X B B S U x

P V x x / S R L S U x

x x x x T S S S S S L L L L S B

Cable routing area Cable connecting area PWX: Secondary power supply card IPMB: Broadband control card PVx: Narrowband control card (PVU8/PVU4/PVM) RSUx: Remote subscriber unit (RSU8/RSU4) xSL: Service card (ASL/DSL/ADMB/VDLA/SDLB) TSSB: Test card

Figure 2-6 HABL shelf layout

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2.4.3 Shelf Hardware Description


Master Shelves (HABA/HABD/HABL)
Figure 2-7 shows the hardware architecture of the master shelf.
NNI To master or extended shelf

Master shelf P V x

I P M B

TDM bus Broadband bus Test bus T S S B x D S L

A S L

C S M

D S L

E A U

UNI

Figure 2-7 Hardware architecture of the master shelf

The master shelf is the control core of the UA5000. The shelf controls the subordinate shelves. The shelf can also connect subscriber cables. The master shelf switches, aggregates and transmits services uplink for the subordinate shelves.

Note The HABL shelf does not subtend extended shelves since it is a mini-capacity shelf.

The service handling process of the UA5000 is as follows: The narrowband line cards send services to the narrowband control card (PVU8, PVU4 and PVM) through the TDM bus. After carrying out the protocol processing and time slot crossing, the PVU8/PVU4/PVM forwards these services upstream through the NNI.

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The broadband line cards send services to the broadband control card (IPMB) through the broadband bus, and the IMPB aggregates and forwards these services uplink through the NNI. The line card management of the UA5000 is as follows: The narrowband control card manages the narrowband line cards and test card in this shelf and the subtended shelves that are connected to this shelf through buses. The broadband control card manages the broadband line cards, interface cards and test card in this shelf and the subtended shelves that are connected to this shelf through buses. The broadband control card can manage the narrowband control card through the backplane communication channel to realize the narrowband and broadband integrated management. When the UA5000 acts as a component of the NGN, the PVM converts the TDM signals of all narrowband service data into IP packets and sends the IP packets to the IPMB card. The IPMB then forwards these packets upstream to the IP network along with the broadband services. The TSSB card tests the line cards, and reports the test results to the control cards.

Extended Shelf (HABF)


Figure 2-8 shows the hardware architecture of the extended shelf.
To master shelf

Extended shelf

TDM bus Broadband bus Test bus x D S L

A S L

C S M

D S L

E A U

UNI

Figure 2-8 Hardware architecture of the extended shelf

The extended shelf operates as a subscriber access unit.

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Services from the narrowband line cards are converged by the TDM bus, and forwarded upstream to the master shelf through the transfer card or the backplane. Services from the broadband line cards are converged by the broadband bus, and forwarded upstream to the master shelf through the transfer card or the backplane.

Card Management
The card management of the UA5000 is as follows: The narrowband control card, manages the narrowband line cards and E1 interface cards in this shelf and the subtended shelves. The narrowband control card also manages the narrowband part of the combo line cards. The broadband control card manages the broadband line cards and the broadband part of the combo line cards in this shelf and the subtended shelves.

2.5 Cards
The cards used in the UA5000 include the control cards, line cards and other cards. Table 2-3, Table 2-4, Table 2-5, Table 2-6, and Table 2-7 describe the details of these cards.
Table 2-3 Description of the control cards Short Name IPMB Full Name Master shelf IP service processing card Function Description The IPMB card is also called the broadband control card. The IPMB card: controls the broadband line cards aggregates and processes broadband services provides GE/FE ports supports active/standby backup PVMB Packet voice processing card The PVMB card is also called the narrowband control card. The PVMB card: processes the H.248 protocol converts the TDM voice signals into IP packets provides one FE port to transmit the VoIP service supports active/standby backup

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Short Name PVU8/PVU4

Full Name V5 interface processing unit

Function Description The PVU8/PVU4 is also called the master shelf narrowband control card. The PVU8/PVU4 card: Controls the narrowband line cards Provides upstream V5 E1 ports for TDM services Provides TDM switch fabric and working clock for TDM services Supports the active/standby backup

RSU8/RSU4

Remote subscriber processing unit

The RSU8/RSU4 card: Controls the narrowband line cards in the remote subscriber shelf Subtends the narrowband services with the UA5000 master shelf or the MD5500 shelf Provides upstream E1 ports for narrowband services Supports the active/standby backup

RSUG

Remote subscriber processing unit

The RSUG card: Serves the ONU-60A multi-service access unit Connects the G.SHDSL interface card on the central office side to forward the primary and secondary node signalling Manages the secondary nodes

Table 2-4 Description of the narrowband line cards Short Name ASL A32 DSL DSLD VFB CDI ATI Full Name POTS line card POTS line card ISDN BRI line card ISDN BRI line card VF interface card Direct dial-in line card Analogue trunk interface card Function Description The ASL card provides 16 POTS ports The A32 card provides 32 POTS ports The DSL card provides 8 ISDN BRI ports The DSLD card provides 16 ISDN BRI ports The VFB card provides 16 2-wire VF ports or 8 4-wire VF ports The CDI card provides 16 DDI ports The ATI card provides 6 2/4-wire E&M trunk ports

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Short Name SDL SDLE

Full Name SHDSL line card SHDSL line card

Function Description The SDL card provides 4 TDM SHDSL ports and 4 E1 ports The SDLE card provides 8 TDM SHDSL ports and 8 E1 ports

Table 2-5 Description of the broadband line card Short Name SDLB ADLB Full Name SHDSL line card ADSL line card Function Description The SDLB card supports: 16 ATM SHDSL ports The ADLB card supports: 16 ADSL ports a built-in splitter ADMB ADSL/ADSL2+ line card The ADMB card supports: 16 ADSL/ADSL2+ ports a built-in splitter ADMC ADSL/ADSL2+ line card The ADMC card supports: 16 ADSL/ADSL2+ ports A built-in splitter ADRB ADSL/ADSL2+ line card The ADMC card supports: 32 ADSL/ADSL2+ ports A built-in splitter VDLA VDSL line card The VDLA card supports: 16 VDSL ports a built-in splitter external line test CO emulation on port 0 EAUA Ethernet line card The EAUA card supports: eight Ethernet ports

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Table 2-6 Description of the broadband and narrowband combo line cards Short Name CSMB Full Name ADSL/ADSL2+ and POTS combo line card Function Description The CSMB card provides: 16 ADSL/ADSL2+ ports 16 POTS ports a built-in splitter CSLB ADSL and POTS combo line card The CSLB card provides: 16 ADSL/ADSL2+ ports 16 POTS ports a built-in splitter CSRB POTS and ADSL2+ combo line card The CSRB card provides: 32 ADSL/ADSL2+ ports 32 POTS ports a built-in splitter CSRI ADSL/ADSL2+ and POTS combo line card The CSRI card provides: 32 ADSL/ADSL2+ ports 32 POTS ports a built-in splitter

Table 2-7 Description of the other cards Short Name EDTB TSSB ESC Full Name E1 trunk card Test card Environment and power supply monitor card Function Description The EDTB card providets16 E1 trunk ports. The TSSB card is used to test the narrowband line cards. The ESC card monitors: temperature humidity door sensor fan status power supply status other analogue and digital parameters through different external sensors This card reports the above information to the control card through a serial port. PWX Secondary power supply card A master shelf can be equipped with two PWX cards. The PWX cards support inter-card and inter-shelf load-sharing.

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3
About This Chapter
Section 3.1 VoIP Service 3.2 3.3 3.4 FoIP Service MoIP Service VLAN

Service Implementation

The following table lists the contents of this chapter.


Describes... The principles and features of the VoIP service, including VAG, voice codec, echo cancellation, generating tones, collecting digits, authentication, standalone, dual homing and overload control The implementation of the FoIP service The implementation of the MoIP service The concepts and applications of the VLANs provided by the UA5000 The introduction to and implementation of ARP and ARP Proxy The introduction to and implementation of DHCP Relay The implementation of the multicast service The QoS features provided by the UA5000, including precedence tagging, traffic policing, port rate limiting, queue scheduling, traffic mirror and RTCP detection The MAC address management function of the UA5000 The concepts of STP and RSTP The routing management function of the UA5000 and the implementation of RIP and OSPF protocols

3.5 ARP and ARP Proxy 3.6 3.7 3.8 DHCP Relay Multicast QoS

3.9 MAC Address Management 3.10 STP and RSTP

3.11 Routing Management

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3.1 VoIP Service


The UA5000 can act as a Media Gateway (MG) in NGN to provide the VoIP service under the control of a call server. The UA5000 supports the following VoIP features: 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.6 3.1.7 3.1.9 3.1.11 3.1.13 Voice Codecs Echo Cancellation Generating Tones Digit Collection Equipment Authentication Standalone Capability Dual Homing Overload Control IP Address Separation of Signalling Flow and Media Flow

3.1.1 Voice Codecs


Introduction
The UA5000 supports multiple voice codecs. It encodes and decodes voice service streams using different codec schemes to satisfy different requirements for voice quality and bandwidth consumption. The codecs supported are as follows: G.711 G.729 (A/B) G.723.1 Different codecs have different rates and packetisation delays. Table 3-1 lists the details.
Table 3-1 Rates and packetisation delays of various codecs Voice Codec G.711 Rate 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s G.729 8 kbit/s 8 kbit/s Packetisation Delay 5 ms 10 ms 20 ms 30 ms 10 ms 20 ms Codec Techniques PCM1 PCM PCM PCM CS-ACELP2 CS-ACELP

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Voice Codec G.723.1

Rate 5.3 kbit/s 6.3 kbit/s

Packetisation Delay 30 ms 30 ms

Codec Techniques CELP3 MP-MLQ4

1: PCM: Pulse code modulation 2: CS-ACELP: Conjugate Structure Algebraic Code-Excited Linear Prediction 3: CELP: Code-Excited Linear Prediction 4: MP-MLQ: Multi-Pulse Maximum Likelihood Quantization

Bandwidth Required by the Codec Modes for VoIP Service


The following example shows how to calculate the actual bandwidth required by a codec mode in an Ethernet network. In the example: B: bandwidth L: Length of packet N: Number of packets per second D: Delay caused by the packetisation Le: Length of the Ethernet header Li: Length of the IP header Lu: Length of the UDP header Lr: Length of the RTP header R: Bits per second B=LN =L (1/D) = (Le + Li + Lu + Lr + payload) (1/D) = (208 bits + 160 bits + 64 bits + 96 bits + payload) (1/D) = (528 bits + (D R) (1/D) = (528/D) + R

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Table 3-2 lists the relationship between voice codec modes and bandwidth.
Table 3-2 Voice codecs and the required bandwidths Codec G.711 Rate 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s 64 kbit/s G.729 8 kbit/s 8 kbit/s G.723.1 5.3 kbit/s 6.3 kbit/s Packetisation Delay 5 ms 10 ms 20 ms 30 ms 10 ms 20 ms 30 ms 30 ms Required Bandwidth 169.6 kbit/s 116.8 kbit/s 90.4 kbit/s 81.6 kbit/s 60.8 kbit/s 34.4 kbit/s 22.9 kbit/s 23.9 kbit/s

3.1.2 Echo Cancellation


Echo
Echo refers to the condition where a talker hears his own voice through the phone. Echo is classified into two types: electric echo and acoustic echo. Electric echo is resulted from the mismatch in the 2/4-wire conversion of switches of the transmission network. Acoustic echo is resulted from the coupling of received voice between the earpiece and mouthpiece of a phone. In a network with high point-to-point delay (such as the IP network), echoes greatly affect the voice quality. If the end-to-end delay exceeds 50 ms, the echo that occurs is noticeable. In this case, you must use the echo canceller to eliminate the echo.

Echo Cancellation on the UA5000


The UA5000 supports the echo cancellation (EC) function complying with the ITU-T G.168 standard. The UA5000 adds EC resource to a call session to eliminate the echo on the session to provide high-quality voice for the customers. The UA5000 supports the following two echo cancellers: Electrical echo canceller (EEC) Acoustic echo canceller (AEC)

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3.1.3 Generating Tones


The UA5000 provides the tone resource, and the resource can also be provided by a Media Resource Server (MRS). In a call session, the UA5000 activates its internal tone generators to generate call process tones under the control of the call server. The MRS supports the generation of intelligent tones, such as announcements. The UA5000 can play basic tones, including: Busy tone Mute tone Ring-back tone Dialling tone Second dialling tone Special dialling tone Howler tone Call waiting tone The UA5000 can also play the intelligent tones when it is loaded with the intelligent tone file.

3.1.4 Digit Collection


Overview
When a customer lifts the receiver (goes off hook) and dials the digits of a telephone number, the UA5000 collects the digits and reports them to the call server for number analysis. During a call session, the UA5000 receives and generates DTMF tones. The UA5000 supports two digit collection modes: Pulse number collection DTMF number collection

Pulse Digit Collection


The UA5000 collects the pulse digits to complete the call connection and associated intelligent services when customer terminals work in the pulse mode. The pulse digit collection is carried out by the POTS line card. The line card extracts the dialled digits, and then reports them to the service module. The service module then sends the digits to the call server.

DTMF Digit Collection


The UA5000 collects the DTMF digits to complete the call connection and associated intelligent services when customer terminals work in the DTMF mode.

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The DTMF digit collection is carried out by the Digital Signal Processing (DSP) of the UA5000. The DSP receives dialled DTMF digits, and then reports the digits to the service module. The service module matches the digits against the digit collection scheme delivered by the call server, and reports the matching result to the call server.

3.1.5 Message Waiting Indicator Service


The UA5000 supports the Message Waiting Indicator (MWI) service under the control of the MGC. The MWI service provides visual signals to indicate that there are messages in the voice mailbox. The UA5000 provides two means to activate the MWI, depending on the phone set of the customer: Voltage ascending mode Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) mode

Voltage Ascending Mode


Under the control of the MGC, the UA5000 sends a message to the MWI analogue line card (VMS) of the customer to activate the service. The VMS increases the voltage on the customer line to light up the message indicator on the telephone set.

FSK Mode
Under the control of the MGC, the UA5000 sends special FSK signals to the telephone set on a specified timeslot of the voice circuit. After receiving the data, the telephone set lights up the message indicator.

3.1.6 Equipment Authentication


Overview
Equipment authentication prevents unauthorized access gateways to register on the call server. The UA5000 supports authentication through the H.248 protocol.

UA5000 Authentication Procedure


The UA5000 supports the following authentication procedure for H248 protocol when it registers. In the description given below, the UA5000 is referred to as an access gateway.

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GW CA CS

3 Service Implementation
AuC

(1) ServiceChange (MT=Restart, X-IDgw )

(2) ServiceChange {MT=Restart X-IDgw , X-IDca} (4) Reply (7) Modify {SG: secu/ AuthS(rand), secu/ AuthS(Egw IKgw -ca), secu/ AuthS(EcaIKgw -ca)}

(3) Authentication (IDgw , IDca, IDcs) (6)Response (rand, AuthC, Egw IKgw -ca, EcaIKgw -ca)

(5) Reply (8) Modify {SG: secu/ AuthS(rand), secu/ AuthS(Egw IKgw -ca), secu/ AuthS(MAC)} (9) Reply (11) Notify {OE: secu/ AuthE(AuthC)} (14) Reply (17) Modify { SG: secu/ AuthS(pass)} (18) Reply

(10) Reply (12) Notify {OE: secu/ AuthE(AuthC)} (13) Reply (16) Modify { SG:secu/ AuthS(pass)} (15)Authentication (success)

(19) Reply

Figure 3-1 Authentication procedure based on the H.248 protocol Step 1 Access Gateway (GW) initiates the register process by sending a ServiceChange

message to the Call Agent (CA), with the identification of the gateway.
Step 2 The CA adds its identification of CA to the ServiceChange message, and sends

the message to the Call Server (CS).


Step 3 The CS sends an authentication message to the authentication centre with the IDs

of the GW, the CA and the CS itself.


Step 4 The CS returns a reply to the CA. Step 5 The CA returns a reply to the GW. Step 6 The authentication centre generates a random number and an integrity key used

between the GW and CA; and then calculates an Authentication Code (AuthC) with the random number and the private key of the GW. Next, the authentication centre encrypts the integrity key with the private keys of the GW and CA respectively to get EgwIKgw-ca and EcaIKgw-ca and returns them to the CS.
Step 7 The CS saves the received Authentication Code (AuthC) and sends the random

number (rand), EgwIKgw-ca and EcaIKgw-ca to the CA in a MODIFY message.


Step 8 The CA extracts the integrity key (IKgw-ca) with its private key from

EcaIKgw-ca. and calculates a message authentication code (MAC) with a random number and EcaIKgw-ca with the integrity key. And then the CS sends the random number, EcaIKgw-ca and MAC to the GW in a MODIFY message.

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Step 9 The GW extracts the integrity key (IKgw-ca) with its private key from

EgwIKgw-ca and uses this key to test the integrity of the message from the CA. If the test is passed, the GW returns a reply to the CA. Otherwise, the GW returns an error code.

Step 10 The CA transfers the reply to the CS. Step 11 If the integrity test is passed, the GW calculates an Authentication Code with the

received random number and its private key and sends the Authentication Code to CA in a NOTIFY message.
Step 12 The CA transfers the NOTIFY to the CS. Step 13 The CS tests the Authentication Code received from CA to confirm if it is equal to

the one received from the Authentication Centre. If yes, the CS sends a reply to the CA; if not, the CS sends an error message.
Step 14 The CA sends a reply to the GW. Step 15 The CS sends a success message to the authentication centre if it gets the right

Authentication Code from the GW side.


Step 16 The CS sends the authentication pass message to the CA in a MODIFY message. Step 17 The CA transfers the authentication pass message to the GW. Step 18 The GW sends a reply message to the CA. Step 19 The CA sends a reply message to the CS.

In the above process, the encryption algorithm and integrity algorithm can be predefined. The Huawei UA5000 supports signal tracing for H248 and IUA with the Toolbox running on the EMS. The recorded signals can be saved to a disk for analyzing. Packet capturing is also supported to detect any illegal calls or exceptional traffics.

3.1.7 Standalone Capability


Introduction
If the communication between the UA5000 and the call server is lost, the standalone capability enables the UA5000 to operate as a standalone switch to handle the switching between the internal customers on the UA5000.

Features
The standalone capability of the UA5000 has the following features: The standalone capability can be enabled or disabled through the software parameter of the MG interface. The dialling method is the same as that of a normal case.

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No billing information is generated for the calls that occurred during the standalone period. After the communication with the call server resumes and the UA5000 registers with the call server, the ongoing calls will still be retained. The standalone capability applies to only the serving MG interface. In the standalone status, the customers of the UA5000 can call the PSTN customers through the CDI card. See "3.1.8 DDI and Escape Channel" for details.

3.1.8 DDI and Escape Channel


The CDI card on the UA5000 provides the FXO interfaces. Through the FXO interfaces, the UA5000 supports the following two applications: DDI Escape channel Figure 3-2 depicts a scenario that may use these two applications.
App server iO iOSS SS MGC

IP PSTN UA5000

PBX Enterprise 1

UA5000

Enterprise 2

Figure 3-2 DDI and escape channel application scenario

DDI (Enterprise 1)
The UA5000 connects the PBX of Enterprise 1 through the FXO interface to provide the DDI function for the PBX customers. With this function, you can directly call a customer of the PBX by dialling the access code of the enterprise and the extension number of the PBX customer.

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Escape Channel (Enterprise 2)


The UA5000 connects to the PSTN exchange through the FXO interface to provide an escape channel for narrowband customers. When the communication between the UA5000 and the MGC is broken, the customers of the UA5000 can still call out through the escape channel. The numbers that can be called are decided by the preset digitmaps. The escape channel supports only the outgoing calls.

3.1.9 Dual Homing


Introduction
Dual homing means one UA5000 is served by two call servers. When the signalling link between the UA5000 and the primary CS is broken, a standby call server will take over the control of the UA5000 to ensure service continuity. Dual homing makes the system more reliable.

Implementation Procedure
The UA5000 supports dual homing through the H.248 protocol. Dual homing is carried out by the heartbeat detection and switchover process of the call server. Figure 3-3 shows the implementation procedure.
UA5000 (1) Notify (it/ito) Heatbeat lost (2) ServiceChange (Method=Failover, Reason=909) (3) Reply Registration on CS 2 Succeeds Registration on CS 2 Fails (4) ServiceChange (Method=Disconnected, Reason=909) (5) Reply CS 1 CS 2

Figure 3-3 Heartbeat detect and switchover process based on H.248

The process details are as follows:


Step 1 The UA5000 sends N consecutive heartbeat detection messages (Notify) with an

interval T to which there is no response. This implies that the primary call server (CS 1) is faulty.
Step 2 The UA5000 sends a registration request message ServiceChange (Method =

Failover, Reason = 909) to the first standby call server (CS 2) in the standby call server list.

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Step 3 If the UA5000 receives a response Reply from CS 2, it implies that the

registration to CS 2 is successful and the process is complete.


Step 4 If the UA5000 does not receive a response from CS 2 after sending out N

consecutive ServiceChange messages, registration on CS 2 fails and the UA5000 sends a new ServiceChange (Method = Disconnected, Reason = 909) message to CS 1 after a random delay.
Step 5 If the UA5000 receives a response Reply from CS 1, the communication between

the UA5000 and CS 1 recovers. The process is complete. If the UA5000 does not receive a response to N consecutive ServiceChanges requests sent to CS 1, registration on CS 1 fails and the UA5000 proceeds with Step 2.

3.1.10 Hairpin Connection


Overview
In a Hairpin connection the internal calls of a UA5000 are connected through the TDM fabric without consuming the DSP resource. The calls in the hairpin connection mode are still controlled by the MGC. The hairpin connection must be enabled on the MGC before the UA5000 carries out the function.

Implementation
The implementation of hairpin connection is as follows:
Step 1 When the MGC finds that the caller and the called are under the same UA5000,

the MGC places the Termination IDs (TID) of the caller and the called into the same context.
Step 2 When the UA5000 finds that there are two physical terminations in the context,

the UA5000 uses the TDM fabric, instead of using the DSP resource, to set up the connection.

3.1.11 Overload Control


Introduction
The UA5000 supports overload control under the control of a call server through the H.248 protocol. With this function, the UA5000 ensures the connection of emergency calls in case of overload. The UA5000 supports the following overload control functions: Processing capacity overload control DSP overload control Uplink bandwidth overload control

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Processing Capacity Overload Control


When the processing capacity reaches the preset threshold, the UA5000 gives preference to the connection of emergency calls and calls of higher priorities according to the different overload levels.

DSP Overload Control


The UA5000 supports the DSP reservation function to ensure the connection of emergency calls in case of DSP overload. You can configure the number of the reserved DSP channels.

Uplink Bandwidth Overload Control


The UA5000 supports the statistics function for the uplink bandwidth. When the uplink bandwidth becomes insufficient, the UA5000 controls the normal calls to ensure the connection of emergency calls and calls of higher priorities.

3.1.12 VAG
Virtual Access Gateway (VAG) is a feature that enables a physical AG to support multiple VAGs. The physical AG supports multiple IP interfaces, and assigns the IP interfaces for dedicated use to realise the VAG feature. VAG increases the equipment's utilization efficiency. It helps the carrier to lease its AG to multiple carriers with convenient management and settlement means. As an AG, the UA5000 supports the VAG feature. A UA5000 supports up to eight VAGs. The eight VAGs can have their own dedicated IP addresses. In this case, they function as eight independent VAGs. The VAGs can also be configured with a common IP address but different port numbers so as to facilitate the precise measurement of a given region.

3.1.13 IP Address Separation of Signalling Flow and Media Flow


A UA5000 supports eight VAGs. Each VAG supports different IP addresses for signalling flow and media flow. The IP addresses can be included in different VLANs. By this, the signalling flow and the media flow can be distinguished in the network, and can be applied with different QoS policies.

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3.2 FoIP Service


Introduction
To transmit a fax signal over the Internet, you need to place a gateway between the PSTN and the Internet. The gateway translates the fax signals to IP packets, and IP packets to fax signals. The UA5000 acts as such a gateway. The UA5000 supports the following two fax modes: VBD T.38 fax

VBD Fax
Figure 3-4 shows the implementation of the VBD fax service.
Call serv er

PSTN

IP backbone network

TMG8010

Data Data Encapsulation of T.30 f ax packet TDM Encapsulation of T.30 f ax packet G.711 UDP/IP

Data Encapsulation of T.30 f ax packet TDM

FAX

UA5000

IAD / UA5000

FAX

Figure 3-4 The implementation of the VBD fax

The VBD fax is also called fax over G.711. In this mode, the UA5000 encodes the voice signals through the G.711 coding mode. The gateway switches to the Fax channel after it detects the fax tone, and configures the settings of EC, NLP and jitter according to the fax type. The gateway then transmits the Fax packets transparently. The T.30 packets are processed on the fax machines.

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T.38 Fax
Figure 3-5 shows the implementation of the T.38 fax service.
Redundant message n ... Redundant message 2 Redundant message 1 Primary message Sequence No. IP backbone network TMG8010 Call serv er

PSTN

T.38 fax packet structure

Data Encapsulation of T.30 f ax packet TDM

Data Encapsulation of T.38 f ax packet UDP/IP

Data Encapsulation of T.30 f ax packet TDM

FAX

UA5000

IAD/UA5000

FAX

Figure 3-5 The implementation of the T.38 fax

The T.38 fax is also called fax relay. In this mode, the gateway (the UA5000 or the IAD) terminates the T.30 fax packet, extracts the fax data, encapsulates the fax data into T.38 packets and then sends the packets to the peer gateway. The peer gateway extracts the fax data from the T.38 packet, encapsulates the fax data into T.30 fax packets and then sends the packets to the fax machine. T.38 is an IP based protocol, which takes account of packet loss, delay and jitter that may occur in an IP network. The T.38 fax uses the data redundancy mechanism to address the packet loss. In a T.38 fax packet, fax messages sent in the previous N packets (the value of N can be up to 4) are also contained for redundant backup. With this approach, fax messages are intact when you receive one T.38 fax packet, even if the previous N packets are lost. The T.38 fax is not so dependent on the quality of the IP network. But the VBD mode is preferred in a good-quality IP network because the relay mode of the T.38 fax concerns the compatibility of the fax machines.

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3.3 MoIP Service


Figure 3-6 depicts the implementation of the MoIP service.
Call server Modem traffic

IP backbone network TMG8010 MoIP

PSTN Access server

Modem traffic

UA5000

modem

PC

Figure 3-6 Implementation of the MoIP service

There are two MoIP implementation modes: VBD mode Relay mode The UA5000 supports only the VBD mode. In VBD mode, the modem signal is transmitted over the IP network through voice channels using G.711 coding. This mode requires an IP bearer network in a good condition to ensure the service quality. The relay mode uses redundant messages to protect against loss of packets during the transmission. This mode can ensure normal running of services when the IP bearer network is not in good condition.

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3.4 VLAN
3.4.1 Overview
Introduction to VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) is a division of a local area network by software rather than by physical arrangement of cables. VLAN makes it possible to divide a physical LAN into different broadcast domains logically. IEEE 802.1Q specifies the VLAN implementation scheme.

Port Types
In the description of the VLAN features, the following ports may be involved: Standard port A standard port is also called an uplink port. It refers to a physical port of the control card, namely, an FE or GE port of the IPMB card. Service virtual port A service virtual port is also called an access virtual port. It refers to a service connection of a user-side physical port such as an xDSL or an Ethernet port. For example, for an ADSL/SHDSL port, two PVCs correspond to two service virtual ports. For an Ethernet port, two VLANs correspond to two service virtual ports.

VLAN Types on the UA5000


On the basis of the IEEE 802.1Q standard, the UA5000 extends four types of VLANs. They are: Standard VLAN MUX VLAN Smart VLAN Super VLAN Refer to the following sections for detailed descriptions about these VLANs.

VLAN Features
The UA5000 supports the following VLAN features: Common QinQ Stacking

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The VLAN with the common feature enabled can act as a normal layer 2 VLAN or a layer 3 virtual interface. The QinQ and Stacking features are detailed in "3.4.7 QinQ" and "3.4.8 Stacking".

3.4.2 Standard VLAN


What is a Standard VLAN
A standard VLAN is the VLAN defined by the IEEE 802.1Q standard. A standard VLAN has the following features: The ports in one VLAN are interconnected at layer 2. The ports in different VLANs are isolated at layer 2.

When to Use
The standard VLAN is used to limit the broadcast domains of the standard ports. On the UA5000, the standard VLAN contains only the standard ports (namely, FE or GE ports of the IPMB card), but not the service virtual ports (such as the ADSL and SHDSL ports).

3.4.3 MUX VLAN


What is a MUX VLAN
A MUX VLAN is a special VLAN that can contain only one service virtual port and multiple standard ports. A MUX VLAN has the following features: A MUX VLAN can contain two types of interfaces: standard port and service virtual port. A MUX VLAN can contain multiple standard ports while only one service virtual port. After a service virtual port is added to a MUX VLAN, the UA5000 creates a connection between the service virtual port and the standard port to realise the layer 2 interconnection. There is a one-to-one mapping relationship between the VLAN ID and the access user.

When to Use
The MUX VLAN is used to isolate and identify the access users. One MUX VLAN corresponds to one access connection. The equipment at the upper layer identifies different access users by VLAN ID.

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3.4.4 Smart VLAN


What is a Smart VLAN
A Smart VLAN is a special VLAN that can contain the standard ports and the service virtual ports. The Smart VLAN has the following features: A Smart VLAN can contain two types of ports: standard port and service virtual port. A Smart VLAN can contain one or multiple ports of these two types. The broadcast domain of a standard port includes all ports in the Smart VLAN; while the broadcast domain of a service virtual port includes only the standard ports.

When to Use
The Smart VLAN is used to partition user groups, and each user group is associated with one Smart VLAN. The Smart VLAN also isolates the access users in one VLAN to ensure the privacy of the users and the security of the network. The Smart VLAN helps to provide the access service where multiple users are connected through one VLAN. When the VLAN number on the UA5000 is limited, you can use the Smart VLAN to access more users. The Smart VLAN is often used for the community access service.

3.4.5 Super VLAN


What is a Super VLAN
The Super VLAN is a special VLAN that has the following features: A Super VLAN corresponds to no physical port. A Super VLAN may contain multiple Sub VLANs. (The Sub VLANs can be the standard VLANs, MUX VLANs and Smart VLANs.) A Super VLAN has a layer 3 interface that acts as the default gateway for the hosts within the Sub VLANs. If desired, a Super VLAN can enable communication between hosts that are members of different Sub VLANs through the ARP Proxy.

When to Use
The Super VLAN can be used to implement the VLAN aggregation for efficient IP address allocation. Another usage of the Super VLAN is to work together with the ARP Proxy to enable the communication between different Sub VLANs. Refer to "3.5 ARP and ARP Proxy" for further details.

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VLAN Aggregation
VLAN aggregation is a mechanism that enables the hosts residing in the same physical switched equipment, but different virtual broadcast domains, to be in the same IPv4 subnet and share one default gateway. The UA5000 implements the VLAN aggregation function through the Super VLAN. A Super VLAN uses multiple Sub VLANs to separate the layer 2 broadcast domains. A Super VLAN corresponds with a virtual layer 3 interface. Hosts that are members of all the Sub VLANs share this layer 3 interface as their default gateway. With Super VLAN, you do not have to configure a subnet for each Sub VLAN. By this, the efficiency of IP address allocation is increased.

Note Generally, if you are to use a layer 3 interface, instead of Super VLAN, to enable the communication between different VLANs, you must configure a subnet for each VLAN. This will lead to waste of IP addresses, because: The subnet number, directed broadcast address, and default gateway all consume IP addresses. The IP addresses reserved for the consideration of the growth of hosts within one VLAN cannot be used by other VLANs.

Communication Between Sub VLANs


If desired, the communication between the Sub VLANs belong to a Super VLAN can be enabled through ARP Proxy. For further details, refer to "3.5 ARP and ARP Proxy".

3.4.6 Comparisons Between Different VLANs


Super VLAN versus Other VLANs
The Super VLAN can contain the three other types of VLANs, and the three other types of VLANs cannot contain any VLAN.

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Standard VLAN versus MUX VLAN and Smart VLAN


The differences between them are as follows: The Standard VLAN contains only the standard ports. All ports in a Standard VLAN are logically equal to each other. The MUX VLAN and Smart VLAN contain two types of ports: standard port and service virtual port. The standard port acts as the upstream port, and the service virtual port as the access port. The VLAN sets up an internal connection between the upstream port and the access port.

MUX VLAN versus Smart VLAN


A MUX VLAN can contain only one service virtual port, while a Smart VLAN can contain multiple service virtual ports.

Application Differences Between Different VLANs


Different VLANs have different features, and their application scenarios are also different. The Standard VLAN is used to limit the broadcast domain of the standard ports, and to enable the communication between the standard ports that are the members of the VLAN. The MUX VLAN is used in the case when the access users are required to be identified by VLAN ID. The Smart VLAN is used to identify user groups through VLAN IDs, and to disable the communication between the users within a group. The Smart VLAN can save the VLAN ID resource of the UA5000. The Super VLAN is used to increase the efficiency of IP address allocation, and to enable the communication between Sub VLANs that belong to one Super VLAN.

3.4.7 QinQ
What is a QinQ
802.1Q in 802.1Q (QinQ) is a VLAN feature that allows the UA5000 to add a VLAN tag to a tagged frame. The implementation of QinQ is to add a public VLAN tag to a frame with a private VLAN tag, making the frame encapsulated with two layers of VLAN tags. The frame is forwarded over the service providers backbone network based on the public VLAN tag. By this, a layer 2 VPN tunnel is provided to customers. The QinQ feature enables the transmission of the private VLANs to the peer end transparently, and extends the geographic coverage of the private network. On the UA5000, the implementation of the QinQ feature is as follows:

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After receiving a frame with a private VLAN tag from the customer side, the UA5000 assigns a public VLAN tag to the packet and sends it to the upper network. After receiving a frame with two layers of VLAN tags from the network side, the UA5000 removes the public VLAN tag to restore the original user frame and then sends the frame to the CPE.

When to Use
The QinQ feature is used to extend the coverage of a private network, or to save the VLAN resource of the public network. Figure 3-7 illustrates the use of the QinQ feature.
IP L2/L3
VLAN3 VLAN2 VLAN3 VLAN1

L2/L3

UA5000 Modem
VLAN2 VLAN1

UA5000 Modem
VLAN2

L2

L2 VLAN1

Customer 1

Customer 3

Customer 4

Customer 2

Figure 3-7 QinQ application

As shown in Figure 3-7, the UA5000 enables the communication between customers in VLAN 1 or VLAN 2 of the same private network spanning different geographic areas. The service implementation process is as follows:
Step 1 The PC sends an untagged frame. Step 2 The LAN switch adds a private VLAN tag (VLAN 1 or VLAN 2) to the frame,

and sends the frame to the UA5000.


Step 3 The UA5000 adds a public VLAN tag (VLAN 3) to the frame, and sends it to the

upper layer network.


Step 4 The equipment at the upper layer network forwards the frame based on the pubic

VLAN tag.
Step 5 When the peer end UA5000 receives the frame, it removes the public VLAN tag

from the frame, and sends the frame to the downstream LAN switch.

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Step 6 The LAN switch removes the private VLAN tag (VLAN 1 or VLAN 2) from the

frame, and sends the frame to the end users that are members of the VLAN (VLAN 1 or VLAN 2). By this, the communication between user 1 and user 2 of VLAN 1, and the communication between user 3 and user 4 of VLAN 2 are realized.

3.4.8 Stacking
What is a Stacking
Stacking is a VLAN feature that allows the UA5000 to add two 802.1Q VLAN tags to a frame, so that the frame can be transported over the backbone network of the service provider. When the frame reaches the BRAS, the BRAS authenticates the frame based on the two layers of VLAN tags, or remove the outer VLAN tag and identify the customer according to the inner VLAN tag. The implementation of the VLAN Stacking feature on the UA5000 is as follows: When the UA5000 receives an untagged frame from the CPE, it adds two layers of VLAN tags to the frame and then sends the frame to the upper layer network. When the UA5000 receives a frame with two layers of VLAN tags from the network side, it removes the VLAN tags and sends the frame to the CPE.

When to Use
The Stacking feature helps to increase the VLAN space and to provision the private circuit wholesale service. By adding two VLAN tags, the VLAN space is increased. Private circuit wholesale service: with the stacking feature, the outer VLAN tag identifies the serving Internet Service Provider (ISP) of a customer and the inner VLAN tag identifies a customer. By this, customers are connected to the respective ISPs in batches. To increase the VLAN space with the Stacking feature, the associated BRAS must support the authentication of the two-layer VLAN tags. For the private circuit wholesale service, the upper network must operate at layer 2, and forward the packets based on the VLAN tag and MAC address. Figure 3-8 illustrates an application of the VLAN Stacking feature.

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ISP1

ISP2

MAN
SP VLAN 1 C VLAN 1 SP VLAN 2 C VLAN 1

L2/L3
SP VLAN 1 C VLAN 2 SP VLAN 2 C VLAN 2

UA5000

Modem

Modem

Enterprise A
SP VLAN: Service Provider VLAN

Enterprise B
C VLAN: Customer VLAN

Figure 3-8 VLAN stacking application

As shown in Figure 3-8, the UA5000 sends the shelves from hosts in enterprise A and enterprise B to ISP 1 and ISP 2 respectively. The service processing procedure is as follows:
Step 1 A host sends an untagged frame to the UA5000 through a modem. Step 2 The UA5000 adds two VLAN tags (SP VLAN and customer VLAN) to the frame.

Different SP VLAN tags correspond with different ISPs. The shelves from the hosts of enterprise A are encapsulated with SP VLAN1 as their outer VLAN, and with corresponding customer VLANs as their respective inner VLAN. The shelves from the hosts of enterprise B are encapsulated with SP VLAN2 as their outer VLAN, and with corresponding customer VLANs as their respective inner VLAN.
Step 3 The equipment in the switched metropolitan area network (MAN) forwards the

frame based on the SP VLAN tag.


Step 4 The equipment of ISP 1 or ISP 2 that receives the frame removes the SP VLAN

tag and identifies the customer type based on the customer VLAN tag.

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3.5 ARP and ARP Proxy


Introduction
The ARP function is used to carry out the mapping between an IP address and an MAC address. There are static ARP entries and dynamic ARP entries. When the broadcast domain of two hosts in the same subnet is isolated by a network device, to enable the two hosts to obtain each others MAC address, you must enable the ARP Proxy on the network device to answer the ARP requests from any of the host. The UA5000 supports the ARP and ARP Proxy functions. The ARP Proxy function of the UA5000 is mainly used to enable the communication between the hosts of different Sub VLANs that belong to a Super VLAN, and between the hosts of the same Smart VLAN.

Note For more details about the Super VLAN, refer to "3.4.5 Super VLAN"

Implementation of ARP Proxy


Figure 3-9 shows the implementation of the ARP proxy.
Communication

Super VLAN
Virtual interface
xy ro PP AR

Layer 3

Gateway IP: 1.1.1.1/24 MAC: 00-e0-fc-00-00-11 AR PP ro xy Sub VLAN 2

Layer 2

Sub VLAN 1

Isolation

PC1 IP: 1.1.1.2 MAC: 00-e0-fc-00-00-02

PC2 IP: 1.1.1.15 MAC: 00-e0-fc-00-00-15

Figure 3-9 The implementation of the ARP proxy

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AS shown in Figure 3-9, PC1 and PC2 are in VLAN1 and VLAN2 respectively. They are isolated at layer 2. PC1, PC2 and the virtual layer 3 interface are in the same subnet. The following process describes how the communication between PC1 and PC2 is enabled.
Step 1 Since PC1 and PC2 are in the same subnet, when PC1 attempts to send packets to

PC2, PC1 broadcasts ARP packets directly to request the MAC address of PC2. However, because PC1 and PC2 are in different broadcast domains, PC1 does not receive the ARP response packet from PC2.
Step 2 When the UA5000 that enables the ARP proxy receives the ARP request packets,

it sends the MAC address of its virtual layer 3 interface to PC1, and searches its ARP table to find the MAC address of PC2.
Step 3 If the ARP table contains the MAC address entry of PC2, the implementation of

the ARP proxy is complete, and the packets from PC1 can be forwarded to PC2 through the virtual layer 3 interface.
Step 4 If the ARP table does not contain the MAC address entry of PC2, the UA5000

broadcasts the ARP request packets through its virtual layer 3 interface to request the MAC address of PC2.
Step 5 When the UA5000 receives the ARP response packets from PC2, the UA5000

adds the MAC address of PC2 to its ARP table. By now, the implementation of the ARP proxy is complete, and PC1 and PC2 are interconnected through the UA5000.

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3.6 DHCP Relay


Introduction
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is applicable for the dynamic IP address allocation where the DHCP clients and the DHCP servers are in the same subnet. The UA5000 supports the DHCP relay function to enable the dynamic IP address allocation when the DHCP clients and the DHCP servers are in different subnets. With this function, the UA5000 bridges the DHCP messages to and from the DHCP servers or clients in different subnets. By this, the DHCP clients in different subnets can share one DHCP server.

Implementation of DHCP Relay


The following takes an example where the DHCP client and server are in different subnets to describe the communication steps of DHCP relay.
DHCP CLIENT DHCP DISCOVER DHCP DISCOVER DHCP OFFER DHCP OFFER UA5000 (DHCP Relay) DHCP SERVER

DHCP REQUEST

DHCP REQUEST

DHCP ACK DHCP ACK

Figure 3-10 Implementation of DHCP relay Step 1 The client broadcasts a DISCOVER message.

The destination IP address of the message is the broadcast IP address, source IP address is 0.0.0.0, destination MAC address is the broadcast MAC address, and source MAC address is the MAC address of the client.
Step 2 The UA5000 receives the DISCOVER message, and sends the message to the

DHCP server bound with the layer-3 interface. The UA5000 changes the destination IP address of the message to the IP address of the DHCP server, source IP address to the IP address of the layer-3 interface, and destination MAC address to the MAC address of the equipment at next hop.

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Step 3 The DHCP server responds with an OFFER message to the UA5000 after it

receives the DISCOVER message. The UA5000 then forwards the OFFER message to the client according to the destination MAC address.

Step 4 The client broadcasts a REQUEST message after it receives the OFFER message. Step 5 The UA5000 forwards the REQUEST message to the DHCP server after it

receives the message.


Step 6 The DHCP server responds with an ACK message to the UA5000 containing the

configuration parameters for the requesting client. The UA5000 then forwards the ACK message to the client according to the MAC address.
Step 7 The client receives the ACK message to obtain the IP address and the leased time.

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3.7 Multicast
Introduction
Multicast is a technology that enables the sending of data streams from one source to many destinations. The key function of the multicast technology is to carry out packet duplication as near as the receiver. The concept of multicast group is critical to the implementation of multicast. A multicast group is identified by a class D IP address (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255). When the source host sends a packet with the destination address as the address of a multicast group, all members of the group will receive a copy of that packet. Compared with unicast, multicast helps in the following: Reduce load on the server because the server need not handle the request for each user. Save network bandwidth, which lowers the requirement on the network device.

IGMP Proxy
The UA5000 supports the Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) proxy function. With the IGMP proxy function, the UA5000 does not perform routing for multicast packets. The routing is carried out by the uplink multicast router. From the perspective of a multicast user, the UA5000 is a multicast router implementing the routers functions defined in the IGMP. The UA5000 receives the requests from its downlink users for joining or leaving a multicast group. The UA5000 also queries at a regular interval whether a downstream port has multicast group users. By doing so, the UA5000 obtains multicast group membership information on the downstream ports. On the other hand, from the perspective of a multicast router, the UA5000 is a multicast host which sends IGMP requests to the multicast router for joining or leaving a designated multicast group. The UA5000 forwards the multicast traffic from the uplink port to the downlink ports in a unidirectional manner based on its group membership information. It cannot forward multicast data to other uplink ports or forward multicast data received from the downlink ports. The uplink and the downlink ports may belong to different VLANs. That is, the UA5000 supports forwarding multicast data between different VLANs.

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Managed Multicast
The UA5000 supports the managed multicast function. The managed multicast means that the multicast message is under control. It is used to implement the multicast user management, services management and accounting. The managed multicast involves: Multicast authentication and accounting Multicast monitor and analysis Multicast QoS Multicast encryption Multicast address allocation With multicast authentication, the UA5000 authenticates a user who intends to join a multicast group, and decides whether to allow the user to join the multicast group based on the authentication result. With multicast accounting, the UA5000 starts accounting on the multicast user who has passed the authentication. The accounting can be implemented based on the multicast group, traffic volume of a multicast group, duration for staying in a multicast group. The UA5000 periodically sends queries to the multicast members so as to decide whether to continue accounting on a user: When the UA5000 receives a membership report from a user, it continues the accounting on the user. When the UA5000 does not receive any response from a user, it disconnects the user from the multicast group and stops accounting on the user. When the UA5000 receives a leave message from a user, it also disconnects the user from the multicast group and stops accounting on the user.

Multicast Implementation Procedure


Based on the IGMP proxy and managed multicast, the multicast implementation procedure on the UA5000 is as follows:
Step 1 To order a video program, an IGMP user sends IGMP requests to the UA5000 to

apply to join the multicast group that offers the video program.
Step 2 After receiving the requests, the UA5000 authenticates the user.

If the user has the right to watch or preview the program, the UA5000 adds it to the corresponding multicast group. Otherwise, the UA5000 rejects the requests from the user.
Step 3 The UA5000 sends the general quest message to all online IGMP users

periodically. If the UA5000 does not receive response from an IGMP user for a period of time,
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it considers that the user has left the multicast group, and deletes it from the group.
Step 4 When an IGMP user leaves a multicast group, it sends leave messages to the

UA5000. If the user is configured with quick-leave attribute, the UA5000 deletes it from the multicast group immediately. If the user is not configured with that attribute, the UA5000 sends the specific query message to the multicast group. If the UA5000 does not receive responses from the user for a period of time, it deletes the user from the multicast group.
Step 5 Apart from handling the IGMP messages as listed above, the UA5000 also

receives general query messages from the IGMP routers at upper layer, and responds to them accordingly to report the current multicast state.

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3.8 QoS
Introduction to QoS
QoS refers to providing different services with different qualities depending on the service requirements. QoS is required to support the delay and jitter sensitive services. The QoS features of the UA5000 are as follows: Preference tagging Traffic policing Port rate limiting Queue scheduling Traffic mirroring RTCP detecting

Related concept
An important concept relating to QoS is flow classification. Flow classification is intended to identify appropriate packets by certain rules. The rules may be quite simple. For example the flows are classified according to ToS field in an IP header. The rules may also be complicated. For example, the flows are classified according to combination of MAC address, IP protocol type, source address, destination address and port number.

3.8.1 Precedence Tagging


Overview
Precedence tagging is a policy to re-tag the precedence of a packet. The precedence is tagged at the related precedence fields. The UA5000 supports tagging the following precedence fields: IP precedence Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) precedence 802.1p precedence

IP precedence and ToS precedence


IP precedence is included in the precedence information contained in the precedence field (bits 0 to 2 of ToS field) of the header of an IP packet. For the broadband customers, the UA5000 supports the setting of the IP precedence for the packets that match the ACL rule. ToS precedence is included in the ToS sub-field of the ToS field (bits 3 to 6). For the AG customers, the UA5000 supports the setting of ToS precedence for
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different types of packets, such as signalling, media flow and maintenance packets. The definition of the ToS field is shown in Figure 3-11. Where, Precedence: 3 bits. It contains the setting of the IP precedence. Delay (D): 1 bit. Throughput (T): 1 bit. Reliability (R): 1 bit. Cost (C): 1 bit.
0 1 2 3 4 T 5 R 6 C 7 Not used Precedence D

bit 0 Version

4 IHL

8 ToS

16 Total Length

31

Figure 3-11 ToS field of the IP header

DSCP Precedence
DSCP precedence is defined by the Differentiated Services (DS) field of the IP header. The DS field uses the IPv4 ToS octet. Currently, only the six most significant bits of the ToS octet is used and the other two bits are reserved. Figure 3-12 shows the DS field of the IP header.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Not used DSCP

bit 0 Version

4 IHL

8 DS

16 Total Length

31

Figure 3-12 DS field of the IP header

The UA5000 can configure the DSCP precedence for the specified packets. The DSCP-based flow classification is also called the differentiated services.

802.1p Precedence
The tag field of the 802.1Q frame includes the following contents: Tag protocol identity (TPID): 16 bits. For the Ethernet, the TPID is 0x8100 Priority: 3 bits, indicating the frame precedence (07) Canonical Format Indicator (CFI): 1 bit, used to indicate the frame format VLAN ID: 12 bits, indicating the VLAN uniquely

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DA

SA

Tag

Type

Data

CRC

0x8100 Priority CFI

VLAN ID

Figure 3-13 Frame structure of 802.1Q

The UA5000 supports the setting of the priority field. As an integrated AG, the UA5000 differentiates the voice service from data service, and tags voice traffics with VLANs of a higher priority to ensure the forwarding of the traffics with preference.

3.8.2 Traffic Policing


Traffic policing is used to limit traffic flow within a valid range. It monitors the incoming traffic flow on an ingress port. The packets whose rate exceeds the agreed value are discarded or tagged.

3.8.3 Port Rate Limiting


Port rate limiting controls the bandwidth of a flow at the egress port by limiting it within the agreed range. After a rate limit is specified at the egress port, packets exceeding the threshold are discarded.

3.8.4 Queue Scheduling


Introduction
Queue scheduling offers a solution to the network resource contention when multiple packets are forwarded at the same time. The UA5000 supports the strict priority queuing (PQ) algorithm, the Weighted Round Robin (WRR) algorithm and the Weighted Fair Queuing (WFQ) .

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PQ Algorithm
Figure 3-14 shows the PQ algorithm.
Queuing high Packets leaving the port medium Classifying Packets entering the port normal Queuing scheduling low

Figure 3-14 Schematic diagram of PQ

PQ aims at giving a strict priority to important traffic. The important traffic is given absolute preference over low-priority queues. In PQ, each packet is placed in one of the four queues: high, medium, normal or low, which are indicated by 3, 2, 1 and 0 in the order. With PQ, traffics are sent based on their priorities. The data that are placed in the queue with lower priority will not be sent until the queues with higher priority are empty. Therefore, placing traffic of mission-critical applications into the queue with a higher priority can ensure that the traffic is serviced earlier than the less important traffic. A disadvantage of PQ is that the lower priority traffic may be underserved for a long time during network congestion.

WRR Algorithm
By WRR algorithm, the traffic on a port is divided into four or eight output queues. Each queue takes its turn in queue scheduling, so that all queues can be served for some time. Each queue is assigned with a weighted value among w3, w2, w1 and w0. Take a 100 Mbit/s port for instance. Assign the weighted value of its WRR algorithm to 50, 30, 10, and 10 (corresponding to w3, w2, w1 and w0 in turn). This aims at guaranteeing the minimum bandwidth of 10 Mbit/s to the lowest PQ. In this way, the packets in the lower PQ can be served. The advantages of WRR algorithm are as follows: The long-time underserved circumstance that may occur using PQ algorithm is avoided. Time allocated to each WRR queue is not fixed. When no traffic is available in one queue, the bandwidth resource is switched to the next queue immediately. Therefore, the bandwidth resource is efficiently used.

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WFQ Algorithm
WFQ algorithm specifies the maximum bandwidth and the minimum bandwidth for each queue to prevent a queue from being underserved for a long time. The major features of WFQ algorithm are as follows: Specifies the maximum bandwidth and the minimum bandwidth for each queue. Services the queues round-robin to allocate the minimum bandwidth for each queue. Services the queues round-robin to allocate the remaining bandwidth to each queue till the maximum bandwidth for the queue is reached. Prevents the low-priority queues from being underserved.

3.8.5 Traffic Mirroring


The traffic mirroring function is used monitor the specific traffic flow. It copies packets on the monitored port for testing and troubleshooting.

3.8.6 RTCP Detection


Introduction to RTCP
The Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) is used to monitor QoS and control a Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) session, transmit the quality parameter carried on the real-time signal, and provide the QoS monitor mechanism. The RTCP defines packet types such as sender report (SR), receiver report (RR), source description (SDES), BYE and APP. SR and RR are used to feed back the data receiving quality. The feedback information is used to monitor the QoS, diagnose network problems, and adjust the sending mode. The feedback information is divided into three categories: Accumulated information Instant information Time information The difference of accumulated information between two receiving reports can be used to monitor the long-term performance. The instant information can be used to measure the short-term performance. The time information can be used to calculate the ratio index.

RTCP Implementation on the UA5000


The PVMB card provides the following functions through the RTCP. Information reporting at the termination of a call

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Passive test and active test The reported information at the termination of a call includes: Packet loss rate Time delay Jitter Number of packets received Number of packets sent

Passive Test
The passive test does not intrude actual services of the network, only monitors the services. It obtains the monitor data by analyzing traffic flows. The passive test process is as follows:
Step 1 The EMS sends the statistics test tasks to two MGs. Step 2 The MGs collect the related statistics, and report them to the EMS.

The statistics include the number of sent packets, number of received packets, maximum time delay, maximum jitter and average packet loss ratio.
Step 3 After receiving the above statistics, the EMS draws related curves.

Active Test
The active test intrudes into the network. In the active test, the test traffic flow comes into the network and is analysed to obtain the test data. The active test procedure is as follows:
Step 1 The EMS sends the test command. Step 2 The call server initiates a call to set up a connection between two MGs. Step 3 The MGs send the test voice samples to each other through the connected channel. Step 4 After the MGs receive the tested traffic flow, they extract parameters from the

RTP flow, such as time delay, packet loss ratio, and jitter. The MGs then report these parameters to the call server.

Step 5 The call server summarizes the data and reports the data to the EMS. Step 6 The EMS draws the flow/network quality curves.

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3.9 MAC Address Management


The UA5000 maintains a MAC address table in its control card. The entry of the table contains the MAC address, VLAN and the corresponding port number. The UA5000 supports the static and dynamic MAC address entries. You can configure the static MAC address entries according to the actual network situation. The UA5000 is capable of learning new MAC addresses. If the source MAC address of a received packet does not exist in the MAC address table, the UA5000 adds the MAC address and the ID of the port receiving the packet to the address table as a new entry. Such an entry is called a dynamic MAC address entry. The UA5000 provides the MAC address aging function. The UA5000 deletes the dynamic MAC address entries that are not referred during the preset ageing period. The address ageing function applies to only dynamic address entries.

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3.10 STP and RSTP


STP
Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) provides a loop free network. The STP determines the network topology by exchanging a specific packet between devices. This packet is referred to as the configuration message in IEEE 802.1D. The configuration message contains the information necessary for the spanning tree calculation.

RSTP
Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) supported by the UA5000 is an enhanced version of STP. Here, rapid means the time delay is greatly reduced for the root port or the specified port to enter the forwarding status when the network device or the link changes.

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3.11 Routing Management


Overview
In the UA5000, you can either configure a static route manually, or configure a dynamic routing protocol for the system to detect a dynamic route. The static route and the dynamic route are managed uniformly by the UA5000. The static routes and the dynamic routes can be shared.

Static Route
A static route is a special kind of route that is configured manually by the administrator. By configuring a static route, an interworking network will be created. However, when a network fault occurs, the static route cannot change automatically, and the administrator has to reconfigure it.

RIP
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a kind of protocol based on the V-D algorithm. It exchanges routing information through the UDP datagram, and sends the routing updates every 30 seconds. If the router does not receive an update from the opposite end within 180 seconds, all updates from this router will be labelled unreachable. Moreover, the updates will be deleted if this router still does not receive any update within another 120 seconds. RIP uses Hop Count to measure the distance to the sink machine, which is called Routing Metric. With RIP, the hop count from the equipment to the network connected directly with it is 0 (defined as 1 in some protocol), the distance from the equipment to a network reachable is 1 hop, and the rest may be deduced by analogy. To restrict the convergence time, the Metric is defined as an integral number in the range of 015 in RIP. The hop count will be taken as infinite if it is greater than or equal to 16. To avoid route loopback and enhance the performance, RIP supports the split-horizon algorithm. The trigger update is adopted for the change of the routing information. Moreover, this protocol allows the redistribution of routes obtained by other routing protocols. The UA5000 supports two RIP versions (RIP I and RIP II) at the same time. RIP II allows authentication in both clear text and MD5 cipher text and the length-variable subnet mask.

OSPF
In the IP network, Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) can dynamically detect and transmit routes by collecting and transmitting the link state of the autonomous system. At present, the second version of OSPF is used. It has the following characteristics: Wide application range

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OSPF supports networks of various scales, with a maximum of several hundreds of routers supported. Fast convergence If the topology of the network changes, OSPF can transmit update packets immediately so that the change can be synchronized with the autonomous system. No self-loop OSPF calculates routes based on the algorithm of shortest path tree first through the collected link state. Therefore, the algorithm itself can ensure that no self-loop route is generated. Subnet mask OSPF carries the mask information about the network section in the description of the route. Therefore, the OSPF protocol gets free from the restriction of the natural mask and provides sound support for Variable-Length Subnet Mask (VLSM). Area division OSPF allows the network of the autonomous system to be divided into various areas for management. In this way, the inter-area transmitted routing information is further abstracted, thus reducing the occupied network bandwidth. Equivalent route OSPF supports multiple equivalent routes to the same destination. Route hierarchy OSPF uses four types of routes. Based on the sequence of preferences, these routes are: intra-area route, inter-area route, the first category of external route and the second category of external route respectively. Support for authentication It supports the interface-based packet authentication to ensure the security of the route calculation. Multicast transmission OSPF can transmit protocol packets by the multicast address at the link layer capable of multicast transmission. In this way, the broadcast function is realized and the interference to other network equipment is reduced to the minimum degree.

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4
About This Chapter
Section 4.1 4.2 4.3 Triple Play

Typical Application Scenarios

The following table lists the contents of this chapter.


Describes The NGN consolidation scenario using the UA5000. The private circuit service using the UA5000. The Triple Play service using the UA5000.

NGN Consolidation Private Circuit Service

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4.1 NGN Consolidation


The UA5000 acts as an AG to serve the NGN consolidation. Figure 4-1 depicts the NGN consolidation scenario. In this scenario, the UA5000 carries out: The access of broadband and narrowband services over the same copper wire The access of VoIP, FoIP and MoIP under the control of a call server The ISDN BRA and ISDN PRA services The ADSL broadband network access and SHDSL broadband private line interconnection services
Internet

Call server BRAS

IP MAN

L2/ L3 FE/GE

UA5000

SHDSL Splitter Modem ADSL2+ Modem

ISDN BRI

E1

PBX NT1

SHDSL

ADSL

POTS/VoIP FAX ISDN BRA

ISDN PRA

Figure 4-1 NGN consolidation

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4.2 Private Circuit Service


The UA5000 supports rich private circuit services to meet the needs of group customers. Figure 4-2 depicts the scenario that provides the private circuit service. In this scenario, the UA5000 carries out: The narrowband private circuit interconnection of narrowband services through E1 and V.35 interfaces provided by TDM SHDSL The high speed private circuit interconnection through broadband ports such as FE and ATM SHDSL QinQ VLAN and VLAN stacking features for carrying broadband services through VLAN
DDN/SDH IP

QinQ VLAN/ Stacking VLAN E1 E1 FE/GE FE/GE

UA5000 TDM SHDSL Modem V.35 TDM SHDSL Modem E1 TDM SHDSL Modem E1

UA5000 FE FE

UA5000 ATM SHDSL Modem

DDN node

DTE

DDN node Company HQ

Company branch 1

Company branch 2

Figure 4-2 Private circuit service

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4.3 Triple Play


The UA5000 supports the functionality of offering narrowband, data, and video services to end users simultaneously with appropriate QoS. Such a scenario is also called the Triple Play. Figure 4-3 shows this scenario. In this scenario, the UA5000 carries out: The access of the voice, data and video broadband services over the same copper wire The VoIP service under the control of a call server Broadband network access and broadband private circuit services through the xDSL ports IP TV service through the IGMP proxy and managed multicast mechanism
Internet IP TV Server Call server RBAS

IP MAN

L2/L3

UA5000

Triple Play

Home gateway STB

VoIP voice service

Internet data service

IP TV video service

Figure 4-3 Triple play application

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5
About This Chapter
Section 5.1 5.2 Management Through EMS

Equipment Management

The following table lists the contents of this chapter.


Describes The management of the UA5000 through the CLI. The management of the UA5000 through the EMS.

Management Through CLI

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5.1 Management Through CLI


Through the CLI, you can log on to the UA5000 through a serial port or an Ethernet port. Figure 5-1 shows the connection for maintenance through the CLI.
Control card Serial port Ethernet port

COM ETH

UA5000

Figure 5-1 Maintaining the UA5000 through the CLI

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5.2 Management Through EMS


Introduction to the N2000
The N2000 is the EMS that manages the DSLAM and MSAN of Huawei. The N2000 communicates with the UA5000 through SNMP, and manages the broadband and narrowband services of the UA5000.

5.2.1 Hardware and Software Configuration


Hardware Configuration of the Server
A PC server or a UNIX workstation can be used. The EMS server can be configured differently to manage networks of different scales. For large and medium networks, UNIX workstations are recommended.

Software Configuration of the Server


Windows platform: Windows 2000 Server + SQL Server 2000 UNIX platform: Solaris 8 or later + Sybase 12 or later N2000 software: N2000 server software

Hardware Configuration of the Client


A PC client or a UNIX workstation can be used. In general, a UNIX workstation is not recommended since it is expensive.

Software Configuration of the Client


Windows platform: Windows 2000 Professional UNIX platform: Solaris 8 or later N2000 software: N2000 client software

5.2.2 Management Functions


Overview
The management functions of the N2000 include: Topology management Performance monitoring and traffic measurement Fault management Security management Batch service provisioning

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Backup and uploading of NE data Database management Environment and power supply monitoring Configuration management

Topology Management
The N2000 can display the network elements (NE) in the whole network in one topology view. Through a unified management platform, it can monitor and manage all NEs in the network. This significantly eases network maintenance.

Performance Monitoring and Traffic Measurement


The N2000 helps you to monitor system performance and collect traffic statistics of all NEs or a specified NE in the network, so that the network resources can be better used.

Fault Management
The N2000 offers an overall network alarm management solution, enabling fast fault locating and trouble shooting. In addition, to simplify the trouble shooting, the N2000 supports window switching. For example, it allows shift from the topological window to the alarm window, or shift from the alarm window to the faulty port.

Security Management
The N2000 manages the network based on different user authorities and different domains. It can divide users authorities based on users, user groups, operations, applications or ACLs. It can enable automatic lock, forced disconnection and user operation logging on the clients.

Batch Service Provisioning


The N2000 supports batch service processing to shorten the time in deploying the service and responding to customers demands.

Backup and Uploading of NE Data


The N2000 provides manual or timed backup or uploading of data of all NEs or a specified NE in the network. This greatly enhances security of the NE data in the network and eases your burden in large scale upgrade of software in the network.

Database Management
The N2000 provides a tool to carry out the backup and recovery of the EMS database. This enhances security of the system data.

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The N2000 also provides a monitoring terminal to monitor the running status of the EMS server and the usage of the EMS database. In addition, the N2000 supports the remote dual system backup scheme to ensure the database safety.

Environment and Power supply Monitoring


The N2000 monitors environment and power supply of the NEs in a centralised manner. This function helps you to know about the situation of the environment and the power supply timely.

Configuration Management
The EMS provides multiple configuration functions for the UA5000. Refer to Table 5-1 for details.
Table 5-1 Configuration functions of UA5000 NE Manager Function Feature Device management Description The NE manager manages the hardware of the device, including shelves, cards and ports. Through the NE manager, you can display the panel, maintain the system, cards and ports, as well as measure the physical resources. ADSL/ADSL2+ management The NE manager enables you to: Query, configure and maintain the ADSL or the ADSL2+ port information and statuses Manage the profiles of the ADSL or the ADSL2+ port Monitor and measure the port traffic ADSL/ATM SHDSL terminal management The NE manager enables you to: Configure the IP address of a terminal Configure the terminal profile Query the detailed information about a terminal Ping a terminal Restart a terminal SHDSL management The NE manager enables you to: Query, configure and maintain SHDSL port information and statuses Manage SHDSL port profiles

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Function Feature VLAN management

Description The NE manager enables you to: Add the MUX VLAN, Smart VLAN, and Standard VLAN Configure auxiliary ports and service virtual ports Query VLAN information

Ethernet management

The NE manager enables you to: Configure, activate and query Ethernet ports Add, configure, activate and query aggregated Ethernet ports

Service port management

The NE manager enables you to: Add service ports for ATM ports, ADSL ports, G.SHDSL ports, and VDSL ports. Configure service port attributes, including physical ports and the maximum number of MAC addresses.

IGMP Proxy management

The NE manager enables you to configure and query global parameters, users, upstream ports, and programs of the IGMP Proxy. You can also manage and provision the managed video services.

5.2.3 Typical Networking Between the N2000 and UA5000


Overview
The EMS server and the UA5000 can communicate through in-band or out-band EMS channels. These two modes are usually used together.

Inband Networking
Inband networking means that the management is carried out using the service transmission channel of the UA5000. In this fashion, the EMS messages are transmitted through the service channel.

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Figure 5-2 shows the inband EMS networking.


EMS client EMS client

EMS server

ATM/IP

UA5000

UA5000

Figure 5-2 Inband EMS networking

Features of the inband networking are as follows: Advantage: The networking is flexible, and does not require additional devices. It saves cost. Disadvantage: When the service channel is interrupted, network management cannot be carried out.

Outband Networking
Outband networking means that the management is carried out using a channel separated from the service channel. Figure 5-3 shows the outband EMS networking.

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Management side Service side

UA5000 Universal Access Unit Product Description

RTU UA5000 EMS client

UA5000 EMS client

IP

RTU EMS server

Figure 5-3 Outband EMS networking

Features of the outband networking are as follows: Advantage: The EMS channel is more reliable than that of the inband EMS. When the service channel is interrupted, you can still manage the UA5000 through the outband EMS. Disadvantage: Additional devices are required to set up an EMS channel separated from the service channel.

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6 Technical Specifications

6
About This Chapter
Section 6.1 Equipment Parameters 6.2 Performance and Capacity Specifications 6.3 Port Specifications

Technical Specifications

The following table lists the contents of this chapter.


Describes The dimensions, weight, running environment and power supply parameters of the UA5000. The system performance specification, the types and number of the interfaces of the UA5000. The detailed specification of each port type of the UA5000. The service features and specification of the UA5000. The international standards that the UA5000 complies with.

6.4 Service Features and Specifications 6.5 Standards Compliance

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6.1 Equipment Parameters


Dimensions
Table 6-1 Dimensions of the cabinet that houses the UA5000 shelf Cabinet ONU-F01D200 ONU-F01D500 ONU-F01D1000 ONU-F02A ONU-F02AF Dimension (W x D x H, in mm) 1250 550 1200 1550 550 1550 1900 550 1650 600 600 2200 600 600 2200

Table 6-2 Dimensions of the UA5000 shelves Shelf HABA HABD HABF HABL Dimensions (W x D x H, in mm) 482 445 711 482.6 370.0 441.7 482.6 370.0 441.7 310 370 444

Weight
Table 6-3 Weight of the UA5000 cabinet Cabinet ONU-F01D200 ONU-F01D500 ONU-F01D1000 ONU-F02A ONU-F02AF Weight (in kg) 350 (With two groups of battery :100 kg) 558 (With two groups of battery: 208 kg) 850 (With two groups of battery: 200 kg) 250 280

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Running Environment
Table 6-4 The running environment of the UA5000 Cabinet ONU-F01D200 ONU-F01D500 ONU-F01D1000 ONU-F02A ONU-F02AF Temperature (oC) 45 to +50 45 to +50 45 to +50 5 to +45 5 to +45 Humidity 5% to 95% 5% to 95% 5% to 95% 10% to 90% 10% to 90%

Power Supply Parameters


Table 6-5 Power supply parameters of the UA5000 Power Supply Mode DC AC Rated Voltage 48 VDC 220 VAC, 50 Hz 110 VAC, 50 Hz Voltage Range 40 VDC to 60 VDC 90 VAC to 290 VAC, 45 Hz to 65 Hz 88 VAC to 155 VAC, 45 Hz to 65 Hz

6.2 Performance and Capacity Specifications


System Performance Specifications
Table 6-6 System performance specifications Item Narrowband TDM switching capacity Maximum V5 interfaces Maximum trunk ports Maximum customer number Maximum SPC number HDLC PVU8/PVU4: 4k 4k PVMB: 8k x 8k 16 104 E1 ports (PVM); 112 E1 ports (PVU) 4000 512 48 Index

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Item Call processing capacity VoIP DSP channel number Call processing capacity Broadband Forwarding capacity Maximum number of GE ports Maximum number of FE ports VLAN number MAC address number Multicast group number Typical forward delay Clock Clock stratum

Index 15 CAPS

1024 15 CAPS

Wire speed forwarding 2 The IPMB card provides 6 FE ports and each EAUA provide 8. 4000 16 k (16 1024). Among them, there are 256 static MAC addresses. 1024 40 s

Stratum 3

Port Types and Number


Table 6-7 Types and number of the management interfaces Interface Type Outband management Ethernet port Local configuration serial port Provided by Number per Card

IPMB/PVMB/PVU8/PVU4 1 IPMB/PVMB/PVU8/PVU4 1

Table 6-8 Types and number of the network interfaces Interface Type FE electrical port Provided by PVMB IPMB Number per Card 1 8 (Among them, two ports are for internal use.)

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Interface Type FE optical port GE optical port TDM E1

Provided by IPMB IPMB PVU8/RSU8 PVU4/RSU4 PVMB

Number per Card 2 2 8 4 4

Note The GE ports supported by the IPMB card includes 1000Base-Sx, 1000Base-Lx and 1000Base-Zx

Table 6-9 Types and number of the customer interfaces Interface Type POTS Provided by ASL CSMB A32 (CC0HASL/CC0RASL/CC0NASL) CSRB/CSRI ISDN BRI ISDN PRI E1 V.24 2-wire VF 4-wire VF FXO ADSL ADSL2+ DSL EDTB EDTB MTA connecting to the DSL card VFB VFB CDI CSLB/ADLB CSRB/CSRI ADMB/ADMC/CSMB VDSL TDM SHDSL VDLA SDLE SDL (Full name: H521SDL) 16 16 16 3 per MTA, namely per DSL port. 16 8 16 16 32 16 16 8 4 32 Number per Card 16

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UA5000 Universal Access Unit Product Description

Interface Type ATM SHDSL FE

Provided by SDLB EAUA

Number per Card 16 8

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6.3 Port Specifications


6.3.1 STM-1
Table 6-10 Technical specifications of the STM-1 port Parameter Transmission rate Interface type Optical fiber type Optical source type Center wavelength Interface mode Maximum transmission distance Average transmitting optical power Extinction ratio Receiver sensitivity Receiver overload optical power Standard compliant with Specification 155.520 Mbit/s SC G.652 MLM 1310 nm Multi-mode 2 km > 23.5 dBm 10 dB < 29 14 dBm 1310 nm Single-mode 30 km 14dBm to 8 dBm 8.2 dB < 34 8 dBm 1310 nm Single-mode 60 km 5 dBm to 0 dBm 10 dB < 34 10 dBm

ITU-T G.707 (SDH-frame) ITU-T G.958 (Automatic Laser Shutdown) ITU-T G.783 (RSOH+MSOH handling) ITU-T I.432.1

100Base-Tx
Table 6-11 Technical specifications of the 100Base-Tx port Parameter Transmission rate Interface type Transmission distance Interface mode Cable type Specification 10 Mbit/s and 100 Mbit/s compatible RJ-45 (TPI) 100 m UTP/STP Category-5 twisted pair

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Parameter Differential mode output voltage STP UTP

Specification 11651285 mV 9501050 mV Less than 0.5 ns Less than 0.5 ns 230 MHz 3060 MHz 6080 MHz >16 dB >1620log(f/30) dB (f-frequency, in MHz) >10 dB

Duty ration extortion Output jitter Impedance return loss

Common mode suppression Standard compliant with

The input end can sustain the sine common mode interference of 0125 MHz, 1.0 Vpp IEEE 802.3u

100Base-Fx
Table 6-12 Technical specifications of the 100Base-Fx port Parameter Transmission rate Interface type Interface mode Transmission distance (km) Central wavelength (nm) Mean transmit power (dBm) Extinction ratio (dB) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Receiver overload power (dBm) Standard compliant with Specification 100 Mbit/s LC Multi-mode 2 1310 19 to 14 10 < 30 14 IEEE 802.3u Single mode 15 1310 15 to 8 8.2 < 31 8 Single mode 40 1310 5 to 0 8.2 < 36 8

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1000Base-Sx
Table 6-13 Technical specifications of the 1000Base-Sx port Parameter Transmission rate Interface type Interface mode Transmission distance (m) Average transmit power (dBm) Central wavelength (nm) Extinction ratio (dB) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Receiver overload power (dBm) Standard compliant with Specification 1000 Mbit/s LC Multi-mode 500 9.5 to 4 850 9 < 17 0 IEEE 802.3z

1000Base-Lx
Table 6-14 Technical specifications of the 1000Base-Lx port Parameter Transmission rate Interface type Interface mode Transmission distance (km) Central wavelength (nm) Average transmit power (dBm) Extinction ratio (dB) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Receiver overload power (dBm) Standard compliant with Specification 1000 Mbit/s LC Single mode 10 1310 11 to 3 8.2 < 19 3 IEEE 802.3z

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1000Base-Zx
Table 6-15 Technical specifications of the 1000Base-Zx port Parameter Transmission rate Interface type Interface mode Transmission distance (km) Wavelength (nm) Average transmit power (dBm) Extinction ratio (dB) Receiver sensitivity (dBm) Receiver overload power (dBm) Standard compliant with Specification 1000 Mbit/s LC Single mode 40 1550 5 to 0 9.0 < 21 3 IEEE 802.3z 80 1550 3 to +2 9.0 < 23 3

6.3.2 E3
Table 6-16 Technical specifications of the E3 electrical port Parameter Transmission rate Line codec Line jitter Maximum transmission distance Input/Output impedance Standard compliant with Specification 34.368Mbit/s HDB3 Complies with ITU-T G.823, G.824 and ETSI-TBR-24 1200 feet / 366 m 75 ohm ITU-T G.703 ITU-T G.704 ITU-T G.823

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6.3.3 T3
Table 6-17 Technical specifications of the T3 electrical port Parameter Transmission rate Line codec Line jitter Maximum transmission distance Input/Output impedance Standard compliant with Specification 44.736Mbit/s B3ZS Complies with ITU-T G.823 and ITU-TG.824 1100 feet / 335m 75 ohm The frame structure complies with ITU-T G.704.

ADSL
Table 6-18 Technical specifications of the ADSL port Parameter Upstream Bandwidth Maximum transmission rate Downstream Bandwidth Maximum transmission rate Maximum transmission distance Line code Standard compliant with Specification 26138 kHz 896 kbit/s 1381.104 MHz 8160 kbit/s 5 km DMT ITU-T G.992 (G.dmt), ITU-T G.992.2 (G.lite), ANSI T1.413

ADSL2+
Table 6-19 Technical specifications of the ADSL2+ port Parameter Upstream Bandwidth Maximum transmission rate Specification 26138 kHz 1.2 Mbit/s

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Parameter Downstream Bandwidth Maximum transmission rate Maximum transmission distance Line code Standard compliant with

Specification 1382.208 MHz 24 Mbit/s 6 km DMT ITU-T G.992.5

SHDSL
Table 6-20 Technical specifications of the SHDSL port Parameter Specification Over One Twisted Pair Transmission rate Rate adjustment step Transmission distance Line code Frame protocol Transmission mode Standard compliant with 1922312kbit/s 64 kbit/s 36 km TC-PAM E1, PCM, ATM and ISDN G.991.2 Annex A and G.991.2 Annex B ITU-T G.991.2 Over Two Twisted Pairs 3844608 kbit/s 128 kbit/s

VDSL
Table 6-21 Technical specifications of the VDSL port Parameter Upstream Bandwidth Maximum transmission rate Downstream Bandwidth Maximum transmission rate Specification 4.57.9 MHz 12.5 Mbit/s 0.93.3 MHz 12.5 Mbit/s

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Parameter Maximum transmission distance Line code 0.5mm wire 0.4mm wire

Specification 1.5 km 1.2 km QAM

E1
Table 6-22 Technical specifications of the E1 port Parameter Transmission rate Bit rate tolerance Line code Standard impedance Transmission distance Nominal pulse width Port protection capability Standards compliant with Specification 2048 kbit/s 50 ppm HDB3 75 ohm 1000 m 244 ns Comply with ITU-T K.20 Physical layer complies with ITU-T G.703, and frame structure complies with ITU-T G.704.

V.35
Table 6-23 Technical specifications of the V.35 port Parameter Mechanical characteristic Electric characteristic Interface function Maximum data transmission rate Transmission rate in practice Transmission distance Clock and data signals Control signal Specification 34-pin connector Balanced interface circuit Unbalanced interface circuit Data, control, clock and earthing 10 Mbit/s N 64 kbit/s (N = 132) 15 m

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Parameter Standards compliant with

Specification ITU-T V.35, ITU-T V.24 and ISO2593 (M34)

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6.4 Service Features and Specifications


Features and Specifications of the IP Service
Table 6-24 Features and specifications of the IP service Category MAC address Feature Address self-learning Number of address entries VLAN number of the whole system Standard VLAN Specification IEEE 802.1D 16k. The maximum static MAC address entries is 512. 4000 Supporting the port-based VLAN Supporting the 802.1P-based VLAN Supporting the VLAN TRUNK Smart VLAN One VLAN corresponds to up to 4k service virtual ports The UA5000 supports 4000 Smart VLANs. MUX VLAN One VLAN corresponds to one service virtual port. The UA5000 supports 4000 MUX VLANs. Super VLAN QinQ VLAN VLAN Stacking Multicast Multicast protocol The UA5000 supports 16 Super VLANs. Adding a VLAN tag to the frames with a VLAN tag Adding two VLAN tags for the frames without a VLAN tag Supporting the IGMP proxy Supporting IGMP v2, compatible with IGMP v1 Multicast interface Multicast bandwidth: 2 GE Supporting the separated or combined upstream of unicast streams and multicast streams Multicast group Multicast authority profile Number of multicast groups a customer can join 1024 1024 8

VLAN

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Category

Feature Managed multicast

Specification Multicast source control Customer authority management, including preview, authorized and unauthorized Supporting call detail recording (CDR)

STB authentication Layer 3 feature Layer 3 routing and forwarding Routing protocol User protocol conversion QoS PVC to VLAN PPPoA to PPPoE IPoA to IPoE Flow classification

Supporting DHCP Option82 None Static routing and dynamic routing protocols (including RIP v2 and OSPF) None None None Supporting the flow classification based on the following parameters: Source and destination MAC addresses Source/destination IP address Source/destination port number Protocol type

802.1p 802.3x flow control CAR

None None CAR based on the customer PVC CAR based on VLAN Separate CAR for upstream and the downstream traffics The granularity is 64 kbit/s. The minimum is 64 kbit/s and the maximum is 128 Mbit/s.

Queue scheduling

Eight queue priorities Supporting the PQ scheduling Supporting the WRR scheduling Supporting the WFQ scheduling

Security

Customer layer 2 isolation IP address binding

Layer 2 PVC/VLAN isolation Supporting the binding of "IP + MAC + customer PVC". Each customer PVC can be bound with up to eight "IP + MAC".

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Category

Feature MAC address number control MAC address entry query Multicast group control Broadcast suppression

Specification The MAC address number for each customer is in the range of 1255. Locating the customer port quickly through the MAC address Restricting the number of the multicast groups that each customer can join Suppression of broadcast packets, unknown unicast packets and unknown multicast packets Supporting the suppression traffic adjustment by the traffic percentage

Security

DHCP Option82

During the STB authentication, the customer port information can be contained in the DHCP message and sent to the DHCP server/BRAS. During the PPPoE authentication, the user port information can be contained in the PPPoE message and sent to the BRAS. Enabling or disabling the function Enabling or disabling the interconnection of customers at one layer 3 interface

PPPoE Relay Agent (PPPoE+) ARP Proxy

Others

STP/RSTP Port aggregation Port mirror

Compliant with IEEE 802.1D and IEEE 802.1w Compliant with IEEE 802.3ad Supporting the FE port mirror

Features and Specifications of the AG Service


Table 6-25 Features and specifications of the AG service Category Protocol Feature Gateway control protocol Voice encoding/decoding Service Basic and supplementary PSTN services VBD fax and T.38 fax services Specification H.248 G.711 (a-law/-law), G.723.1 and G.729 (A/B) None None

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Category

Feature VBD modem service Standalone

Specification None If the standalone is enabled, customers on a UA5000 can call each other when the connection between the UA5000 and the call server is interrupted. In a Hairpin connection the internal calls of a UA5000 are connected through the TDM fabric without consuming the DSP resource. None None None None None None The following technologies are provided: Voice activation detection (VAD) Comfortable noise generation (CNG) Jitter buffer dynamic adjustment Echo cancellation (compliant with ITU-T G.165/G.168) Packet loss compensation DTMF detection/generation Separate TX/RX gain control

Hairpin connection

12KC/16KC billing and the reversal polarity billing Waiting Message Indicator ISDN BRI/ISDN PRI QoS TOS/DSCP label 801.1Q 802.1p Voice quality technology

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Category Voice index

Feature Quality index

Specification Objective voice assessment: When the network condition is good, the PSQM average is less than 1.5. When the network condition is normal, the PSQM is less than 1.8. (Given that the packet loss ratio is 1%, the jitter is 20 ms and the time delay is 100 ms.) When the network condition is poor, the PSQM is less than 2.0. (Given that the packet loss ratio is 5%, the jitter is 60 ms and the time delay is 400 ms.) Subjective voice assessment: When the network condition is good, the MOS is greater than 4.0. When the network condition is normal, the MOS is greater than 3.5. (Given that the packet loss ratio is 1%, the jitter is 20 ms and the time delay is 100 ms.) When the network condition is poor, the MOS is greater than 3.0. (Given that the packet loss ratio is 5%, the jitter is 60 ms and the time delay is 400 ms.)

Voice index

Delay index

Coding/decoding delay: Delay <= 25 ms when jitter = 2 ms. IP packet forward delay: Delay for forwarding packets with length less than 1516 bytes: <0.5ms. RTCP detection delay: 1 s Anti-jitter delay: 80 ms Equipment jitter delay: <10 ms

Coding rate Other features VAG

G.729: 8 kbit/s G.723: 5.3 kbit/s, 6.3 kbit/s Supports eight VAGs. The eight VAGs can share one common IP address, and each VAG can have independent IP addresses. Coding switchover delay: <60 ms

Coding switchover delay

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Category

Feature Call connection ratio

Specification In a favourable network: Call connection ratio>99% One-hour call holding capability>99%

Reliability

Call server dual homing Active/standby PVMB cards Load sharing of the DSP resource 1+1 backup for uplink ports

None The active/standby switchover will not interrupt services. The DSP resources in two PVMB cards use the load-sharing mode. The uplink ports of two PVMB cards operate in the 1+1 the active/standby mode. None None

Other protocols

SNTP RTCP

Features and Specifications of Terminal Management and Line Test


Table 6-26 Features and specifications of terminal management and line test Category Terminal management Narrowband line test Feature ADSL EOC channel management Customer line test Description Supports the MT800 management at present Test items: POTS loop line and card circuit, test card self detection, call emulation, telephone test and external meter test ISDN loop line and card circuit, terminal test and external meter test Testing the voltage, resistance, capacitance, loop resistance and reverse polarity resistance for the loop line through the TSSB card

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6.5 Standards Compliance


Table 6-27 lists the standards compliance.
Table 6-27 Standards compliance Standard ANSI T1.413 issue 1 & issue 2 ATM FORUM: AS_VTOA-0078.00 0 IEEE 802.1D Description Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line(ADSL)Metallic Interface Specification (issue 1 & issue 2 ) Circuit Emulation Services Version 2.0

IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks--Common specifications--Media access control (MAC) Bridges Traffic class expediting and dynamic multicast filtering IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks: Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks Local and metropolitan area networks---Common specifications Part 3: Media Access Control (MAC) Bridges---Amendment 2---Rapid Reconfiguration Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications Frame Extensions for Virtual Bridged Local Area Network (VLAN) Tagging on 802.3 Networks (Clause 43) Aggregation of Multiple Link Segments Definition of Fast Ethernet (100BTX, 100BT4, 100BFX) Definition of Full Duplex operation in a switched (LAN Flow control) Definition of Gigabit Ethernet (over Fibre) Digital network echo cancellers Digital hierarchy bit rates Physical/electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces Synchronous frame structures used at primary and secondary hierarchical levels Frame alignment and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) Procedures relating to basic frame structures defined in recommendation G.704

IEEE 802.1p IEEE 802.1Q IEEE 802.1w

IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3ac IEEE 802.3ad IEEE 802.3u IEEE 802.3x IEEE 802.3z ITU-T G.168 ITU-T G.702 ITU-T G.703 ITU-T G.704 ITU-T G.706

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Standard ITU-T G.707 ITU-T G.711 ITU-T G.712 ITU-T G.723.1 ITU-T G.729 ITU-T G.781 ITU-T G.783 ITU-T G.785 ITU-T G.797 ITU-T G.803 ITU-T G.804 ITU-T G.812 ITU-T G.813 ITU-T G.821

Description G.707 Network Node Interface for the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) Pulse code modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies Transmission performance characteristics of pulse code modulation channels Dual rate speech coder for multimedia communications transmitting at 5.3 and 6.3 kbit/s C source code and test vectors for implementation verification of the G.729 8 kbit/s CS-ACELP speech coder Synchronization layer functions Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) equipment functional blocks Characteristics of a flexible multiplexer in a synchronous digital hierarchy environment Characteristics of a flexible multiplexer in a plesiochronous digital hierarchy environment Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) ATM cell mapping into plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH) Timing requirements of slave clocks suitable for use as node clocks in synchronization networks Timing characteristics of SDH equipment slave clocks (SEC) Error performance of an international digital connection operating at a bit rate below the primary rate and forming part of an integrated services digital network The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the 2048kbit/s hierarchy The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which are based on the 1544kbit/s hierarchy Error performance parameters and objectives for international constant bit rate digital paths at or above the primary rate Framework recommendation on functional access networks (AN): architecture and functions, access type, management and service node aspects Optical interfaces for equipments and systems relating to the synchronous digital hierarchy

ITU-T G.823 ITU-T G.824 ITU-T G.826 ITU-T G.902

ITU-T G.957

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Standard ITU-T G.958 ITU-T G.960 ITU-T G.961 ITU-T G.962 ITU-T G.964 ITU-T G.965 ITU-T G.982 ITU-T G.991.2 ITU-T G.992.1 ITU-T G.992.2 ITU-T G.992.3 ITU-T G.992.5 ITU-T G.996.1 ITU-T G.997.1 ITU-T H.248 ITU-T I.361 ITU-T I.363 ITU-T I.363.1 ITU-T I.363.5 ITU-T I.371 ITU-T I.430 ITU-T I.431 ITU-T I.432.2

Description Digital line systems based on the synchronous digital hierarchy for use on optical fibre cables Access digital section for ISDN basic rate access Digital transmission system on metallic local lines for ISDN basic rate access Access digital section for ISDN primary rate at 2048kbit/s V-interfaces at the digital local exchange (LE) V5.1-interface (based on 2048kbit/s) for the support of access network (AN) V-interfaces at the digital local exchange (LE) V5.2-interface (based on 2048kbit/s) for the support of access network (AN) Optical access networks to support services up to the ISDN primary rate or equivalent bit rates Single-pair high-speed digital subscriber line (SHDSL) transceivers Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) transceivers ITU standard for low-speed Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line without voice splitter Asymmetrical digital subscriber line (ADSL) transceivers 2 (ADSL2) Asymmetrical digital subscriber line (ADSL) transceivers extended bandwidth ADSL2 (ADSL2plus) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Transceiver Testing Procedure Physical layer management for Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) transceivers Gateway control protocol B-ISDN ATM layer specification B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer specification B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer Specification: Type 1 AAL B-ISDN ATM Adaptation Layer specification: Type 5 AAL Traffic control and congestion control in B-ISDN ISDN basic user-network interface layer 1 specification ISDN primary rate user-network interface layer 1 specification B-ISDN user-network interface-Physical layer specification: 155,520kbit/s and 622,080kbit/s operation

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Standard ITU-T I.432.3 ITU-T I.610 ITU-T I.630 ITU-T M.3100 ITU-T Q.811 ITU-T Q.812 ITU-T Q.831 ITU-T Q.921 ITU-T Q.931 ITU-T T.30 ITU-T T.38 ITU-T V.24

Description B-ISDN user-network interface - Physical layer specification: 1544 kbit/s and 2048 kbit/s operation B-ISDN operation and maintenance principles and functions ATM protection switching Generic network information model Lower layer protocol profiles for the Q3 and X interfaces Upper layer protocol profiles for the Q3 and X interfaces Fault and performance management of V5 interface environments and associated customer profiles ISDN user-network interface Data link layer specification ISDN user-network interface layer 3 specification for basic call control Procedures for document facsimile transmission in the general switched telephone network Procedures for real-time Group 3 facsimile communication over IP networks List of definitions for interchange circuits between data terminal equipment (DTE) and data circuit-terminating equipment (DCE) Modem using the 60-108 kHz frequency band for synchronous data transmission A digital modem and analogue modem pair for use on the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) at data signalling rates of up to 56 000 bit/s downstream and up to 33 600 bit/s upstream Transport of IP over ATM in public networks User Datagram protocol The TFTP Protocol (Revision 2) Internet protocol Internet Control Message Protocol Transmission Control Protocol

ITU-T V.36 ITU-T V.90

ITU-T Y.1310 RFC 0768 RFC 0783 RFC 0791 RFC 0792 RFC 0793 RFC 0826 RFC 0854 RFC 0894

An Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Telnet protocol A standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over Ethernet networks

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Standard RFC 1112 RFC 1155 RFC 1157 RFC 1213 RFC 1483 RFC 1493 RFC 1542 RFC 1643 RFC 1661 RFC 1723 RFC 1757 RFC 1889 RFC 1890 RFC 1907 RFC 2198 RFC 2225 RFC 2236 RFC 2328 RFC 2364 RFC 2515 RFC 2516 RFC 2613 RFC 2652 RFC 2662 RFC 2819

Description Host extensions for IP multicasting Structure and Identification of Management Information for TCP/IP-based Internets, Network Working Group, May 1990 Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) Management Information Base for Network Management of TCP/IP-based internets: MIB-II 2.Draft Standards Multiprotocol Encapsulation over ATM Adaptation Layer 5 Bridge MIB Clarifications and Extensions for the Bootstrap Protocol (DHCP-Relay) Definitions of Managed Objects for the Ethernet-like Interface Types Point to Point Protocol (PPP) RIP Version 2(RIP2) Remote Network Monitoring Management Information Base RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control Management Information Base for Version 2 of the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMPv2) RTP Payload for Redundant Audio Data Classical IP and ARP Over ATM (IPoA) Internet Group Management Protocol Version 2 (IGMP V2) OSPF Version 2, Network Working Group, April 1998 PPP Over AAL5(PPPoA) Definitions of Managed Objects for ATM Management A Method for Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet(PPPoE) Remote Network Monitoring MIB Extensions for Switched Networks Ethernet Interface MIB Definitions of Managed Objects for the ADSL Lines Remote Network Monitoring

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Standard RFC 2833 RFC 2960 RFC 3015 RFC 3057 RFC 3389 RFC 3440 RFC 3525 RFC 3550 RFC 3551 RFC 4040

Description RTP Payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals Stream Control Transmission Protocol Megaco Protocol Version 1.0 ISDN Q.921-User Adaptation Layer (IUA) Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) Payload for Comfort Noise (CN) Definitions of Extension Managed Objects for Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Lines Gateway Control Protocol Version 1 RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications RTP Profile for Audio and Video Conferences with Minimal Control RTP payload format for a 64 kbit/s transparent call.

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